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Bernard Beck, Jean-Pierre Max
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most important brain peptides involved in feeding behavior. It influences both food choice and fluid homeostasis. The paraventricular and arcuate nuclei belong to the main pathway through which NPY stimulates carbohydrate intake. In this study, we measured NPY in various hypothalamic microdissected areas in Brattleboro di/di rats, a rat model of diabetes insipidus with specific dietary preferences. We confirmed that this rat is characterized by an increased fat intake (+10%; p<0...
July 1, 2008: Brain Research Bulletin
Csaba Fekete, Ronald M Lechan
Hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): synthesizing neurons reside in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and are the central regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. TRH synthesis and release from these neurons are primarily under negative feedback regulation by thyroid hormone. Under certain conditions such as cold exposure and fasting, however, inputs from neurons in the brainstem and hypothalamic arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei alter the set point for negative feedback through regulation of CREB phosphorylation...
August 2007: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
H C Kinney, T McHugh, K Miller, R A Belliveau, S F Assmann
Subtle quantitative abnormalities in neuronal populations derived from the rhombic lip (i.e. arcuate nucleus at the ventral medullary surface, external granular layer of the cerebellum) have been reported in victims of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study, we examined the inferior olive, a major rhombic lip derivative, to determine if subtle rhombic lip abnormalities also involve this nucleus in SIDS. We analyzed the number and density of neurons and reactive astrocytes in the inferior olive in 29 SIDS cases and 29 controls...
May 2002: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
G Légrádi, R M Lechan
Gene expression for agouti-related protein (AGRP), an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors, has been localized to the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, where it colocalizes with neuropeptide Y (NPY). Having reported that the NPY innervation of hypophysiotropic TRH neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) originates primarily from NPY-producing neurons in the arcuate nucleus, here we examined the possibility that TRH neurons in the PVN are similarly innervated by AGRP nerve terminals...
August 1999: Endocrinology
J Porta-Etessam, R Núñez-López, J Balsalobre, E López, A Hernández, A Luna
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Approximately 400,000 years ago men started to use language. Initially it was probably poor with few phonemes. With social evolution it became more complex, with the appearance of new phonemes and a more complete grammatical structure. The current concept of the processing of language dates, with little change, from the nineteenth century. DEVELOPMENT: With the birth of phrenology language began to be studied. This lead to the hypothesis of Wernicke, with two main areas joined by the fasciculo arcuato, which is still held to be valid with modifications by Gerchwind and Damasio, amongst others...
August 1997: Revista de Neurologia
S Dryden, H M Frankish, Q Wang, L Pickavance, G Williams
Evidence suggests that serotonin and neuropeptide Y neurons in the hypothalamus, which respectively inhibit and stimulate food intake, may interact to control energy homoeostasis. We therefore investigated the effects of fluoxetine, which inhibits serotonin reuptake, on food intake and the activity of the neuropeptide Yergic arcuato-paraventricular projection in lean Wistar and Zucker rats. We also studied its effects in obese Zucker rats, in which obesity is postulated to be due to overactivity of the arcuato-paraventricular projection...
May 1996: Neuroscience
I Cusin, S Dryden, Q Wang, F Rohner-Jeanrenaud, B Jeanrenaud, G Williams
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) synthesized in the arcuato-paraventricular projection in the rat hypothalamus is thought to play an important role in controlling energy homeostasis. The factors that regulate hypothalamic NPY are not known but, amongst others, insulin has been postulated as an inhibitory modulatory agent. To test this hypothesis, normal male rats were given either insulin (2 units/day) or saline via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for 3 days. Euglycaemia was maintained by a concomitant glucose infusion in insulin-infused rats which had peripheral insulin levels 5-8 times higher than saline-infused controls...
March 1995: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
W Lichtensteiger, H Langemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1966: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
F L Bai, M Yamano, Y Shiotani, P C Emson, A D Smith, J F Powell, M Tohyama
The origins of neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive (NPYI) fibers in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei of the rat were examined using immunohistochemistry. Destruction of the arcuate nucleus resulted in a marked decrease of NPYI fibers ipsilaterally in these nuclei, suggesting that most of NPYI fibers in these nuclei originate from NPYI neurons in the arcuate nucleus. These NPYI systems did not contain noradrenalin.
April 1, 1985: Brain Research
M Abe, M Saito, H Ikeda, T Shimazu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay in selected hypothalamic regions microdissected from fresh brain slices of different types of diabetic rats. In spontaneously diabetic (BB) rats and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, models of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, an elevated concentration of NPY was detected in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus (ARH) of the hypothalamus. In Wistar fatty rats, a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NPY concentration was also high in the PVN as compared to controls...
January 25, 1991: Brain Research
J Lang, N Ohmachi, J Lang
Described are: 1. Length and width values of the rhomboid fossa. 2. Number and development of the transverse and oblique striae in the bottom area of the fourth ventricle. 3. The course of the facial nerve inside the pons and the medulla oblongata. 4. Some fiber tracts and nuclei in the tegmentum pontis and the medulla oblongata. 5. A very thick arcuato-cerebellar tract. 6. The results of our investigations are compared with descriptions of other researchers.
1991: Acta Neurochirurgica
F J Tilders, P G Smelik
The physiological significance of the dopaminergic innervation of the pars intermedia was studied in rats. Electrothermic lesions were made in the mediobasal hypothalamus in order to destroy all hypothalamo-hypophysial connections. Pituitary MSH content decreased to 25% of control values 8 h after lesioning. From the 1st day, however, pituitary MSH content gradually increased, reaching control levels after about 1 week. Haloperidol and pimozide (both neuroleptics) were used to block specifically dopamine (DA)-receptors...
1978: Neuroendocrinology
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