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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543228/scenario-evaluator-for-electrical-resistivity-survey-pre-modeling-tool
#1
Neil Terry, Frederick D Day-Lewis, Judith L Robinson, Lee D Slater, Keith Halford, Andrew Binley, John W Lane, Dale Werkema
Geophysical tools have much to offer users in environmental, water resource, and geotechnical fields; however, techniques such as electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) are often oversold and/or overinterpreted due to a lack of understanding of the limitations of the techniques, such as the appropriate depth intervals or resolution of the methods. The relationship between ERI data and resistivity is nonlinear; therefore, these limitations depend on site conditions and survey design and are best assessed through forward and inverse modeling exercises prior to field investigations...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535602/quantifying-postglacial-sediment-storage-and-denudation-rates-in-a-small-alpine-catchment-of-the-f%C3%A4-g%C3%A4-ra%C3%A8-mountains-romania
#2
Adrian C Ardelean, Alexandru Onaca, Petru Urdea, Adriana Sărășan
The study of sediment production, transport, storage and discharge in alpine drainage basins is an essential prerequisite for a better understanding of the postglacial evolution of the alpine landscape. To get an overview on sediment production and alpine landscape evolution in Romania, the current study presents the first alpine sediment storage quantification in the Romanian Carpathians. Postglacial denudation was quantified within the small alpine catchment of the Doamnei Valley (3.62km(2)), located in the central part of the Făgăraș Mountains...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531969/biogeographical-factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-stream-salamanders-on-the-cumberland-plateau-usa
#3
P R Gould, K K Cecala, S S Drukker, B A McKenzie, C Van de Ven
Geophysical and climate conditions play an important role in the distribution of organisms at both fine and broad scales. Headwater streams integrate changes at broad geographical scales and serve as important regions of nutrient processing and support high biodiversity. Stream salamanders are important members of headwater aquatic communities as both predators and prey. Combined with their biphasic life histories and physiological requirements, stream amphibians may serve as indicators for headwater stream conditions...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506427/italy-introduces-pre-and-post-operation-monitoring-phases-for-offshore-seismic-exploration-activities
#4
C Fossati, B Mussi, R Tizzi, G Pavan, D S Pace
Concern is growing that marine fauna can be affected by noise such as naval sonar, pile driving or geophysical surveys, among others. Literature reports a variety of animal reactions to human noise (from apparently null or negligible to strong). However, conclusive results on its effects on marine mammals at individual and population level are still lacking. In 2015, the Italian Environmental Impact Assessment Commission mandated seismic operators apply a standard scientific protocol comparing marine mammal presence before, during, and after offshore seismic survey...
May 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505811/chaotic-lagrangian-models-for-turbulent-relative-dispersion
#5
Guglielmo Lacorata, Angelo Vulpiani
A deterministic multiscale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as a prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by Lagrangian chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect," a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed through the use of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates. Lagrangian dispersion statistics of the model are accurately analyzed by computing the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), which is the optimal measure of the scaling properties of dispersion...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505455/interaction-of-multiple-particles-with-a-solidification-front-from-compacted-particle-layer-to-particle-trapping
#6
Brice Saint-Michel, Marc Georgelin, Sylvain Deville, Alain Pocheau
The interaction of solidification fronts with objects such as particles, droplets, cells, or bubbles is a phenomenon with many natural and technological occurrences. For an object facing the front, it may yield various fates, from trapping to rejection, with large implications regarding the solidification pattern. However, whereas most situations involve multiple particles interacting with each other and the front, attention has focused almost exclusively on the interaction of a single, isolated object with the front...
May 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498518/geophysical-investigation-of-fresh-saline-water-interface-a-case-study-from-south-punjab-pakistan
#7
Muhammad Hasan, Yanjun Shang, Gulraiz Akhter, Majid Khan
The importance of the study of fresh-saline water incursion cannot be over-emphasized. Borehole techniques have been widely used, but they are quite expensive, intrusive, and time consuming. The electrical resistivity method has proved very successful in groundwater assessment. This advanced technique uses the calculation of Dar-Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters, namely longitudinal unit conductance, transverse unit resistance, and longitudinal resistivity has been employed by using 50 vertical electrical sounding points to assess the groundwater and delineate the fresh-saline water interface over 1045 km(2) area of Khanewal in Southern Punjab of Pakistan...
