keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Genetic code

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231847/natural-knockouts-natural-selection-knocked-out
#1
Peter Borger
In functional genomics studies, research is dedicated to unveiling the function of genes using gene-knockouts, model organisms in which a gene is artificially inactivated. The idea is that, by knocking out the gene, the provoked phenotype would inform us about the function of the gene. Still, the function of many genes cannot be elucidated, because disruption of conserved sequences, including protein-coding genes, often does not directly affect the phenotype. Since the phenomenon was first observed in the early nineties of the last century, these so-called 'no-phenotype knockouts' have met with great skepticism and resistance by died-in-the-wool selectionists...
December 12, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231139/catechol-o-methyltransferase-cognition-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Lucija Tudor, Marcela Konjevod, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Nela Pivac
OBJECTIVE: Cognition is a complex trait representing a set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge. Although diverse brain regions are involved, most cognitive processes appear to engage cortical regions. The activity of dopaminergic neurons in prefrontal cortex represents a biological substrate underlying cognitive functions. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent dementia associated with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairment in AD starts slow with discrete deterioration in memory, language, thinking and reasoning, but it progresses into more severe and debilitating cognitive dysfunction...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231014/-correlation-between-genetic-variants-and-polymorphism-of-caveolin-and-sudden-unexplained-death
#3
F Y Wu, X H Tang, L L Gai, X P Kong, B Hao, E W Huang, H Shi, L H Sheng, L Quan, S P Liu, B Luo
OBJECTIVES: To explore the genetic variation sites of caveolin (CAV) and their correlation with sudden unexplained death (SUD). METHODS: The blood samples were collected from SUD group (71 cases), coronary artery disease (CAD) group (62 cases) and control group (60 cases), respectively. The genome DNA were extracted and sequencing was performed directly by amplifying gene coding region and exon-intron splicing region of CAV1 and CAV3 using PCR...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230394/acetylome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-sk17-reveals-a-highly-conserved-modification-of-histone-like-protein-hu
#4
Jiahn-Haur Liao, Cheng-Han Tsai, Sanjay G Patel, Jhih-Tian Yang, I-Fan Tu, Matteo Lo Cicero, Magdalena Lipka-Lloyd, Wan-Ling Wu, Wen-Jie Shen, Meng-Ru Ho, Chi-Chi Chou, Garima R Sharma, Hiroki Okanishi, Louis Y P Luk, Yu-Hsuan Tsai, Shih-Hsiung Wu
Lysine acetylation is a prevalent post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Whereas this modification is known to play pivotal roles in eukaryotes, the function and extent of this modification in prokaryotic cells remain largely unexplored. Here we report the acetylome of a pair of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii SK17-S and SK17-R. A total of 145 lysine acetylation sites on 125 proteins was identified, and there are 23 acetylated proteins found in both strains, including histone-like protein HU which was found to be acetylated at Lys13...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230373/epigenetic-considerations-in-aquaculture
#5
Mackenzie R Gavery, Steven B Roberts
Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230205/bacterial-genetic-architecture-of-ecological-interactions-in-co-culture-by-gwas-taking-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-as-an-example
#6
Xiaoqing He, Yi Jin, Meixia Ye, Nan Chen, Jing Zhu, Jingqi Wang, Libo Jiang, Rongling Wu
How a species responds to such a biotic environment in the community, ultimately leading to its evolution, has been a topic of intense interest to ecological evolutionary biologists. Until recently, limited knowledge was available regarding the genotypic changes that underlie phenotypic changes. Our study implemented GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) to illustrate the genetic architecture of ecological interactions that take place in microbial populations. By choosing 45 such interspecific pairs of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains that were all genotyped throughout the entire genome, we employed Q-ROADTRIPS to analyze the association between single SNPs and microbial abundance measured at each time point for bacterial populations reared in monoculture and co-culture, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229843/machine-learning-shows-association-between-genetic-variability-in-pparg-and-cerebral-connectivity-in-preterm-infants
#7
Michelle L Krishnan, Zi Wang, Paul Aljabar, Gareth Ball, Ghazala Mirza, Alka Saxena, Serena J Counsell, Joseph V Hajnal, Giovanni Montana, A David Edwards
Preterm infants show abnormal structural and functional brain development, and have a high risk of long-term neurocognitive problems. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but novel methods now make it possible to address them by examining the relationship between common genetic variability and brain endophenotype. We addressed the hypothesis that variability in the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) pathway would be related to brain development. We employed machine learning in an unsupervised, unbiased, combined analysis of whole-brain diffusion tractography together with genomewide, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes from a cohort of 272 preterm infants, using Sparse Reduced Rank Regression (sRRR) and correcting for ethnicity and age at birth and imaging...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228441/correlation-between-individual-inflammation-genetic-profile-and-platelet-rich-plasma-efficacy-in-hair-follicle-regeneration-a-pilot-study-reveals-prognostic-value-of-il-1a-polymorphism
#8
F Rossano, S Di Martino, L Iodice, M Di Paolo, S Misso, R Tomeo, A M Marini, R Brugnone, S Marlino, A Santorelli, R Di Francia
OBJECTIVE: Hair loss generates severe psychosocial implications. To date, exploring the prognostic factors of possible clinical benefit of autologous blood concentrate platelet rich plasma (PRP) was failed. The aim of our pilot study was to explore the correlation between the individual inflammation genetic profile and PRP efficacy in the treatment of hair follicle regeneration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 41 volunteers (25 men, 16 women) took part in this retrospective study...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228309/prp8-intein-in-dermatophytes-evolution-and-species-identification
