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Brain perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786833/assessment-of-cerebral-perfusion-and-edema-in-preeclampsia-with-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-mri
#1
Maria Nelander, Daniel Hannsberger, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Lina Bergman, Jan Weis, Helena Åkerud, Johan Wikström, Anna-Karin Wikström
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral complications are the main reasons for morbidity and mortality in preeclampsia and eclampsia. Still we do not know if the pathophysiology entails hypo- or hyperperfusion of the brain, or how and when edema emerges, due to the difficulty to examine the cerebral circulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have used a non-invasive diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, intravoxel incoherent motion, to study cerebral perfusion on the capillary level and cerebral edema in women with preeclampsia (n=30), normal pregnancy (n=32) and non-pregnant women (n=16)...
May 22, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780351/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica-and-their-correlations-with-clinical-disability
#2
Xue Zhang, Xi Guo, Ningnannan Zhang, Huanhuan Cai, Jie Sun, Qiuhui Wang, Yuan Qi, Linjie Zhang, Li Yang, Fu-Dong Shi, Chunshui Yu
Distinguishing relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically important because they differ in prognosis and treatment. This study aimed to identify perfusion abnormalities in RRMS and NMO and their correlations with gray matter volume (GMV) atrophy and clinical parameters. Structural and arterial spin labeling MRI scans were performed in 39 RRMS patients, 62 NMO patients, and 73 healthy controls. The gray matter cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were voxel-wisely compared among the three groups with and without GMV correction...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777822/effects-of-global-signal-regression-and-subtraction-methods-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-using-arterial-spin-labeling-data
#3
João Paulo Santos Silva, Luciana da Mata Mônaco, André Monteiro Paschoal, Ícaro Agenor Ferreira de Oliveira, Renata Ferranti Leoni
BACKGROUND: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in functional studies of the healthy and diseased brain. To promote improvement in cerebral blood flow (CBF) signal specificity, many algorithms and imaging procedures, such as subtraction methods, were proposed to eliminate or, at least, minimize noise sources. Therefore, this study addressed the main considerations of how CBF functional connectivity (FC) is changed, regarding resting brain network (RBN) identification and correlations between regions of interest (ROI), by different subtraction methods and removal of residual motion artifacts and global signal fluctuations (RMAGSF)...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777360/crossed-aphasia-following-cerebral-infarction-in-a-right-handed-patient-with-atypical-cerebral-language-dominance
#4
Xiaoping Tan, Yang Guo, Saihong Dun, Hongzan Sun
OBJECTIVE: Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. METHODS: We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770889/autoregulation-in-the-neuro-icu
#5
REVIEW
Anson Wang, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Nils H Petersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the concept of cerebral autoregulation, to detail several bedside techniques for measuring and assessing autoregulation, and to outline the impact of impaired autoregulation on clinical and functional outcomes in acute brain injury. Furthermore, we will review several autoregulation studies in select forms of acute brain injuries, discuss the potential for its use in patient management in the ICU, and suggest further avenues for research...
May 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769375/baseline-nawm-structural-integrity-and-cbf-predict-periventricular-wmh-expansion-over-time
#6
Nutta-On Promjunyakul, Hiroko H Dodge, David Lahna, Erin L Boespflug, Jeffrey A Kaye, William D Rooney, Lisa C Silbert
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe and compare baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and microstructural characteristics of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) within the vulnerable periventricular white matter hyperintensity (PVWMH) penumbra region in predicting white matter hyperintensity (WMH) growth over time. METHODS: Fifty-two patients, aged 82.8 years, underwent serial brain MRI, including pulsed arterial spin labeling and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). New WMH and persistent NAWM voxels in relation to WMH penumbra at follow-up were identified...
May 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769199/metabolic-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-hyperpolarized-13c-pyruvate-demonstrates-13c-lactate-production-in-brain-tumor-patients
#7
Vesselin Z Miloushev, Kristin L Granlund, Rostislav Boltyanskiy, Serge K Lyashchenko, Lisa M DeAngelis, Ingo K Mellinghoff, Cameron W Brennan, Viviane Tabar, T Jonathan Yang, Andrei I Holodny, Ramon E Sosa, YanWei W Guo, Albert P Chen, James Tropp, Fraser Robb, Kayvan R Keshari
Hyperpolarized (HP) magnetic resonance imaging using [1-13C] pyruvate is a novel method that can characterize energy metabolism in the human brain and brain tumors. Here we present the first dynamically acquired human brain HP 13C metabolic spectra and spatial metabolite maps in cases of both untreated and recurrent tumors. In vivo production of HP lactate from HP pyruvate by tumors was indicative of altered cancer metabolism, while production of HP lactate in the entire brain was likely due to baseline metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766452/a-novel-technique-for-visualizing-and-analyzing-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-rodents
#8
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Kara M Wendel, Mary Hamer, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Richard A DeFazio, Zinaida S Vexler, Andre Obenaus
We introduce a novel protocol to stain, visualize, and analyze blood vessels from the rat and mouse cerebrum. This technique utilizes the fluorescent dye, DiI, to label the lumen of the vasculature followed by perfusion fixation. Following brain extraction, the labeled vasculature is then imaged using wide-field fluorescence microscopy for axial and coronal images and can be followed by regional confocal microscopy. Axial and coronal images can be analyzed using classical angiographic methods for vessel density, length, and other features...
