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Brain perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352123/tumor-tissue-detection-using-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-mri-based-on-independent-component-analysis
#1
Huiyuan Huang, Junfeng Lu, Jinsong Wu, Zhongxiang Ding, Shuda Chen, Lisha Duan, Jianling Cui, Fuyong Chen, Dezhi Kang, Le Qi, Wusi Qiu, Seong-Whan Lee, ShiJun Qiu, Dinggang Shen, Yu-Feng Zang, Han Zhang
Accurate delineation of gliomas from the surrounding normal brain areas helps maximize tumor resection and improves outcome. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) has been routinely adopted for presurgical mapping of the surrounding functional areas. For completely utilizing such imaging data, here we show the feasibility of using presurgical fMRI for tumor delineation. In particular, we introduce a novel method dedicated to tumor detection based on independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) with automatic tumor component identification...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352054/increased-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-contralateral-hemisphere-predicts-worse-outcome-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-after-reperfusion-therapy
#2
Chang Liu, Shenqiang Yan, Ruiting Zhang, Zhicai Chen, Feina Shi, Ying Zhou, Meixia Zhang, Min Lou
AIMS: We sought to investigate the risk factors of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and its potential impact on 90-day clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients after reperfusion therapy. METHODS: Consecutive acute anterior circulation AIS patients imaged with computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) before reperfusion therapy were included. Tmax >6 s was used for the volumetric measurement of the hypoperfusion area. BBB permeability (BBBP) was calculated as the average relative permeability-surface area product (rPS) within the hypoperfusion region (rPShypo-i) and its contralateral mirror region (rPShypo-c) on CTP-derived PS color maps...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351787/scl20a2-mutation-presenting-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-case-report
#3
Xiaoyu Zhang, Gaoting Ma, Zhangning Zhao, Meijia Zhu
BACKGROUND: Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare disorder characterized by distinctive bilateral brain calcification and variable clinical presentations. However, cerebrovascular attack was rarely reported in PFBC patients. We here reported a SLC20A2 mutation patient presenting with acute ischemic stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56 years old man was transferred to our hospital because of 6 days of melena and 3 days of somnolence, agitation and mood changes...
January 19, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346537/cerebral-mitochondrial-dysfunction-associated-with-deep-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-in-neonatal-swine
#4
Constantine D Mavroudis, Michael Karlsson, Tiffany Ko, Marco Hefti, Javier I Gentile, Ryan W Morgan, Ross Plyler, Kobina G Mensah-Brown, Timothy W Boorady, Richard W Melchior, Tami M Rosenthal, Brandon C Shade, Kellie L Schiavo, Susan C Nicolson, Thomas L Spray, Robert M Sutton, Robert A Berg, Daniel J Licht, J William Gaynor, Todd J Kilbaugh
OBJECTIVES: Controversy remains regarding the use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in neonatal cardiac surgery. Alterations in cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics are thought to contribute to ischaemia-reperfusion injury in DHCA. The purpose of this study was to compare cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics for DHCA with deep hypothermic continuous perfusion using a neonatal swine model. METHODS: Twenty-four piglets (mean weight 3.8 kg) were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB): 10 underwent 40-min DHCA, following cooling to 18°C, 10 underwent 40 min DHCA and 10 remained at deep hypothermia for 40 min; animals were subsequently rewarmed to normothermia...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344708/treatment-of-combined-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-with-fractionated-blood-products-versus-fresh-whole-blood-in-a-rat-model
#5
Akiva Leibowitz, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein, Shmuel Hess, Alexander Zlotnik, Matthew Boyko
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341001/dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri-in-small-animals
#6
Pilar López-Larrubia
The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for studying the cerebral perfusion mechanisms is well proved and contrasted in the clinical and research setups. This methodology is a promising tool in assessing numerous brain diseases like intracranial tumors, neurodegeneration processes, mental disorders, injuries and so on. In the preclinical environment, perfusion MRI offers a powerful resource for characterizing pathological models and specially identifying biomarkers to monitor the illness and validate the efficacy of therapeutical approaches...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340731/sensitive-cardiac-troponins-could-they-be-new-biomarkers-in-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-congenital-heart-disease
#7
Seyma Kayali, Ilker Ertugrul, Tamer Yoldas, Ozkan Kaya, Senem Ozgür, Utku A Orün, Selmin Karademir
To analyze the role of sensitive cardiac troponin I (scTnI) and high-sensitive troponin T (hscTnT) in the determination of myocardial injury caused by volume and pressure load due to pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to investigate if these markers may be useful in the management of PH in childhood. Twenty-eight patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) with left to right shunt and PH, 29 patients with CHD with left to right shunt but without PH, and 18 healthy children, in total 75 individuals, were included in the study...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337197/brain-perfusion-alterations-in-tick-borne-encephalitis-preliminary-report