#9
Hans Garcia Garces, Raquel Theodoro Cordeiro, E Bagagli
Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi belonging to the family Arthrodermataceae. Despite having a monophyletic origin, its systematics has always been complex and controversial. Sequencing of nuclear ribosomal ITS and D1/D2 rDNA has been proposed as an efficient tool for identifying species in this group of fungi, while multilocus analyses have been used for phylogenetic species recognition. However, the search for new markers, with sequence and size variation, which enable species identification in only one polymerase chain reaction (PCR) step, is very attractive...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228267/the-effects-of-sex-biased-gene-expression-and-x-linkage-on-rates-of-sequence-evolution-in-drosophila
#10
José Luis Campos, Keira Johnston, Brian Charlesworth
A faster rate of adaptive evolution of X-linked genes compared with autosomal genes (the faster-X effect) can be caused by the fixation of recessive or partially recessive advantageous mutations. This effect should be largest for advantageous mutations that affect only male fitness, and least for mutations that affect only female fitness. We tested these predictions in Drosophila melanogaster by using coding and functionally significant non-coding sequences of genes with different levels of sex-biased expression...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228046/genome-wide-microarray-analysis-leads-to-identification-of-genes-in-response-to-herbicide-metribuzin-in-wheat-leaves
#11
Whitney Pilcher, Hana Zandkamiri, Kelly Arceneaux, Stephen Harrison, Niranjan Baisakh
Herbicides are an important component of weed management in wheat, particularly in the southeastern US where weeds actively compete with wheat throughout the winter for nutrients and reduce tillering and ultimately the yield of the crop. Some wheat varieties are sensitive to metribuzin, a low-cost non-selective herbicide, leading to leaf chlorosis, stand loss, and decreased yield. Knowledge of the genetics of herbicide tolerance in wheat is very limited and most new varieties have not been screened for metribuzin tolerance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227965/human-longevity-25-genetic-loci-associated-in-389-166-uk-biobank-participants
#12
Luke C Pilling, Chia-Ling Kuo, Kamil Sicinski, Jone Tamosauskaite, George A Kuchel, Lorna W Harries, Pamela Herd, Robert Wallace, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer
We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of parental longevity in European descent UK Biobank participants. For combined mothers' and fathers' attained age, 10 loci were associated (p<5*10-8), including 8 previously identified for traits including survival, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular disease. Of these, 4 were also associated with longest 10% survival (mothers age ≥90 years, fathers ≥87 years), with 2 additional associations including MC2R intronic variants (coding for the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor)...
December 6, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227120/-molecular-mechanisms-of-primary-and-secondary-resistance-molecular-genetic-features-and-characteristics-of-kit-pdgfra-non-mutated-gists
#13
Alena Kalfusová, Roman Kodet
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of them arise due to activating mutations in KIT (75 - 85 %) or PDGFRA (less than 10 %) genes. Identification of the activating mutations in KIT and PDGFRA genes, which code for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has improved the outcome of targeted therapy of metastatic, unresectable or recurrent GISTs. Primary and/or secondary resistance represents a significant problem in the targeted therapy by Imatinib mesylate (IM) in patients with GIST...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226639/early-diagnosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-salivary-micrornas
#14
REVIEW
Raluca Dumache
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common type of oral cancer, and represents more than 90% of malignancies of the oral cavity. Worldwide, each year about 275,000 are newly diagnosed. If detected at an early stage, OSCC has a survival rate of up to 80% compared to the detection in later stages (T3-T4) when a survival rate of 20 - 30% is present. METHODS: Because OSCC presents these survival rates, there is an urgent need to introduce new non-invasive molecular biomarkers for the early detection of OSCC from saliva, which will contribute to an increased long term survival rate for these patients...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226517/natural-selection-beyond-genes-identification-and-analyses-of-evolutionarily-conserved-elements-in-the-genome-of-the-collared-flycatcher-ficedula-albicollis
#15
Rory J Craig, Alexander Suh, Mi Wang, Hans Ellegren
It is becoming increasingly clear that a significant proportion of the functional sequence within eukaryotic genomes is noncoding. However, since the identification of conserved elements (CEs) has been restricted to a limited number of model organisms, the dynamics and evolutionary character of the genomic landscape of conserved, and hence likely functional, sequence is poorly understood in most species. Moreover, identification and analysis of the full suite of functional sequence is particularly important for the understanding of the genetic basis of trait loci identified in genome scans or quantitative trait locus mapping efforts...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224215/deleterious-variants-in-dchs1-are-prevalent-in-sporadic-cases-of-mitral-valve-prolapse
#16
Alisson Clemenceau, Jean-Christophe Bérubé, Paméla Bélanger, Nathalie Gaudreault, Maxime Lamontagne, Oumhani Toubal, Marie-Annick Clavel, Romain Capoulade, Patrick Mathieu, Philippe Pibarot, Yohan Bosse
BACKGROUND: A recent study identified DCHS1 as a causal gene for mitral valve prolapse. The goal of this study is to investigate the presence and frequency of known and novel variants in this gene in 100 asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe organic mitral regurgitation. METHODS: DNA sequencing assays were developed for two previously identified functional missense variants, namely p.R2330C and p.R2513H, and all 21 exons of DCHS1. Pathogenicity of variants was evaluated in silico...
