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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348516/evidence-of-the-zanclean-megaflood-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-basin
#1
Aaron Micallef, Angelo Camerlenghi, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel Cunarro Otero, Marc-André Gutscher, Giovanni Barreca, Daniele Spatola, Lorenzo Facchin, Riccardo Geletti, Sebastian Krastel, Felix Gross, Morelia Urlaub
The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) - the most abrupt, global-scale environmental change since the end of the Cretaceous - is widely associated with partial desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea. A major open question is the way normal marine conditions were abruptly restored at the end of the MSC. Here we use geological and geophysical data to identify an extensive, buried and chaotic sedimentary body deposited in the western Ionian Basin after the massive Messinian salts and before the Plio-Quaternary open-marine sedimentary sequence...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347612/biological-cell-as-a-soft-magnetoelectric-material-elucidating-the-physical-mechanisms-underpinning-the-detection-of-magnetic-fields-by-animals
#2
S Krichen, L Liu, P Sharma
Sharks, birds, bats, turtles, and many other animals can detect magnetic fields. Aside from using this remarkable ability to exploit the terrestrial magnetic field map to sense direction, a subset is also able to implement a version of the so-called geophysical positioning system. How do these animals detect magnetic fields? The answer to this rather deceptively simple question has proven to be quite elusive. The currently prevalent theories, while providing interesting insights, fall short of explaining several aspects of magnetoreception...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346893/resuspension-threshold-of-a-granular-bed-by-localized-heating
#3
C Morize, E Herbert, A Sauret
The resuspension and dispersion of particles occur in industrial fluid dynamic processes as well as environmental and geophysical situations. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the ability to fluidize a granular bed with a vertical gradient of temperature. Using laboratory experiments with a localized heat source, we observe a large entrainment of particles into the fluid volume beyond a threshold temperature. The buoyancy-driven fluidized bed then leads to the transport of solid particles through the generation of particle-laden plumes...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337914/acoustic-transducers-as-passive-cooperative-targets-for-wireless-sensing-of-the-sub-surface-world-challenges-of-probing-with-ground-penetrating-radar
#4
Jean-Michel Friedt, Gilles Martin, Gwenhael Goavec-Mérou, David Rabus, Sébastien Alzuaga, Lilia Arapan, Marianne Sagnard, Émile Carry
Passive wireless transducers are used as sensors, probed by a RADAR system. A simple way to separate the returning signal from the clutter is to delay the response, so that the clutter decays before the echoes are received. This can be achieved by introducing a fixed delay in the sensor design. Acoustic wave transducers are ideally suited as cooperative targets for passive, wireless sensing. The incoming electromagnetic pulse is converted into an acoustic wave, propagated on the sensor substrate surface, and reflected as an electromagnetic echo...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336556/linking-spectral-induced-polarization-sip-and-subsurface-microbial-processes-results-from-sand-column-incubation-experiments
#5
Adrian Mellage, Christina M Smeaton, Alex Furman, Estella Atekwana, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, Philippe Van Cappellen
Geophysical techniques, such as Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP), offer potentially powerful approaches for in-situ monitoring of subsurface biogeochemistry. The successful implementation of these techniques as monitoring tools for reactive transport phenomena, however, requires the de-convolution of multiple contributions to measured signals. Here, we present SIP spectra and complementary biogeochemical data obtained in saturated columns packed with alternating layers of ferrihydrite-coated and pure quartz sand, and inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis supplemented with lactate and nitrate...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332280/hydrogeochemical-processes-and-influence-of-seawater-intrusion-in-coastal-aquifers-south-of-chennai-tamil-nadu-india
#6
G Kanagaraj, L Elango, S G D Sridhar, G Gowrisankar
Seawater intrusion promotes the salinity of groundwater, and it poses a great environmental impact on a global scale. The present study was carried out to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and influence of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifers using geophysical, geochemical, and stable isotope techniques. The true resistivity value ranges from 0.5 to 8008.5 Ω-m which has been measured using vertical electrical sounding (VES) based on the Schlumberger method. About 33 groundwater samples were collected during post-monsoon (POM) (January 2012) and pre-monsoon (PRM) (June 2012) seasons from open and bore wells and were analyzed for major ions and stable isotopes...
