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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190902/constraining-the-kinematics-of-metropolitan-los-angeles-faults-with-a-slip-partitioning-model
#1
S Daout, S Barbot, G Peltzer, M-P Doin, Z Liu, R Jolivet
Due to the limited resolution at depth of geodetic and other geophysical data, the geometry and the loading rate of the ramp-décollement faults below the metropolitan Los Angeles are poorly understood. Here we complement these data by assuming conservation of motion across the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault. Using a Bayesian approach, we constrain the geometry of the ramp-décollement system from the Mojave block to Los Angeles and propose a partitioning of the convergence with 25.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr and 3...
November 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180925/innovative-approaches-to-collaborative-groundwater-governance-in-the-united-states-case-studies-from-three-high-growth-regions-in-the-sun-belt
#2
Sharon B Megdal, Andrea K Gerlak, Ling-Yee Huang, Nathaniel Delano, Robert G Varady, Jacob D Petersen-Perlman
Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133779/factors-affecting-the-united-nations-response-to-natural-disasters-what-determines-the-allocation-of-the-central-emergency-response-fund
#3
Tyler D Robinson, Thiago M Oliveira, Stephanie Kayden
Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries...
January 30, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129150/the-spurs-algorithm-for-resampling-an-irregularly-sampled-signal-onto-a-cartesian-grid
#4
Amir Kiperwas, Daniel Rosenfeld, Yonina C Eldar
We present an algorithm for resampling a function from its values on a non-Cartesian grid onto a Cartesian grid. This problem arises in many applications such as MRI, CT, radio astronomy and geophysics. Our algorithm, termed SParse Uniform ReSampling (SPURS), employs methods from modern sampling theory to achieve a small approximation error while maintaining low computational cost. The given non-Cartesian samples are projected onto a selected intermediate subspace, spanned by integer translations of a compactly supported kernel function...
November 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124022/electrical-resistivity-tomography-data-across-the-hockai-fault-zone-ardenne-belgium
#5
Thomas Lecocq, Thierry Camelbeeck
In this work, we present the result of a large-scale geophysical survey that had the objective of identifying the subsurface characteristics and the NE-SW extension of the Hockai Fault Zone: a major NNW-SSE oriented crustal-rooted fault zone crossing the Stavelot-Venn Massif (Eastern Belgium). 31 two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles are presented, resulting in 10,679 m of 2D sections. All profiles were acquired between 2008 and 2010 using a single channel ABEM Terrameter SAS1000 instrument connected to a 64 electrodes setup of maximum 315 m extent which was often extended using the roll-along technique...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111659/prediction-of-a-novel-10-fold-gold-coordinated-structure-in-auin2-above-10-gpa
#6
P Modak, Ashok K Verma
A 10-fold gold coordinated tetragonal structure is predicted for AuIn2 above 10 GPa by employing the first-principles crystal structure search method. This structure remains the lowest enthalpy structure up to the highest pressure of this study. Detailed electronic structure analysis is carried out to figure out the underlying factors responsible for the transition. Pressure induced electronic topological transition is found to be one of the main factors behind this transition. Phonon calculations show the softening of TA mode phonons and destruction of the giant Kohn anomaly in close proximity to the transition...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106825/snr-and-standard-deviation-of-cgnss-r-and-ignss-r-scatterometric-measurements
#7
Alberto Alonso-Arroyo, Jorge Querol, Carlos Lopez-Martinez, Valery U Zavorotny, Hyuk Park, Daniel Pascual, Raul Onrubia, Adriano Camps
This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R) and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103552/extending-the-utility-of-the-parabolic-approximation-in-medical-ultrasound-using-wide-angle-diffraction-modeling
#8
Joshua E Soneson
Wide-angle parabolic models are commonly used in geophysics and underwater acoustics but have seen little application in medical ultrasound. Here a wide-angle model for continuous-wave high-intensity ultrasound beams is derived which approximates the diffraction process more accurately than the commonly-used Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation without increasing implementation complexity or computing time. A method for preventing the high spatial frequencies often present in source boundary conditions from corrupting the solution is presented...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096384/holocene-enso-related-cyclic-storms-recorded-by-magnetic-minerals-in-speleothems-of-central-china
#9
Zongmin Zhu, Joshua M Feinberg, Shucheng Xie, Mark D Bourne, Chunju Huang, Chaoyong Hu, Hai Cheng
Extreme hydrologic events such as storms and floods have the potential to severely impact modern human society. However, the frequency of storms and their underlying mechanisms are limited by a paucity of suitable proxies, especially in inland areas. Here we present a record of speleothem magnetic minerals to reconstruct paleoprecipitation, including storms, in the eastern Asian monsoon area over the last 8.6 ky. The geophysical parameter IRMsoft-flux represents the flux of soil-derived magnetic minerals preserved in stalagmite HS4, which we correlate with rainfall amount and intensity...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091883/ground-penetrating-radar-gpr-responses-for-sub-surface-salt-contamination-and-solid-waste-modeling-and-controlled-lysimeter-studies
#10
Y N S Wijewardana, A T Shilpadi, M I M Mowjood, K Kawamoto, L W Galagedara
The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2)...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089534/in-situ-measurements-of-light-absorbing-impurities-in-snow-of-glacier-on-mt-yulong-and-implications-for-radiative-forcing-estimates
#11
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Shi, Rukumesh Paudyal, Yuanqing He, Gang Li, Shijin Wang, Tao Pu, Xiaoyi Shi
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) or the third polar cryosphere borders geographical hotspots for discharges of black carbon (BC). BC and dust play important roles in climate system and Earth's energy budget, particularly after they are deposited on snow and glacial surfaces. BC and dust are two kinds of main light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow and glaciers. Estimating concentrations and distribution of LAIs in snow and glacier ice in the TP is of great interest because this region is a global hotspot in geophysical research...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076657/geophysics-is-not-a-silver-bullet-but-worth-a-shot
#12
EDITORIAL
Kamini Singha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071601/applications-of-nuclear-physics
#13
A C Hayes
Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion...