December 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224068/hi-plex-for-simple-accurate-and-cost-effective-amplicon-based-targeted-dna-sequencing
#17
Bernard J Pope, Fleur Hammet, Tu Nguyen-Dumont, Daniel J Park
Hi-Plex is a suite of methods to enable simple, accurate, and cost-effective highly multiplex PCR-based targeted sequencing (Nguyen-Dumont et al., Biotechniques 58:33-36, 2015). At its core is the principle of using gene-specific primers (GSPs) to "seed" (or target) the reaction and universal primers to "drive" the majority of the reaction. In this manner, effects on amplification efficiencies across the target amplicons can, to a large extent, be restricted to early seeding cycles. Product sizes are defined within a relatively narrow range to enable high-specificity size selection, replication uniformity across target sites (including in the context of fragmented input DNA such as that derived from fixed tumor specimens (Nguyen-Dumont et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223623/gene-indexed-mutations-in-maize-zea-mays
#18
Xiaoduo Lu, Jisheng Liu, Wen Ren, Qun Yang, Zhenguang Chai, Rumei Chen, Lei Wang, Jun Zhao, Zhihong Lang, Haiyang Wang, Yunliu Fan, Jiuran Zhao, Chunyi Zhang
The availability of the B73 inbred reference genome sets the stage for high- throughput functional characterisation of maize genes on a whole-genome scale. Among the 39,324 protein-coding genes predicted, the vast majority has been untapped due to the lack of suitable high throughput reverse genetic resources. We have generated a gene-indexed maize mutant collection through ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and detected the mutations by combining exome capture and next-generation sequencing. A total of 1,086 mutated M1 plants were sequenced and 195,268 CG>TA-type point mutations, including stop gain/loss, missplice, start gain/loss, and various non-synonymous protein mutations as well as 4,610 InDel mutations, were identified...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223402/genetic-regulation-mechanism-of-the-yjdf-riboswitch
#19
Sha Gong, Yanli Wang, Zhen Wang, Yujie Wang, Wenbing Zhang
The yjdF riboswitch resides in potential 5' UTRs of homologues of protein-coding gene yjdF in Firmicutes. Unlike other 30 riboswitch classes previously validated, this riboswitch class, can sense and bind to a broad collection of azaaromatic ligands. Among these compounds, some do activate production of yjdF protein driven by the riboswitch, while others are out of riboswitch-mediated modulation possibly because of the toxicity at high ligand concentrations. By incorporating the structures with pseudoknots and ligand binding kinetics into the co-transcriptional folding theory, we theoretically studied the co-transcriptional folding behaviors of the yjdF riboswitch from Bacillus subtilis at different transcription conditions...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222952/accumulation-of-the-coumarin-scopolin-under-abiotic-stress-conditions-is-mediated-by-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-tho-trex-complex
#20
Stefanie Döll, Markus Kuhlmann, Twan Rutten, Michael Florian Mette, Sarah Scharfenberg, Antonios Petridis, Dorothee-Carina Berreth, Hans-Peter Mock
Secondary metabolites are involved in plant stress response. Among these are scopolin and its active form scopoletin, which are coumarin-derivatives associated with reactive oxygen species scavenging and pathogen defence. Here we show that scopolin accumulation can be induced in the root by osmotic stress and in the leaf by low temperature stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. A genetic screen for altered scopolin levels in A. thaliana revealed a mutant compromised in scopolin accumulation in response to stress; the lesion was present in a homologue of THO1 coding for a subunit of the THO/TREX complex...
December 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
keyword
keyword
52716
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"