May 15, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764622/absolute-cbv-for-the-differentiation-of-recurrence-and-radionecrosis-of-brain-metastases-after-gamma-knife-radiotherapy-a-comparison-with-relative-cbv
#9
B Wang, B Zhao, Y Zhang, M Ge, P Zhao, Na Sun, C Li, Q Pang, S Xu, Y Liu
AIM: To investigate the efficiency of absolute cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the differentiation of tumour recurrence (TR) and radionecrosis (RN) in brain metastases (BM) and to evaluate the performance of absolute CBV compared to relative CBV (rCBV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2015 and June 2017, 46 patients with BM underwent quantitative dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) because new enhancement had been demonstrated in irradiated lesions after gamma knife radiotherapy...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763638/effects-of-sc99-on-cerebral-ischemia-perfusion-injury-in-rats-selective-modulation-of-microglia-polarization-to-m2-phenotype-via-inhibiting-jak2-stat3-pathway
#10
Yiping Ding, Jinhong Qian, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Yan Kong, Zhuan Xu, Gang Chen
Inhibition of Janus kinases 2-Signal transducers and activators of transcription3 (JAK2-STAT3) pathway has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory actions. SC99, a novel specific inhibitor targeting JAK2-STAT3 pathway, has been verified to negatively modulate platelet activation and aggregation in vitro. In current study, a middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established in Sprague Dawley rats and primary cultured microglia was exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD/R) in vitro...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762050/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-attenuates-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-by-improving-the-function-of-cerebral-artery-and-circulation
#11
Chuan Qin, Panting Zhou, Liping Wang, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Wanlu Li, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
Dl-3-N-butylphthalide (NBP) is approved in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Previous studies have shown that NBP promotes recovery after stroke via multiple mechanisms. However, the effect of NBP on vascular function and thrombosis remains unclear. Here, we aim to study the effect of NBP on vascular function using a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and a state-of-the-art high-resolution synchrotron radiation angiography. Eighty SD rats underwent MCAO surgery. NBP (90 mg/kg) was administrated daily by gavage...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761310/characteristics-of-patients-with-a-relatively-greater-minimum-ve-vco-2-against-peak-vo-2-and-impaired-exercise-tolerance
#12
Taisuke Nakade, Hitoshi Adachi, Makoto Murata, Shigeru Oshima
PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is used to evaluate functional capacity and assess prognosis in cardiac patients. Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 ) reflects ventilation-perfusion mismatch; the minimum VE/VCO2 value (minVE/VCO2 ) is representative of pulmonary arterial blood flow in individuals without pulmonary disease. Usually, minVE/VCO2 has a strong relationship with the peak oxygen uptake (VO2 ), but dissociation can occur. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between minVE/VCO2 and predicted peak VO2 (peak VO2 %) and evaluated the parameters associated with a discrepancy between these two parameters...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759739/aortic-valve-bypass-surgery-in-severe-aortic-valve-stenosis-insights-from-cardiac-and-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Cesare Mantini, Massimo Caulo, Daniele Marinelli, Piero Chiacchiaretta, Armando Tartaro, Antonio Raffaele Cotroneo, Gabriele Di Giammarco
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and describe the distribution of aortic and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with severe valvular aortic stenosis (AS) before and after aortic valve bypass (AVB) surgery. METHODS: We enrolled 10 consecutive patients who underwent AVB surgery for severe AS. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and brain magnetic resonance imaging were performed as baseline before surgery and twice after surgery. Quantitative flow measurements were obtained using 1...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758129/twenty-four-hour-normothermic-perfusion-of-discarded-human-kidneys-with-urine-recirculation
#14
Annemarie Weissenbacher, Letizia Lo Faro, Olga Boubriak, Maria F Soares, Ian S Roberts, James P Hunter, Daniel Voyce, Nikolay Mikov, Andrew Cook, Rutger J Ploeg, Constantin C Coussios, Peter J Friend
Transportable normothermic kidney perfusion for 24 hours or longer could enable viability assessment of marginal grafts, increased organ utilization and improved transplantation logistics. Eleven clinically-declined kidneys were perfused normothermically, six from donors after brain stem death (DBD, median cold ischemia time 33±36.9 hours) and five from donors after circulatory death (DCD, 36.2±38.3 hours): n=3 kidneys were perfused using Ringer's lactate to replace excreted urine volume, and n=8 using urine recirculation to maintain perfusate volume without fluid replenishment...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758099/the-reduction-in-treatment-efficiency-at-high-acoustic-powers-during-mr-guided-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-thalamotomy-for-essential-tremor
#15
Alec Hughes, Yuexi Huang, Michael L Schwartz, Kullervo Hynynen
PURPOSE: To analyze clinical data indicating a reduction in the induced energy-temperature efficiency relationship during transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) essential tremor (ET) thalamotomy treatments at higher acoustic powers, establish its relationship with the spatial distribution of the focal temperature elevation, and explore its cause. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of patients (N = 19) treated between July 2015-August 2016 for Essential Tremor (ET) by FUS thalamotomy was performed...