February 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059760/volcanic-tremor-and-plume-height-hysteresis-from-pavlof-volcano-alaska
#14
David Fee, Matthew M Haney, Robin S Matoza, Alexa R Eaton, Peter Cervelli, David J Schneider, Alexandra M Iezzi
The March 2016 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, produced an ash plume that caused the cancellation of more than 100 flights in North America. The eruption generated strong tremor that was recorded by seismic and remote low-frequency acoustic (infrasound) stations, including the EarthScope Transportable Array. The relationship between the tremor amplitudes and plume height changes considerably between the waxing and waning portions of the eruption. Similar hysteresis has been observed between seismic river noise and discharge during storms, suggesting that flow and erosional processes in both rivers and volcanoes can produce irreversible structural changes that are detectable in geophysical data...
January 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018798/exact-solutions-for-unsteady-free-convection-flow-over-an-oscillating-plate-due-to-non-coaxial-rotation
#15
Ahmad Qushairi Mohamad, Ilyas Khan, Zulkhibri Ismail, Sharidan Shafie
BACKGROUND: Non-coaxial rotation has wide applications in engineering devices, e.g. in food processing such as mixer machines and stirrers with a two-axis kneader, in cooling turbine blades, jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, in designing thermal syphon tubes, and in geophysical flows. Therefore, this study aims to investigate unsteady free convection flow of viscous fluid due to non-coaxial rotation and fluid at infinity over an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018749/focused-training-for-humanitarian-responders-in-regional-anesthesia-techniques-for-a-planned-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-disaster-setting
#16
Adam R Aluisio, Carrei Teicher, Tess Wiskel, Allysia Guy, Adam Levine
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity trauma during earthquakes accounts for the largest burden of geophysical disaster-related injuries. Insufficient pain management is common in disaster settings, and regional anesthesia (RA) has the potential to reduce pain in injured patients beyond current standards. To date, no prospective research has evaluated the use of RA in a disaster setting. This cross-sectional study assesses knowledge translation and skill acquisition outcomes for lower extremity RA performed with and without ultrasound guidance among a cohort of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) volunteers who will function as proceduralists in a planned randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of RA for pain management in an earthquake setting...
November 16, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999307/autonomous-aeromagnetic-surveys-using-a-fluxgate-magnetometer
#17
Douglas G Macharet, Héctor I A Perez-Imaz, Paulo A F Rezeck, Guilherme A Potje, Luiz C C Benyosef, André Wiermann, Gustavo M Freitas, Luis G U Garcia, Mario F M Campos
Recent advances in the research of autonomous vehicles have showed a vast range of applications, such as exploration, surveillance and environmental monitoring. Considering the mining industry, it is possible to use such vehicles in the prospection of minerals of commercial interest beneath the ground. However, tasks such as geophysical surveys are highly dependent on specific sensors, which mostly are not designed to be used in these new range of autonomous vehicles. In this work, we propose a novel magnetic survey pipeline that aims to increase versatility, speed and robustness by using autonomous rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)...
December 17, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996242/coupled-hydro-biogeochemical-processes-controlling-cr-reductive-immobilization-in-columbia-river-hyporheic-zone
#18
Yuanyuan Liu, Fen Xu, Chongxuan Liu
An experiment and modeling study was conducted to investigate coupled hydro-biogeochemical processes controlling reductive immobilization of groundwater Cr in the hyporheic zone (HZ) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, where dynamic surface water-groundwater exchange occurs on a daily basis. Experiments were performed to calibrate kinetic models, and the calibrated models were incorporated into a multicomponent reactive transport model to simulate Cr redox transformation and immobilization under field hydrological conditions...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981466/multiple-geophysical-surveys-for-old-landfill-monitoring-in-singapore
#19
Ke Yin, Huanhuan Tong, Apostolos Giannis, Jing-Yuan Wang, Victor W-C Chang
One-dimensional boring presents limitations on mapping the refuse profile in old landfills owning to waste heterogeneity. Electrical imaging (EI) and multiple-analysis of surface wave (MASW) were hereby deployed at an old dumping ground in Singapore to explore the subsurface in relation to geotechnical analysis. MASW estimated the refuse boundary with a higher precision as compared to EI, due to its endurance for moisture variation. EI and MASW transection profiles suggested spots of interest, e.g., refuse pockets and leachate mounds...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969550/characterizing-flow-pathways-in-a-sandstone-aquifer-tectonic-vs-sedimentary-heterogeneities
#20
G Medici, L J West, N P Mountney
Sandstone aquifers are commonly assumed to represent porous media characterized by a permeable matrix. However, such aquifers may be heavy fractured when rock properties and timing of deformation favour brittle failure and crack opening. In many aquifer types, fractures associated with faults, bedding planes and stratabound joints represent preferential pathways for fluids and contaminants. In this paper, well test and outcrop-scale studies reveal how strongly lithified siliciclastic rocks may be entirely dominated by fracture flow at shallow depths (≤180m), similar to limestone and crystalline aquifers...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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