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Gap junction intercellular communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642095/ginsenoside-rg1-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-dysfunction-of-gap-junctions-in-astrocytes
#1
Cong-Yuan Xia, Shi-Feng Chu, Shuai Zhang, Yan Gao, Qian Ren, Yu-Xia Lou, Piao Luo, Man-Tong Tian, Zhi-Qi Wang, Guo-Hua Du, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Tohru Yamakuni, Yi Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Nai-Hong Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax Ginseng C. A. Mey, has neuroprotective effects in animal models of depression, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potentially novel pathogenic mechanism for depression. Thus, we investigated that whether antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were related to GJIC...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642043/mitochondrial-cx43-an-important-component-of-cardiac-preconditioning
#2
REVIEW
Antonio Rodríguez-Sinovas, Marisol Ruiz-Meana, Amanda Denuc, David García-Dorado
Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels that are essential for the propagation of electrical depolarization in cardiomyocytes, but also with important roles in the pathophysiology of reperfusion injury. However, more recent studies have shown that Cx43 has also important functions independent from intercellular communication between adjacent cardiomyocytes. Some of these actions have been related to the presence of Cx43 in the mitochondria of these cells (mitoCx43). The functions of mitoCx43 have not been completely elucidated, but there is strong evidence indicating that mitoCx43 modulates mitochondrial respiration at respiratory complex I, production of radical oxygen species and ATP synthesis...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638385/intercellular-communication-of-tumor-cells-and-immune-cells-after-exposure-to-different-ionizing-radiation-qualities
#3
REVIEW
Sebastian Diegeler, Christine E Hellweg
Ionizing radiation can affect the immune system in many ways. Depending on the situation, the whole body or parts of the body can be acutely or chronically exposed to different radiation qualities. In tumor radiotherapy, a fractionated exposure of the tumor (and surrounding tissues) is applied to kill the tumor cells. Currently, mostly photons, and also electrons, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles such as carbon ions, are used in radiotherapy. Tumor elimination can be supported by an effective immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634726/connexin-channels-at-the-glio-vascular-interface-gatekeepers-of-the-brain
#4
Marijke De Bock, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Neuronal survival, electrical signaling and synaptic activity require a well-balanced micro-environment in the central nervous system. This is achieved by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an endothelial barrier situated in the brain capillaries, that controls near-to-all passage in and out of the brain. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on signaling interactions with surrounding glial, neuronal and vascular cells, together forming the neuro-glio-vascular unit. Within this functional unit, connexin (Cx) channels are of utmost importance for intercellular communication between the different cellular compartments...
June 20, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625689/multiple-and-complex-influences-of-connexins-and-pannexins-on-cell-death
#5
REVIEW
Jérôme Gilleron, Diane Carette, Dominique Segretain, Georges Pointis
Cell death is a fundamental process for organogenesis, immunity and cell renewal. During the last decades a broad range of molecular tools were identified as important players for several different cell death pathways (apoptosis, pyroptosis, necrosis, autosis…). Aside from these direct regulators of cell death programs, several lines of evidence proposed connexins and pannexins as potent effectors of cell death. In the present review we discussed the potential roles played by connexins, pannexins and innexins in the different cell death programs at different scales from gap junction intercellular communication to protein-protein interactions...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611680/mono-heteromeric-configurations-of-gap-junction-channels-formed-by-connexin43-and-connexin45-reduce-unitary-conductance-and-determine-both-voltage-gating-and-metabolic-flux-asymmetry
#6
Guoqiang Zhong, Nazem Akoum, Daniel A Appadurai, Volodya Hayrapetyan, Osman Ahmed, Agustin D Martinez, Eric C Beyer, Alonso P Moreno
In cardiac tissues, the expression of multiple connexins (Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx30.2) is a requirement for proper development and function. Gap junctions formed by these connexins have distinct permeability and gating mechanisms. Since a single cell can express more than one connexin isoform, the formation of hetero-multimeric gap junction channels provides a tissue with an enormous repertoire of combinations to modulate intercellular communication. To study further the perm-selectivity and gating properties of channels containing Cx43 and Cx45, we studied two monoheteromeric combinations in which a HeLa cell co-transfected with Cx43 and Cx45 was paired with a cell expressing only one of these connexins...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607928/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-affect-myogenic-processes-in-c2c12-myoblasts-role-of-gap-junction-mediated-intercellular-communication
#7
Caterina Morabito, Nathalie Steimberg, Francesca Rovetta, Jennifer Boniotti, Simone Guarnieri, Giovanna Mazzoleni, Maria A Mariggiò
