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geophysical prospecting

Adam R Aluisio, Carrei Teicher, Tess Wiskel, Allysia Guy, Adam Levine
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity trauma during earthquakes accounts for the largest burden of geophysical disaster-related injuries. Insufficient pain management is common in disaster settings, and regional anesthesia (RA) has the potential to reduce pain in injured patients beyond current standards. To date, no prospective research has evaluated the use of RA in a disaster setting. This cross-sectional study assesses knowledge translation and skill acquisition outcomes for lower extremity RA performed with and without ultrasound guidance among a cohort of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) volunteers who will function as proceduralists in a planned randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of RA for pain management in an earthquake setting...
November 16, 2016: PLoS Currents
Douglas G Macharet, Héctor I A Perez-Imaz, Paulo A F Rezeck, Guilherme A Potje, Luiz C C Benyosef, André Wiermann, Gustavo M Freitas, Luis G U Garcia, Mario F M Campos
Recent advances in the research of autonomous vehicles have showed a vast range of applications, such as exploration, surveillance and environmental monitoring. Considering the mining industry, it is possible to use such vehicles in the prospection of minerals of commercial interest beneath the ground. However, tasks such as geophysical surveys are highly dependent on specific sensors, which mostly are not designed to be used in these new range of autonomous vehicles. In this work, we propose a novel magnetic survey pipeline that aims to increase versatility, speed and robustness by using autonomous rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)...
December 17, 2016: Sensors
J Asfahani, R Al-Hent, M Aissa
Uranium remobilization and migration in the Syrian Desert (Area-1) has been evaluated through analyzing the data of aerial spectrometric gamma technique and examining different radioactive geophysical approaches. The ten geological units identified on the already established scored map have been well characterized through analyzing their contents of eU, eTh, and K%, and studying the mutual relationships between those elements and their ratios. This is done in order to define the regional variation trends of the uranium migration in Area-1, and to evaluate the degree of uranium remobilization...
January 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Eric W Sanderson, Daniel B Segan, James E M Watson
Conservation of representative facets of geophysical diversity may help conserve biological diversity as the climate changes. We conducted a global classification of terrestrial geophysical diversity and analyzed how land protection varies across geophysical diversity types. Geophysical diversity was classified in terms of soil type, elevation, and biogeographic realm and then compared to the global distribution of protected areas in 2012. We found that 300 (45%) of 672 broad geophysical diversity types currently meet the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target 11 of 17% terrestrial areal protection, which suggested that efforts to implement geophysical diversity conservation have a substantive basis on which to build...
June 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Zhenqing Shi, Dimin Fan, Richard L Johnson, Paul G Tratnyek, James T Nurmi, Yuxin Wu, Kenneth H Williams
The emplacement of nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) for groundwater remediation is usually monitored by common measurements such as pH, total iron content, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) by potentiometry. However, the interpretation of such measurements can be misleading because of the complex interactions between the target materials (e.g., suspensions of highly reactive and variably aggregated nanoparticles) and aquifer materials (sediments and groundwater), and multiple complications related to sampling and detection methods...
October 2015: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Kamalesh Sainath, Fernando L Teixeira
We discuss the application of complex-plane Gauss-Laguerre quadrature (CGLQ) to efficiently evaluate two-dimensional Fourier integrals arising as the solution to electromagnetic fields radiated by elementary dipole antennas embedded within planar-layered media exhibiting arbitrary material parameters. More specifically, we apply CGLQ to the long-standing problem of rapidly and efficiently evaluating the semi-infinite length "tails" of the Fourier integral path while simultaneously and robustly guaranteeing absolute, exponential convergence of the field solution despite diversity in the doubly anisotropic layer parameters, source type (i...
May 2014: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Motoki Usuzawa, Elizabeth O Telan, Razel Kawano, Carmela S Dizon, Bachti Alisjahbana, Yugo Ashino, Shinichi Egawa, Manabu Fukumoto, Takako Izumi, Yuichi Ono, Toshio Hattori
As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction)...
2014: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Georg Walach, Robert Scholger, Brigitte Cech
Geophysical prospection has been applied in the Hüttenberg area (Carinthia, Austria), where important parts of the Roman iron production in the province of Noricum between the first century bc and the fourth century ad are located. A combination of geomagnetic, geoelectric and electromagnetic measurements at different scales yielded information about the extent of the industrial complex and the location of yet undiscovered subsurface monuments in the surrounding area of the Semlach-Eisner archaeological site...
2011: Archaeological Prospection
P A Alao, S O Olabode, S A Opeloye
In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained...
2013: TheScientificWorldJournal
Daniel P Zitterbart, Lars Kindermann, Elke Burkhardt, Olaf Boebel
Loud hydroacoustic sources, such as naval mid-frequency sonars or airguns for marine geophysical prospecting, have been increasingly criticized for their possible negative effects on marine mammals and were implicated in several whale stranding events. Competent authorities now regularly request the implementation of mitigation measures, including the shut-down of acoustic sources when marine mammals are sighted within a predefined exclusion zone. Commonly, ship-based marine mammal observers (MMOs) are employed to visually monitor this zone...