May 14, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757278/a-microbiomechanical-system-for-studying-varicosity-formation-and-recovery-in-central-neuron-axons
#16
Dustin Servello, Yuanzheng Gu, Chen Gu
Axonal varicosities are enlarged structures along the shafts of axons with a high degree of heterogeneity. They are present not only in brains with neurodegenerative diseases or injuries, but also in the normal brain. Here, we describe a newly-established micromechanical system to rapidly, reliably, and reversibly induce axonal varicosities, allowing us to understand the mechanisms governing varicosity formation and heterogeneous protein composition. This system represents a novel means to evaluate the effects of compression and shear stress on different subcellular compartments of neurons, different from other in vitro systems that mainly focus on the effect of stretching...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754996/dce-mri-in-human-gliomas-a-surrogate-for-assessment-of-invasive-hypoxia-marker-hif-1%C3%AE-based-on-mri-neuronavigation-stereotactic-biopsies
#17
Qian Xie, Juan Wu, Zunguo Du, Ningning Di, Ren Yan, Haopeng Pang, Teng Jin, Hua Zhang, Yue Wu, Yong Zhang, Zhenwei Yao, Xiaoyuan Feng
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to correlate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters with data from a specific marker of hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), in human gliomas on a point-to-point basis by using coregistered magnetic resonance imaging and frameless stereotactic biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with treatment-naive gliomas underwent DCE, axial T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2-weighted fluid acquisition of inversion recovery, and three-dimensional T1-weighted brain volume with gadolinium contrast enhancement sequences on a 3...
May 10, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754288/the-impact-of-hypoglycaemia-awareness-status-on-regional-brain-responses-to-acute-hypoglycaemia-in-men-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Joel T Dunn, Pratik Choudhary, Ming Ming Teh, Ian Macdonald, Katharine F Hunt, Paul K Marsden, Stephanie A Amiel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) in type 1 diabetes increases the risk of severe hypoglycaemia sixfold and can be resistant to intervention. We explored the impact of IAH on central responses to hypoglycaemia to investigate the mechanisms underlying barriers to therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We conducted [15 O]water positron emission tomography studies of regional brain perfusion during euglycaemia (target 5 mmol/l), hypoglycaemia (achieved level, 2...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754046/brain-stiffens-post-mortem
#19
J Weickenmeier, M Kurt, E Ozkaya, R de Rooij, T C Ovaert, R L Ehman, K Butts Pauly, E Kuhl
Alterations in brain rheology are increasingly recognized as a diagnostic marker for various neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance elastography now allows us to assess brain rheology repeatably, reproducibly, and non-invasively in vivo. Recent elastography studies suggest that brain stiffness decreases one percent per year during normal aging, and is significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. While existing studies successfully compare brain stiffnesses across different populations, they fail to provide insight into changes within the same brain...
April 22, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753694/physiological-adaptation-of-the-growth-restricted-fetus
#20
REVIEW
Karel Maršál
The growth-restricted fetus in utero is exposed to a hostile environment and suffers undernutrition and hypoxia. To cope with the stress, the fetus changes its physiological functions. These adaptive changes aid intrauterine survival; however, they can lead to permanent functional and structural changes that can contribute to the development of serious chronic diseases later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are an important part of the pathophysiological processes behind this "developmental origin of adult diseases...
February 24, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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