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can interact with biological systems. Although they are successfully used as therapeutic agents in physiatrics and rehabilitative practice, they might represent environmental pollutants and pose a risk to human health. Due to the lack of evidence of their mechanism of action, the effects of ELF-EMFs on differentiation processes in skeletal muscle were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to ELF-EMFs generated by a solenoid. The effects of ELF-EMFs on cell viability and on growth and differentiation rates were studied using colorimetric and vital dye assays, cytomorphology, and molecular analysis of MyoD and myogenin expression, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601938/enhanced-gap-junction-intercellular-communication-inhibits-catabolic-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-tenocytes-against-heat-stress
#8
Eijiro Maeda, Shunsuke Kimura, Masahiko Yamada, Masataka Tashiro, Toshiro Ohashi
Elevation of tendon core temperature during severe activity is well known. However, its effects on tenocyte function have not been studied in detail. The present study tested a hypothesis that heat stimulation upregulates tenocyte catabolism, which can be modulated by the inhibition or the enhancement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Tenocytes isolated from rabbit Achilles tendons were subjected to heat stimulation at 37 °C, 41 °C or 43 °C for 30 min, and changes in cell viability, gene expressions and GJIC were examined...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583293/cell-cell-communication-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#9
Sayon Roy, Dongjoon Kim, Remington Lim
In diabetic retinopathy, high glucose (HG)-mediated breakdown in cell-cell communication promotes disruption of retinal homeostasis. Several studies indicate that HG condition alters expression of connexin genes and subsequent gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in retinal vascular cells and non-vascular cells. A serious consequence of disrupted cell-cell communication is apoptosis and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). More recently, studies suggest adverse effects from HG on retinal Müller cells...
June 2, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569788/disease-linked-connexin26-s17f-promotes-volar-skin-abnormalities-and-mild-wound-healing-defects-in-mice
#10
Eric Press, Katanya C Alaga, Kevin Barr, Qing Shao, Felicitas Bosen, Klaus Willecke, Dale W Laird
Several mutant mice have been generated to model connexin (Cx)-linked skin diseases; however, the role of connexins in skin maintenance and during wound healing remains to be fully elucidated. Here we generated a novel, viable, and fertile mouse (Cx26(CK14-S17F/+)) with the keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness mutant (Cx26S17F) driven by the cytokeratin 14 promoter. This mutant mouse mirrors several Cx26-linked human skin pathologies suggesting that the etiology of Cx26-linked skin disease indeed stems from epidermal expression of the Cx26 mutant...
June 1, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566289/microtubule-assisted-altered-trafficking-of-astrocytic-gap-junction-protein-connexin-43-is-associated-with-depletion-of-connexin-47-during-mouse-hepatitis-virus-infection
#11
Rahul Basu, Abhishek Bose, Deepthi Thomas, Jayasri Das Sarma
Gap junctions (GJs) are important for maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. GJ proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and connexin 47 (Cx47), play crucial role in production and maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Cx43 is mainly expressed by astrocytes in the CNS, and forms gap junction intercellular communications (GJICs) between astrocytes (Cx43/Cx43) and astrocytes to oligodendrocytes (Cx43/Cx47). Mutations of these connexin (Cx) proteins cause dysmyelinating diseases in humans. Previously it has been shown that Cx43 localization and expression is altered due to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-A59 infection both in vivo and in vitro; however, its mechanism and association with loss of myelin protein was not elaborated...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565963/genomic-instability-induced-in-distant-progeny-of-bystander-cells-depends-on-the-connexins-expressed-in-the-irradiated-cells
#12
Sonia M de Toledo, Manuela Buonanno, Andrew L Harris, Edouard I Azzam
PURPOSE: To examine the time window during which intercellular signaling though gap junctions mediates non-targeted (bystander) effects induced by moderate doses of ionizing radiation; and to investigate the impact of gap junction communication on genomic instability in distant progeny of bystander cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A layered cell culture system was developed to investigate the propagation of harmful effects from irradiated normal or tumor cells that express specific connexins to contiguous bystander normal human fibroblasts...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554986/connexin-43-is-involved-in-the-sympathetic-atrial-fibrillation-in-canine-and-canine-atrial-myocytes
#13
Chenglin Shu, Weiqiang Huang, Zhiyu Zeng, Yan He, Beibei Luo, Hao Liu, Jinyi Li, Jian Xu
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common rapid cardiac arrhythmia associated with high morbidity and mortality. Stimulation of the sympathetic nerve is involved in AF occurrence. The gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) plays a key role in electrical conduction velocity in cardiac tissues, and under expression of Cx43 was linked with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Cx43 was involved in sympathetic AF. METHODS: Fifteen dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (5 in each group)...