January 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326978/seismic-signature-of-active-intrusions-in-mountain-chains
#7
Francesca Di Luccio, Giovanni Chiodini, Stefano Caliro, Carlo Cardellini, Vincenzo Convertito, Nicola Alessandro Pino, Cristiano Tolomei, Guido Ventura
Intrusions are a ubiquitous component of mountain chains and testify to the emplacement of magma at depth. Understanding the emplacement and growth mechanisms of intrusions, such as diapiric or dike-like ascent, is critical to constrain the evolution and structure of the crust. Petrological and geological data allow us to reconstruct magma pathways and long-term magma differentiation and assembly processes. However, our ability to detect and reconstruct the short-term dynamics related to active intrusive episodes in mountain chains is embryonic, lacking recognized geophysical signals...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318820/-detection-and-analysis-of-effect-of-geographical-environmental-factors-on-spatial-distribution-of-artemisinic-acid-in-artemisia-annua
#8
Ting-Ting Shi, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Lan-Ping Guo, Hui Wang, Zhi-Xian Jing, Lu-Qi Huang
Dao-di herbs are preferred by long-term clinical application of Chinese medicine, they are produced in a specific area and affected by the specific production and processing methods. Dao-di herbs have a high reputation, compared with other regions produced by the same kind of herbs with good quality, good efficacy and stable quality characteristics. Geo-herbal is a unique concept that has been formed by the history of Chinese civilization for thousands of years and the history of Chinese medicine. According to the definition of geo-herbal, it can be seen that there are some differences in the quality and efficacy of the same kind of medicinal herbs in different regions, and there is some similarity in the specific area...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318819/-analysis-of-spatial-distribution-of-artemisinin-in-artemisia-annua-in-china
#9
Xiao-Bo Zhang, Lan-Ping Guo, Zhi-Dong Qiu, Xiao-Bo Qu, Hui Wang, Zhi-Xian Jing, Lu-Qi Huang
Geo-herbals are preferred by long-term clinical application of Chinese medicine, they are produced in a specific area and affected by the specific production and processing methods. Geo-herbals have a high reputation, compared with other regions produced by the same kind of herbs with good quality, efficacy and stable quality characteristics. Geo-herbal is a unique concept that has been formed by the history of Chinese civilization for thousands of years and the history of Chinese medicine. According to the definition of geo-herbal, it can be seen that there are some differences in the quality and efficacy of the same kind of medicinal herbs in different regions, and there is some similarity in the specific area...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311212/thermo-solutal-and-kinetic-modes-of-stable-dendritic-growth-with-different-symmetries-of-crystalline-anisotropy-in-the-presence-of-convection
#10
REVIEW
Dmitri V Alexandrov, Peter K Galenko, Lyubov V Toropova
Motivated by important applications in materials science and geophysics, we consider the steady-state growth of anisotropic needle-like dendrites in undercooled binary mixtures with a forced convective flow. We analyse the stable mode of dendritic evolution in the case of small anisotropies of growth kinetics and surface energy for arbitrary Péclet numbers and n-fold symmetry of dendritic crystals. On the basis of solvability and stability theories, we formulate a selection criterion giving a stable combination between dendrite tip diameter and tip velocity...
February 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307102/sustainability-evaluation-of-mornos-lake-reservoir-greece
#11
Grigoris Rousakis, Ioannis P Panagiotopoulos, Paraskevi Drakopoulou, Panos Georgiou, Dimitrios Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos Mporompokas, Vasilios Kapsimalis, Isidoros Livanos, Ioannis A Morfis, Christos Anagnostou, Maria Koutra
The modern climate trend and population growth have dramatically increased the need for maximization of the net benefit from the existing storage space in freshwater reservoirs. However, sedimentation in reservoirs through physical deposition and/or slope failures is a major threat to their productivity and life expectancy. In this context, the sedimentation impact on the sustainability of Mornos Lake/Reservoir, which is exceptionally vital for the ~ 3.1 million inhabitants of Athens, had to be evaluated...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288938/uranium-time-series-analysis-a-new-methodological-approach-for-event-screening-categorisation
#12
Stefano Bianchi, Wolfango Plastino
Uranium (U) groundwater anomalies, detected before the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6th, 2009), represent a key geochemical signal of a progressive increase of deep fluids fluxes at middle-lower crustal levels associated with the geodynamics of the earthquake. Although the analyses performed in association with the seismic pattern around Gran Sasso National Laboratory and the geophysical and geochemical patterns of the Gran Sasso aquifer supported this hypothesis, a new approach for time series analysis has been developed for event screening categorisation and to highlight U as possible strain meter in geodynamical processes, particularly those which characterise active normal faulting...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239353/initiation-and-long-term-instability-of-the-east-antarctic-ice-sheet