#8
Zuzanna Tyrakowska-Dadełło, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Dariusz Janusek, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Joanna Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are nonspecific and pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to their formation remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate brain perfusion in TBE patients using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion imaging. METHODS: MRI scans were performed in 12 patients in the acute phase, 3-5days after TBE diagnosis, with conventional MR images and DSC-MRI perfusion studies. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) parametric maps were created...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336770/limit-crystalloid-resuscitation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Galinos Barmparas, Eric J T Smith, Kurtis Birch, Zachary R Barnard, Dorothy A Yim, Eric J Ley
Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often resuscitated with crystalloids in the emergency department (ED) to maintain cerebral perfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether crystalloid resuscitation volume impacts mortality in TBI patients. This was a retrospective study of trauma patients with head abbreviated injury scale score ≥2, who received crystalloids during ED resuscitation between 2004 and 2013. Clinical characteristics and volume of crystalloids received in the ED were collected...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334496/oxygen-in-the-critically-ill-friend-or-foe
#10
Elisa Damiani, Abele Donati, Massimo Girardis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333461/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-for-coronary-artery-disease-relationship-of-symptom-amelioration-and-ischemia-improvement
#11
Youko Takakuwa, Masayoshi Sarai, Hideki Kawai, Akira Yamada, Kenji Shiino, Kayoko Takada, Yasuomi Nagahara, Meiko Miyagi, Sadako Motoyama, Hiroshi Toyama, Yukio Ozaki
Objectives: The current management of coronary artery disease (CAD) relies on three major therapeutic options, namely medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, severe CAD that is not indicated for PCI or CABG still bears a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatments. In 2006, extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW) therapy reported on human for the first time. This treatment resulted in better myocardial perfusion as evaluated by dipyridamole stress thallium scintigraphy, angina symptoms, and exercise tolerance...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331091/terminal-spreading-depolarization-and-electric-silence-in-death-of-human-cortex
#12
Jens P Dreier, Sebastian Major, Brandon Foreman, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Denny Milakara, Coline L Lemale, Vince DiNapoli, Jason M Hinzman, Johannes Woitzik, Norberto Andaluz, Andrew Carlson, Jed A Hartings
OBJECTIVE: Restoring the circulation is the primary goal in emergency treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, better understanding of how the brain responds to energy depletion could inform the time available for resuscitation until irreversible damage and advance development of interventions that prolong this span. Experimentally, injury to central neurons begins only with anoxic depolarization. This potentially reversible, spreading wave typically starts 2-5 min after the onset of severe ischemia, marking the onset of a toxic intraneuronal change that eventually results in irreversible injury...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330035/harmine-enhances-gabaergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-projection-neurons-in-mice
#13
Wei-Zhu Liu, Bo-Wei Huang, Wen-Jie You, Ping Hu, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Bin Xu, Zong-Yong Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang
Emerging evidence indicates that loss of inhibitory tone in amygdala with its subsequent overactivation contributes to the development of multiple mental disorders such as anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harmine is a member of natural β-carboline alkaloids which can readily cross the blood brain barrier and displays significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in rodents. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, by using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in in vitro amygdala slices, we examined the effect of harmine on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission onto basal amygdala (BA) projection neurons (PNs)...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326416/strategies-to-restore-adenosine-triphosphate-atp-level-after-more-than-20-hours-of-cold-ischemia-time-in-human-marginal-kidney-grafts
#14
Matteo Ravaioli, Maurizio Baldassare, Francesco Vasuri, Gianandrea Pasquinelli, Maristella Laggetta, Sabrina Valente, Vanessa De Pace, Flavia Neri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Chiara Zanfi, Valentina R Bertuzzo, Paolo Caraceni, Davide Trerè, Pasquale Longobardi, Antonio D Pinna