May 12, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489056/meritxell-the-multifrequency-experimental-radiometer-with-interference-tracking-for-experiments-over-land-and-littoral-instrument-description-calibration-and-performance
#8
Jorge Querol, José Miguel Tarongí, Giuseppe Forte, José Javier Gómez, Adriano Camps
MERITXELL is a ground-based multisensor instrument that includes a multiband dual-polarization radiometer, a GNSS reflectometer, and several optical sensors. Its main goals are twofold: to test data fusion techniques, and to develop Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) detection, localization and mitigation techniques. The former is necessary to retrieve complementary data useful to develop geophysical models with improved accuracy, whereas the latter aims at solving one of the most important problems of microwave radiometry...
May 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465564/paleochannel-and-beach-bar-palimpsest-topography-as-initial-substrate-for-coralligenous-buildups-offshore-venice-italy
#9
Luigi Tosi, Massimo Zecchin, Fulvio Franchi, Andrea Bergamasco, Cristina Da Lio, Luca Baradello, Claudio Mazzoli, Paolo Montagna, Marco Taviani, Davide Tagliapietra, Eleonora Carol, Gianluca Franceschini, Otello Giovanardi, Sandra Donnici
We provide a model for the genesis of Holocene coralligenous buildups occurring in the northwestern Adriatic Sea offshore Venice at 17-24 m depth. High-resolution geophysical surveys and underwater SCUBA diving reconnaissance revealed meandering shaped morphologies underneath bio-concretionned rocky buildups. These morphologies are inferred to have been inherited from Pleistocene fluvial systems reactivated as tidal channels during the post- Last Glacial Maximum transgression, when the study area was a lagoon protected by a sandy barrier...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448809/recent-land-use-and-land-cover-changes-and-its-driving-factors-in-a-fire-prone-area-of-southwestern-turkey
#10
Olga Viedma, José M Moreno, Cumhur Güngöroglu, Ufuk Cosgun, Ali Kavgacı
During the last decades, contrasted trends in forest fires among countries around the Mediterranean basin have been observed. In the northern/western countries, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) changes led to more hazardous landscapes, with consequent increases in fires. This contrasted with fire trends in southern/eastern countries. The recent incidence of large fires in some of the latter prompted the question of whether they are now following the path of their neighbors decades earlier. In this study, we investigated recent LULC changes in southwestern Turkey, focusing on those that could affect fire, and the factors driving them...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442237/long-term-ert-monitoring-of-biogeochemical-changes-of-an-aged-hydrocarbon-contamination
#11
David Caterina, Adrian Flores Orozco, Frédéric Nguyen
Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434821/an-overview-of-geophysical-technologies-appropriate-for-characterization-and-monitoring-at-fractured-rock-sites
#12
Frederick D Day-Lewis, Lee D Slater, Judy Robinson, Carole D Johnson, Neil Terry, Dale Werkema
Geophysical methods are used increasingly for characterization and monitoring at remediation sites in fractured-rock aquifers. The complex heterogeneity of fractured rock poses enormous challenges to groundwater remediation professionals, and new methods are needed to cost-effectively infer fracture and fracture-zone locations, orientations and properties, and to develop conceptual site models for flow and transport. Despite the potential of geophysical methods to "see" between boreholes, two issues have impeded the adoption of geophysical methods by remediation professionals...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422184/sea-level-proxies-in-holocene-raised-beach-ridge-deposits-greenland-revealed-by-ground-penetrating-radar
#13
Lars Nielsen, Mette Bendixen, Aart Kroon, Mikkel Ulfeldt Hede, Lars B Clemmensen, Ronny Weβling, Bo Elberling
Identification of sea-level proxies is important for reconstruction of past sea-level variation. Methods for reconstructing Holocene relative sea-level curves are crucial for quantification of the impact of Greenland ice thickness variation on global sea level and vertical land movement. Arctic beach ridges constitute important potential archives of sea-level variation. However, their surface morphology may have undergone modification since deposition due to freezing/thawing processes and erosion, and their morphology may therefore not be trustworthy for sea-level reconstruction...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417925/a-cost-effective-geodetic-strainmeter-based-on-dual-coaxial-cable-bragg-gratings
#14
Jihua Fu, Xu Wang, Tao Wei, Meng Wei, Yang Shen
Observations of surface deformation are essential for understanding a wide range of geophysical problems, including earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and glaciers. Current geodetic technologies, such as global positioning system (GPS), interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), borehole and laser strainmeters, are costly and limited in their temporal or spatial resolutions. Here we present a new type of strainmeters based on the coaxial cable Bragg grating (CCBG) sensing technology that provides cost-effective strain measurements...
