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Richard L Pyle, Raymond Boland, Holly Bolick, Brian W Bowen, Christina J Bradley, Corinne Kane, Randall K Kosaki, Ross Langston, Ken Longenecker, Anthony Montgomery, Frank A Parrish, Brian N Popp, John Rooney, Celia M Smith, Daniel Wagner, Heather L Spalding
Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago...
2016: PeerJ
Donato Belmonte, Carlo Gatti, Giulio Armando Ottonello, Pascal Richet, Marino Vetuschi Zuccolini
Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na2SiO3 in the Cmc21 structural state are computed ab-initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies viz, heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ö D Gürcan, P Morel, S Kobayashi, Rameswar Singh, S Xu, P H Diamond
A detailed systematic derivation of a logarithmically discretized model for two-dimensional turbulence is given, starting from the basic fluid equations and proceeding with a particular form of discretization of the wave-number space. We show that it is possible to keep all or a subset of the interactions, either local or disparate scale, and recover various limiting forms of shell models used in plasma and geophysical turbulence studies. The method makes no use of the conservation laws even though it respects the underlying conservation properties of the fluid equations...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Sergey N Samsonov, Veronika I Manykina, Natalia G Kleimenova, Svetlana S Parshina, Alena A Strekalovskaya, Palmira G Petrova
INTRODUCTION: cardiovascular impairment remains one of the most current problems of today's life and the definition of the connection between its development and the state of heliogeophysical storminess is currently important. The results of long-term researches of communication between cardiovascular catastrophes (myocardial infarction) and heliogeophysical storminess in the middle and high latitudes are shown in this work. AIM: to study the influence of space weather parameters on human cardio-vascular system in the high and middle latitudes...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Anatoli Bogdan, Mario J Molina, Heikki Tenhu
Although freeze-induced phase separation and the ice/FCS (freeze-concentration solution) morphology of aqueous solutions play an important role in fields ranging from life sciences and biotechnology to geophysics and high-altitude ice clouds, their understanding is far from complete. Herein, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical cryo-microscope (OC-M), we have studied the freezing and glass transition behavior and the ice/FCS morphology of emulsified 10 - 60 wt % CA (citric acid) solutions in the temperature region of ∼308 and 153 K...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Chien-Chia Liu, Rory T Cerbus, Pinaki Chakraborty
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α, may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5/3, but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α=3. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5/3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow...
September 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Nicholas Per Huffeldt, Flemming R Merkel
In contrast to daily rhythms that are common in the presence of the geophysical light-dark cycle, organisms at polar latitudes exhibit many diel activity patterns during natural periods of continuous solar light or darkness (polar day and night, respectively), from 24 h rhythms to arrhythmicity. In Arctic Greenland (73.7° N, 56.6° W) during polar day, we observed breeding-site attendance rhythms of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia; n = 21 pairs), a charadriiform seabird, which provide biparental care at the colony...
September 2016: Biology Letters
Bin Chen, Xiangyun Hu, Jianhui Li, Yajun Liu
Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) is a relatively new geophysical method for non-invasive groundwater exploration and aquifer characterization. Conventional SNMR surveys based on one-dimensional (1-D) inversion of amplitude data recorded only using coincident loops provide limited or distorted groundwater distribution information, especially in regions with strong lateral heterogeneity and complicated hydrological environments. The simplistic approach limits the applicability and efficiency of SNMR, which was therefore made more effective in this study using a sophisticated signal response formulation...
September 19, 2016: Ground Water
Dylan J Irvine, Barret L Kurylyk, Ian Cartwright, Mariah Bonham, Vincent E A Post, Eddie W Banks, Craig T Simmons
Obtaining reliable estimates of vertical groundwater flows remains a challenge but is of critical importance to the management of groundwater resources. When large scale land clearing or groundwater extraction occurs, methods based on water table fluctuations or water chemistry are unreliable. As an alternative, a number of methods based on temperature-depth (T-z) profiles are available to provide vertical groundwater flow estimates from which recharge rates may be calculated. However, methods that invoke steady state assumptions have been shown to be inappropriate for sites that have experienced land surface warming...