BACKGROUND The persisting organ shortage in the field of transplantation recommends the use of marginal kidneys which poorly tolerate ischemic damage. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion during cold ischemia time (CIT) is considered crucial for graft function. We tested different strategies of kidney perfusion before transplantation in the attempt to improve the technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty human discarded kidneys from donors after brain death and with at least 20 hours of CIT were randomized to the following experimental groups (treatment time three-hours at 4°C): a) static cold storage (CS); b) static cold hyperbaric oxygenation (Hyp); c) hypothermic perfusion (PE); d) hypothermic perfusion in hyperbaric oxygenation (PE-Hyp); and e) hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (PE-O2)...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326379/blood-pressure-levels-post-mechanical-thrombectomy-and-outcomes-in-non-recanalized-large-vessel-occlusion-patients
#15
Nitin Goyal, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Abhi Pandhi, Kira Dillard, Diana Alsbrook, Jason J Chang, Balaji Krishnaiah, Christopher Nickele, Daniel Hoit, Khalid Alsherbini, Andrei V Alexandrov, Adam S Arthur, Lucas Elijovich
OBJECTIVE: Permissive hypertension may benefit patients with non-recanalized large vessel occlusion (nrLVO) post mechanical thrombectomy (MT) by maintaining brain perfusion. Data evaluating the impact of post-MT blood pressure (BP) levels on outcomes in nrLVO patients are scarce. We investigated the association of the post-MT BP course with safety and efficacy outcomes in nrLVO. METHODS: Hourly systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) values were prospectively recorded for 24 hours following MT in consecutive nrLVO patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324813/increase-in-extraction-of-i-123-iomazenil-in-patients-with-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Hiroki Kato, Kayako Isohashi, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa
BACKGROUND: Cerebral extraction of diffusively distributed substances like oxygen has been suggested to change according to the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and status of the microvasculature. The relationships between the cerebral extraction of diffusively distributed lipophilic tracers and the severity of cerebral ischemia has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the association between the extraction fraction of the lipophilic tracer I-123 iomazenil (IMZ) (IMZ-EF) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) derived from O-15 PET in patients with chronic steno-occlusive disease of internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320926/brain-perfusion-fixation-in-male-pigs-using-a-safer-closed-system
#17
Gracia U Musigazi, Stéphanie De Vleeschauwer, Raf Sciot, Eric Verbeken, Bart Depreitere
Tissue fixation methods are well established for rodents, but not for large animals. We present a simple technique for in situ brain perfusion fixation in a male porcine model, using cervical vessels for inflow and outflow and achieving a closed system. Thirty-four pigs, aged 4.7 ± 0.6 months and weighing 60.7 ± 10.9 kg, were anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated. The ipsilateral common carotid artery and external jugular vein were dissected and constituted the inflow and outflow access, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314418/cerebral-blood-volume-mapping-with-ferumoxytol-in-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-mri-comparison-to-standard-of-care
#18
Csanad G Varallyay, Eric Nesbit, Andrea Horvath, Peter Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Seymur Gahramanov, Leslie L Muldoon, Xin Li, William D Rooney, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping with a dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion technique has become a clinical tool in diagnosing and follow-up of brain tumors. Ferumoxytol, a long-circulating iron oxide nanoparticle, has been tested for CBV mapping, but the optimal dose has not been established. PURPOSE: To compare ferumoxytol DSC of two different doses to standard of care gadoteridol by analyzing time-intensity curves and CBV maps in normal-appearing brain regions...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314257/contemporary-management-and-outcomes-of-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection-an-analysis-of-the-sts-adult-cardiac-surgery-database
#19
Teng C Lee, Zachary Kon, Faisal H Cheema, Maria V Grau-Sepulveda, Brian Englum, Sunghee Kim, Paramita S Chaudhuri, Vinod H Thourani, Gorav Ailawadi, G Chad Hughes, Matthew L Williams, J Matthew Brennan, Lars Svensson, James S Gammie
PURPOSE: Management of acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) is challenging and operative strategies are varied. We used the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (STS ACSD) to describe contemporary surgical strategies and outcomes for AAAD. METHODS: Between July 2011 and September 2012, 2982 patients with AAAD underwent operations at 640 centers in North America. RESULTS: In this cohort, median age was 60 years old, 66% were male, and 80% had hypertension...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313865/evaluation-of-emdogain%C3%A2-antimicrobial-effectiveness-against-biofilms-containing-the-keystone-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#20
Jérôme Lasserre, Selena Toma, Ana-Maria Dos Santos-Gonçalvez, Julian Leprince, Gaëtane Leloup, Michel Brecx
This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Emdogain® (EMD) against biofilms containing the periopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. A brain-Heart infusion broth inoculated with S. gordonii and P. gingivalis was perfused (7-d, anaerobiosis) through a closed circuit containing two Robbins devices as to form biofilms. The latter were then treated for 2 min with various antimicrobials (Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2%, Povidone iodine (PVI) 5%, PVI 10%, essential oils (EO), EO Zero™ or EMD)(n=8) and cell densities were calculated and compared...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
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