#13
Sean P S Gulick, Amelia E Shevenell, Aleksandr Montelli, Rodrigo Fernandez, Catherine Smith, Sophie Warny, Steven M Bohaty, Charlotte Sjunneskog, Amy Leventer, Bruce Frederick, Donald D Blankenship
Antarctica's continental-scale ice sheets have evolved over the past 50 million years. However, the dearth of ice-proximal geological records limits our understanding of past East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) behaviour and thus our ability to evaluate its response to ongoing environmental change. The EAIS is marine-terminating and grounded below sea level within the Aurora subglacial basin, indicating that this catchment, which drains ice to the Sabrina Coast, may be sensitive to climate perturbations. Here we show, using marine geological and geophysical data from the continental shelf seaward of the Aurora subglacial basin, that marine-terminating glaciers existed at the Sabrina Coast by the early to middle Eocene epoch...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238548/energy-and-speleogenesis-key-determinants-of-terrestrial-species-richness-in-caves
#14
Alberto Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto Sendra, Policarp Garay, Ana Sofia P S Reboleira
The aim of this study was to unravel the relative role played by speleogenesis (i.e., the process in which a cave is formed), landscape-scale variables, and geophysical factors in the determination of species richness in caves. Biological inventories from 21 caves located in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula along with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis were used to assess the relative importance of the different explanatory variables. The caves were grouped according to the similarity in their species composition; the effect that spatial distance could have on similarity was also studied using correlation between matrices...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234150/the-shallow-structure-of-solfatara-volcano-italy-revealed-by-dense-wide-aperture-seismic-profiling
#15
Pier Paolo G Bruno, Stefano Maraio, Gaetano Festa
Two active-source, high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired in the Solfatara tuff cone in May and November 2014, with dense, wide-aperture arrays. Common Receiver Surface processing was crucial in improving signal-to-noise ratio and reflector continuity. These surveys provide, for the first time, high-resolution seismic images of the Solfatara crater, depicting a ~400 m deep asymmetrical crater filled by volcanoclastic sediments and rocks and carved within an overall non-reflective pre-eruptive basement showing features consistent with the emplacement of shallow intrusive bodies...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229816/correction-for-possner-and-caldeira-geophysical-potential-for-wind-energy-over-the-open-oceans
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229796/on-periodic-geophysical-water-flows-with-discontinuous-vorticity-in-the-equatorial-f-plane-approximation
#17
Calin Iulian Martin
We are concerned here with geophysical water waves arising as the free surface of water flows governed by the f-plane approximation. Allowing for an arbitrary bounded discontinuous vorticity, we prove the existence of steady periodic two-dimensional waves of small amplitude. We illustrate the local bifurcation result by means of an analysis of the dispersion relation for a two-layered fluid consisting of a layer of constant non-zero vorticity γ1 adjacent to the surface situated above another layer of constant non-zero vorticity γ2≠γ1 adjacent to the bed...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229790/on-the-short-wavelength-stabilities-of-some-geophysical-flows
#18
REVIEW
Delia Ionescu-Kruse
This paper is a survey of the short-wavelength stability method for rotating flows. Additional complications such as stratification in the flow or the presence of non-conservative body forces are considered too. This method is applied to the specific study of some exact geophysical flows. For Gerstner-like geophysical flows one can identify perturbations in certain directions as a source of instabilities with an exponentially growing amplitude, the growth rate of the instabilities depending on the steepness of the travelling wave profile...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229788/on-three-dimensional-gerstner-like-equatorial-water-waves
#19
REVIEW
D Henry
This paper reviews some recent mathematical research activity in the field of nonlinear geophysical water waves. In particular, we survey a number of exact Gerstner-like solutions which have been derived to model various geophysical oceanic waves, and wave-current interactions, in the equatorial region. These solutions are nonlinear, three-dimensional and explicit in terms of Lagrangian variables.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207510/a-combined-approach-of-sensor-data-fusion-and-multivariate-geostatistics-for-delineation-of-homogeneous-zones-in-an-agricultural-field
#20
Annamaria Castrignanò, Gabriele Buttafuoco, Ruggiero Quarto, Carolina Vitti, Giuliano Langella, Fabio Terribile, Accursio Venezia
To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management...
December 3, 2017: Sensors
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