2013: PloS One
R T Pappalardo, S Vance, F Bagenal, B G Bills, D L Blaney, D D Blankenship, W B Brinckerhoff, J E P Connerney, K P Hand, T M Hoehler, J S Leisner, W S Kurth, M A McGrath, M T Mellon, J M Moore, G W Patterson, L M Prockter, D A Senske, B E Schmidt, E L Shock, D E Smith, K M Soderlund
The prospect of a future soft landing on the surface of Europa is enticing, as it would create science opportunities that could not be achieved through flyby or orbital remote sensing, with direct relevance to Europa's potential habitability. Here, we summarize the science of a Europa lander concept, as developed by our NASA-commissioned Science Definition Team. The science concept concentrates on observations that can best be achieved by in situ examination of Europa from its surface. We discuss the suggested science objectives and investigations for a Europa lander mission, along with a model planning payload of instruments that could address these objectives...
August 2013: Astrobiology
Elisa Alonso, Frank R Field, Randolph E Kirchain
Platinum is an excellent catalyst, can be used at high temperatures, and is stable in many aggressive chemical environments. Consequently, platinum is used in many current industrial applications, notably automotive catalytic converters, and prospective vehicle fuel cells are expected to rely upon it. Between 2005 and 2010, the automotive industry used approximately 40% of mined platinum. Future automotive industry growth and automotive sales shifts toward new technologies could significantly alter platinum demand...
December 4, 2012: Environmental Science & Technology
G Steinitz, O Piatibratova, P Kotlarsky
Large temporal variations of radon ((222)Rn) are often encountered in air in the geologic environment, at time scales from diurnal to annual. Interpretations as to the nature of these variations, unique to (222)Rn, often invoke either above surface atmospheric variations, or the influence of subtle active geodynamic processes. So far the eventual geophysical drivers of the variation of (222)Rn as well as its specific qualities enabling this temporal variation are not known. New insight on the temporal variation of (222)Rn is gained by experimental simulation in confined air...
August 2011: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
T D Dorney, J L Johnson, J Van Rudd, R G Baraniuk, W W Symes, D M Mittleman
We describe a new imaging method that uses single-cycle pulses of terahertz (THz) radiation. This technique emulates data-collection and image-processing procedures developed for geophysical prospecting and is made possible by the availability of fiber-coupled THz receiver antennas. We use a simple migration procedure to solve the inverse problem; this permits us to reconstruct the location and shape of targets. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the THz system as a test-bed for the exploration of new seismic processing methods involving complex model systems...
October 1, 2001: Optics Letters
Leo C Osuji, G Ayolagha, G C Obute, H C Ohabuike
Four-dimensional (4D) seismic exploration, an improved geophysical technique for hydrocarbon-data acquisition, was applied for the first time in the Nembe Creek prospect area of Nigeria. The affected soils were slightly alkaline in situ when wet (pH 7.2), but extremely acidic when dry (pH 3.0). The organic carbon content (4.6-26.8%) and other physicochemical properties of soils and water (N, P, and heavy-metal contents, etc.) were higher than the baseline values obtained in 2001 before seismic profiling. Most values also exceeded the baseline compliance standards of the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA)...
September 2007: Chemistry & Biodiversity
W Henning, W A Bell, P J Billquist, B G Glagola, W Kutschera, Z Liu, H F Lucas, M Paul, K E Rehm, J L Yntema
Calcium-41 has been suggested as a new tool for radiometric dating in the range of 10(5) to 10(6) years. The concentration of cosmogenic calcium-41 in natural samples of terrestrial origin has now been determined by high-sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry after pre-enrichment in calcium-41 with an isotope separator. Ratios of calcium-41 to total calcium between 2 x 10(-14) and 3 x 10(-15) were measured for samples of contemporary bovine bone and from limestone deposits. Some prospects for the use of calcium-41 for dating Middle and Late Pleistocene bone and for other geophysical applications are discussed...
May 8, 1987: Science
Julio J Valdés, Alan J Barton
A method for the construction of virtual reality spaces for visual data mining using multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithms on nonlinear discriminant (NDA) neural networks is presented. Two neural network layers (the output and the last hidden) are used for the construction of simultaneous solutions for: (i) a supervised classification of data patterns and (ii) an unsupervised similarity structure preservation between the original data matrix and its image in the new space. A set of spaces are constructed from selected solutions along the Pareto front...
May 2007: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Pekka Janhunen, Hermanni Kaartokallio, Ilona Oksanen, Kirsi Lehto, Harry Lehto
Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general...
2007: PloS One
Pontus Linderholm, Thomas Braschler, Jeanne Vannod, Yann Barrandon, Michel Brouard, Philippe Renaud
We present a miniaturized impedance imaging system, developed for 2D imaging of cell and tissue culture. The system is based on 16 microelectrodes (5 microm x 4 mm). An equivalent circuit for four-point (tetrapolar) impedance spectra was developed and validated. The system uses an Agilent 4294A impedance analyser combined with a front-end amplifier for the impedance measurements. Human epithelial stem cells (YF 29) were grown on the device surface. Cell migration speeds of 300 nm min(-1) following a "scratch" wound closure assay could be established...
September 2006: Lab on a Chip
R S Anderssen, E Carter, B G Osborne, I J Wesley
The application of calibration and prediction (CAP) to joint measurements of near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectra for the same reference data requires the development of joint inversion methodologies for the implementation of the calibration step. Joint inversion has been successfully utilized in geophysical prospecting and in medical diagnosis, where the need to perform CAP is not involved. However, the obvious ways in which joint inversion might be implemented in spectroscopy, where some form of CAP must be performed, do not appear to work...
July 2005: Applied Spectroscopy
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