April 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413357/introduction-for-perspectives-in-geophysical-and-astrophysical-fluids
#15
EDITORIAL
Steven Tobias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413355/a-computational-continuum-model-of-poroelastic-beds
#16
U Lācis, G A Zampogna, S Bagheri
Despite the ubiquity of fluid flows interacting with porous and elastic materials, we lack a validated non-empirical macroscale method for characterizing the flow over and through a poroelastic medium. We propose a computational tool to describe such configurations by deriving and validating a continuum model for the poroelastic bed and its interface with the above free fluid. We show that, using stress continuity condition and slip velocity condition at the interface, the effective model captures the effects of small changes in the microstructure anisotropy correctly and predicts the overall behaviour in a physically consistent and controllable manner...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405963/multidimensional-investigation-of-bedrock-heterogeneity-unconformities-at-a-dnapl-impacted-site
#17
Colby M Steelman, Jessica R Meyer, Beth L Parker
Organic solvent (i.e., dense nonaqueous phase liquid, DNAPL) migration in the subsurface is known to be extremely sensitive to geologic heterogeneity. There is often a focus on heterogeneity that results from changing depositional conditions over short spatial scales. Similar or even more extreme spatial heterogeneity can result postdeposition due to erosional processes. This study applies a synergistic approach based on a combination of high-resolution lithologic logs of continuous cores, borehole geophysical logs, surface electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction tomography models to assess spatial heterogeneity in a shallow bedrock sequence subject to multiple unconformities and contaminated with a mixture of organic chemicals...
April 12, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386482/long-term-global-temperature-variations-under-total-solar-irradiance-cosmic-rays-and-volcanic-activity
#18
Lilia Biktash
The effects of total solar irradiance (TSI) and volcanic activity on long-term global temperature variations during solar cycles 19-23 were studied. It was shown that a large proportion of climate variations can be explained by the mechanism of action of TSI and cosmic rays (CRs) on the state of the lower atmosphere and other meteorological parameters. The role of volcanic signals in the 11-year variations of the Earth's climate can be expressed as several years of global temperature drop. Conversely, it was shown that the effects of solar, geophysical, and human activity on climate change interact...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372076/auditory-display-of-seismic-data-on-the-use-of-experts-categorizations-and-verbal-descriptions-as-heuristics-for-geoscience
#19
Arthur Paté, Lapo Boschi, Danièle Dubois, Jean-Loïc Le Carrou, Benjamin Holtzman
Auditory display can complement visual representations in order to better interpret scientific data. A previous article showed that the free categorization of "audified seismic signals" operated by listeners can be explained by various geophysical parameters. The present article confirms this result and shows that cognitive representations of listeners can be used as heuristics for the characterization of seismic signals. Free sorting tests are conducted with audified seismic signals, with the earthquake/seismometer relative location, playback audification speed, and earthquake magnitude as controlled variables...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366622/chronobiological-studies-on-body-search-oviposition-and-emergence-of-megaselia-scalaris-diptera-phoridae-in-controlled-conditions
#20
Esta Bostock, Edward W Green, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Stefano Vanin
Circadian clocks have evolved to synchronize physiology, metabolism and behaviour to the 24-h geophysical cycles of the Earth. Understanding the circadian clock mechanism could play an important role in forensic entomology because it temporally gates behaviour such as locomotor activities, feeding, mating, egg laying and adult emergence which could provide useful information for crime reconstruction. The scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris colonises both exposed and buried bodies, whether indoors or outdoors. Locomotor activity, oviposition and adult emergence of this species have been investigated using technologies employed in many previous Drosophila circadian studies...
March 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
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