September 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Geoffrey K Vallis
This article discusses the role of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) in understanding the natural environment, and in particular the dynamics of atmospheres and oceans on Earth and elsewhere. GFD, as usually understood, is a branch of the geosciences that deals with fluid dynamics and that, by tradition, seeks to extract the bare essence of a phenomenon, omitting detail where possible. The geosciences in general deal with complex interacting systems and in some ways resemble condensed matter physics or aspects of biology, where we seek explanations of phenomena at a higher level than simply directly calculating the interactions of all the constituent parts...
August 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
M Baskaran, T S Bianchi, T R Filley
(14)C is the most widely utilized geochronometer to investigate geological, geochemical and geophysical problems over the past 5 decades. Establishment of precise sedimentation rates is crucial for the reconstruction of paleo-climate, -ecological and - environmental studies when extrapolation of sedimentation rates is utilized for time scales beyond the dating range. However, agreement between short-term and long-term sedimentation rates in anthropogenically unperturbed sediment cores has not been shown. Here we show that the AMS (14)C-based long-term mass accumulation rate (MAR) of an organic-rich (>70%) sediment core from Mud Lake, Florida to be ∼5 times lower than the short-term MAR obtained using (239,240)Pu, (137)Cs and excess (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Alexia P Balanika, Christos S Baltas, Antonio Leone
During the siege of Missolonghi by the Ottomans the conditions of hygiene living, clothing and feeding of the vast majority of enslaved Greeks could be assessed as deprived and miserable. The humid climate and geophysical environment favored the outbreak of epidemics that further darkened an already unfavorable situation of the fighters and their families. Necessarily, the priority was to meet the military and economic needs and secondarily tackling public health issues, health care and medicine - social welfare...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Bingfeng Tan, Yunbin Yuan, Baocheng Zhang, Hou Ze Hsu, Jikun Ou
An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kamil Szostek, Adam Piórkowski
Ultrasound (US) imaging is one of the most popular techniques used in clinical diagnosis, mainly due to lack of adverse effects on patients and the simplicity of US equipment. However, the characteristics of the medium cause US imaging to imprecisely reconstruct examined tissues. The artifacts are the results of wave phenomena, i.e. diffraction or refraction, and should be recognized during examination to avoid misinterpretation of an US image. Currently, US training is based on teaching materials and simulators and ultrasound simulation has become an active research area in medical computer science...
October 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Stephen Webb
An analysis of Twitter use in 116 conferences suggests that the service is used more extensively at PACS10 conferences (those devoted to the physics of elementary particles and fields) and PACS90 conferences (those devoted to geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics) than at conferences in other fields of physics. Furthermore, Twitter is used in a qualitatively different manner. A possible reason for these differences is discussed.
2016: Scientometrics
T Jouen, R Clément, H Henine, C Chaumont, B Vincent, J Tournebize
In France, 10 % of total arable land is equipped with subsurface drainage systems, to control winter and spring waterlogging due to a temporary perched water table. Most of these systems were installed in the1980s and have aged since then and may now need maintenance. Sometimes, the location of the systems is known, but the standard situation in France is that the original as-built master sketches are no longer available. Performance assessment of drainage systems and curative actions are complicated since drain location is unknown...
August 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Carmine Serio, Guido Masiello, Giuliano Liuzzi
The random projections statistical technique has been used to reduce the dimensionality of the radiance data space generated from high spectral resolution infrared observations. The mathematical inversion of the physical radiative transfer equation for geophysical parameters has been solved in this space of reduced dimensionality. The great advantage of using random projections is that they provide an unified treatment of instrument noise and forward model error, which can be comprehensively modeled with a single variance term...
August 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Yehuda Bock, Diego Melgar
Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment...
October 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
John R Logan, Sukriti Issar, Zengwang Xu
Hurricanes pose a continuing hazard to populations in coastal regions. This study estimates the impact of hurricanes on population change in the years 1970-2005 in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. Geophysical models are used to construct a unique data set that simulates the spatial extent and intensity of wind damage and storm surge from the 32 hurricanes that struck the region in this period. Multivariate spatial time-series models are used to estimate the impacts of hurricanes on population change. Population growth is found to be reduced significantly for up to three successive years after counties experience wind damage, particularly at higher levels of damage...
October 2016: Demography
Vahab Amiri, Mohammad Nakhaei, Razyeh Lak, Majid Kholghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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