May 24, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529713/gap-junction-structure-unraveled-but-not-fully-revealed
#14
REVIEW
Eric C Beyer, Viviana M Berthoud
Gap junction channels facilitate the intercellular exchange of ions and small molecules, a process that is critical for the function of many different kinds of cells and tissues. Recent crystal structures of channels formed by one connexin isoform (connexin26) have been determined, and they have been subjected to molecular modeling. These studies have provided high-resolution models to gain insights into the mechanisms of channel conductance, molecular permeability, and gating. The models share similarities, but there are some differences in the conclusions reached by these studies...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526583/the-connexin-43-c-terminus-a-tail-of-many-tales
#15
REVIEW
Edward Leithe, Marc Mesnil, Trond Aasen
Connexins are chordate gap junction channel proteins that, by enabling direct communication between the cytosols of adjacent cells, create a unique cell signalling network. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has important roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation and in tissue development and homeostasis. Moreover, several non-canonical connexin functions unrelated to GJIC have been discovered. Of the 21 members of the human connexin family, connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most widely expressed and studied...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482351/communication-is-key-mechanisms-of-intercellular-signaling-in-vasodilation
#16
Julie K Freed, David D Gutterman
Thirty years ago, Robert F. Furchgott concluded that nitric oxide, a compound traditionally known to be a toxic component of fuel exhaust, is in fact released from the endothelium, and in a paracrine fashion, induces relaxation of underlying vascular smooth muscle resulting in vasodilation. This discovery has helped pave the way for a more thorough understanding of vascular intercellular and intracellular communication that supports the process of regulating regional perfusion to match the local tissue oxygen demand...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474748/connexin36-localization-to-pinealocytes-in-the-pineal-gland-of-mouse-and-rat
#17
S G Wang, D D Tsao, K G Vanderpool, T Yasumura, J E Rash, J I Nagy
Several cell types in the pineal gland are known to establish intercellular gap junctions, but the connexin constituents of those junctions have not been fully characterized. Specifically, the expression of connexin36 (Cx36) protein and mRNA has been examined in the pineal, but the identity of cells that produce Cx36 and that form Cx36-containing gap junctions has not been determined. We used immunofluorescence and freeze fracture replica immunogold labelling (FRIL) of Cx36 to investigate the cellular and subcellular localization of Cx36 in the pineal gland of adult mouse and rat...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447724/effects-of-gap-junction-intercellular-communication-on-the-docetaxel-induced-cytotoxicity-in-rat-hepatocytes
#18
Nan Tang, Jinghua Liu, Bo Chen, Yuan Zhang, Meiling Yu, Ziqing Cai, Hongpeng Chen
The effect of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) on docetaxel-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study involved investigating the effect of downregulating GJs derived from connexin (Cx) 32 in BRL-3A cells by three different mechanisms: Using a low-density culture; suppression of Cx32 using small interfering RNA; and use of the chemical inhibitor 2‑aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2‑APB), all of which led to attenuated docetaxel hepatotoxicity. In order to investigate the relevant mechanisms involved, apoptosis and caspase activities of BRL‑3A cells were determined...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428758/modulation-of-asymmetric-flux-in-heterotypic-gap-junctions-by-pore-shape-particle-size-and-charge
#19
Abhijit Mondal, Frank B Sachse, Alonso P Moreno
Gap junction channels play a vital role in intercellular communication by connecting cytoplasm of adjoined cells through arrays of channel-pores formed at the common membrane junction. Their structure and properties vary depending on the connexin isoform(s) involved in forming the full gap junction channel. Lack of information on the molecular structure of gap junction channels has limited the development of computational tools for single channel studies. Currently, we rely on cumbersome experimental techniques that have limited capabilities...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428247/induction-of-cell-death-and-gain-of-function-properties-of-connexin26-mutants-predict-severity-of-skin-disorders-and-hearing-loss
#20
Eric R Press, Qing Shao, John J Kelly, Katrina Chin, Anton Alaga, Dale W Laird
Connexin26 (Cx26) is a gap junction protein that oligomerizes in the cell to form hexameric transmembrane channels called connexons. Cell surface connexons dock between adjacent cells to allow for gap junctional intercellular communication. Numerous autosomal dominant mutations in the Cx26-encoding GJB2 gene lead to many skin disorders and sensorineural hearing loss. Although some insights have been gained into the pathogenesis of these diseases, it is not fully understood how distinct GJB2 mutations result in hearing loss alone or in skin pathologies with comorbid hearing loss...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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