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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793131/tlr2-4-ligand-amplified-liver-inflammation-promotes-initiation-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-due-to-sustained-il-6-il-12-il-4-il-25-expression
#1
Gang Chi, Xin-Xia Feng, Ying-Xia Ru, Ting Xiong, Yuan Gao, Han Wang, Zhen-Long Luo, Ran Mo, Fang Guo, Yong-Pei He, Gui-Mei Zhang, De-An Tian, Zuo-Hua Feng
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a serious autoimmune liver disease, can be a lifelong illness, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So far the mechanisms for disease initiation are largely unknown. Here we report that the amplified non-AIH liver inflammation could promote the initiation of AIH due to the sustained increase of IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-25 in the liver. The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl4 ) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793096/segmentation-of-histological-images-and-fibrosis-identification-with-a-convolutional-neural-network
#2
Xiaohang Fu, Tong Liu, Zhaohan Xiong, Bruce H Smaill, Martin K Stiles, Jichao Zhao
Segmentation of histological images is one of the most crucial tasks for many biomedical analyses involving quantification of certain tissue types, such as fibrosis via Masson's trichrome staining. However, challenges are posed by the high variability and complexity of structural features in such images, in addition to imaging artifacts. Further, the conventional approach of manual thresholding is labor-intensive, and highly sensitive to inter- and intra-image intensity variations. An accurate and robust automated segmentation method is of high interest...
May 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793037/fetal-supraventricular-tachycardia-and-cystic-fibrosis-coincidence-or-association-two-case-reports
#3
P Coste Mazeau, Y Aubard, V Aubard, S Martin, L Bejjani, C Yardin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792891/pcl-eug-scaffolds-with-tunable-stiffness-can-regulate-macrophage-secretion-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Y Z B Xue, Yiming Niu, B Tang, C M Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disorder worldwide. Recent studies suggested that macrophages play an important role in the progression of OA. However, the detailed pathology related to macrophages is still ambiguous, especially those related to mechanotransduction. In this study, PCL/EUG composite scaffolds were first fabricated by electrospinning. The stiffness of as-fabricated scaffolds was controlled by adjusting the PCL-versus-EUG ratio. The mechanical properties, structural characterics and chemical composition of the scaffolds were investigated using various materials characterization techniques...
May 21, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792888/oral-vitamin-a-coupled-valsartan-nanomedicine-high-hepatic-stellate-cell-receptors-accessibility-and-prolonged-enterohepatic-residence
#5
Nesrine S El-Mezayen, Wessam F El-Hadidy, Wessam M El-Refaie, Thanaa I Shalaby, Mahmoud M Khattab, Aiman S El-Khatib
So far, liver fibrosis still has no clinically-approved treatment. The loss of stored vitamin-A (VA ) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main regulators to hepatic fibrosis, can be applied as a mechanism for their targeting. Valsartan is a good candidate for this approach; it is a marketed oral-therapy with inverse- and partial-agonistic activity to the over-expressed angiotensin-II type1 receptor (AT1R) and depleted nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), respectively, in activated HSCs...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792884/pharmacological-inhibition-of-dna-methylation-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats
#6
Justus Stenzig, Yvonne Schneeberger, Alexandra Löser, Barbara S Peters, Andreas Schaefer, Rong-Rong Zhao, Shi Ling Ng, Grit Höppner, Birgit Geertz, Marc N Hirt, Wilson Tan, Eleanor Wong, Hermann Reichenspurner, Roger S-Y Foo, Thomas Eschenhagen
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is associated with altered gene expression and DNA methylation. De novo DNA methylation is associated with gene silencing, but its role in cardiac pathology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) might prevent the deregulation of gene expression and the deterioration of cardiac function under pressure overload (PO). To test this hypothesis, we evaluated a DNMT inhibitor in PO in rats and analysed DNA methylation in cardiomyocytes...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792748/portal-vein-thrombosis-imaging-the-spectrum-of-disease-with-an-emphasis-on-mri-features
#7
Reena C Jha, Satinderpal Singh Khera, Amit Dinesh Kalaria
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the classic and uncommon imaging findings of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (acute, chronic, congenital, and septic thrombus) as visualized on multiple modalities, with an emphasis on MRI findings. Additional aims are to understand the imaging of obliterative portal venopathy and its clinical significance, appreciate morphologic changes of the biliary system that may accompany PVT, and recognize changes in liver enhancement patterns seen with PVT related to the hepatic arterial buffer response...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792584/neonatal-intake-of-oleanolic-acid-attenuates-the-subsequent-development-of-high-fructose-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#8
T T Nyakudya, E Mukwevho, P Nkomozepi, K H Erlwanger
Dietary manipulations during the early postnatal period are associated with the development of metabolic disorders including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or long-term protection against metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of neonatal administration of oleanolic acid (OA), a phytochemical, on the subsequent development in adulthood, of dietary fructose-induced NAFLD. Male and female suckling rats (n=112) were gavaged with; distilled water (DW), OA (60 mg/kg), high fructose solution (HF; 20% w/v) and OA+HF (OAHF) for 7 days...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792348/cell-division-cycle-7-kinase-is-a-negative-regulator-of-cell-mediated-collagen-degradation
#9
Michael Jeffrey Podolsky, Deepti Gupta, Arnold Ha, Ryan Ta, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, William McKleroy, Ritwik Datta, Dean Sheppard, Kamran Atabai
Although extensive work has delineated many of the mechanisms of extracellular matrix (ECM) production, far less is known about pathways that regulate ECM degradation. This is particularly true of cellular internalization and degradation of matrix, which play an underappreciated role in ECM metabolism and lung fibrosis. For example, genetic perturbation of this pathway leads to exacerbated fibrosis in experimental animal models. In this work, we present the results of an unbiased screen of Drosophila phagocytes that yielded multiple genes that when silenced led to increased collagen uptake...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792338/molecular-mechanism-for-the-influence-of-gender-dimorphism-on-alcoholic-liver-injury-in-mice
#10
S-Q Li, P Wang, D-M Wang, H-J Lu, R-F Li, L-X Duan, S Zhu, S-L Wang, Y-Y Zhang, Y-L Wang
It is known that women develop alcoholic liver injury more rapidly and have a lower alcohol toxic threshold than men. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The precise mechanism responsible for the sex difference needs to be determined. Female and male mice were given ethanol by intragastric infusion every day for 4 weeks. The pathological changes were detected by hematoxylin-eosin, Sirius red, oil red O, periodic acid-Schiff, and Hochest33258 staining in the liver of female and male mice...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792287/safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-glpg1690-a-novel-autotaxin-inhibitor-to-treat-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-flora-a-phase-2a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Toby M Maher, Ellen M van der Aar, Olivier Van de Steen, Lisa Allamassey, Julie Desrivot, Sonia Dupont, Liesbeth Fagard, Paul Ford, Ann Fieuw, Wim Wuyts
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) causes irreversible loss of lung function. People with IPF have increased concentrations of autotaxin in lung tissue and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled condensate. GLPG1690 (Galapagos, Mechelen, Belgium) is a novel, potent, selective autotaxin inhibitor with good oral exposure. We explored the effects of GLPG1690 in patients with IPF. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2a study done in 17 centres in Italy, Ukraine and the UK...
May 18, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791978/combination-of-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-and-transanal-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-the-resection-of-early-rectal-cancer-with-fibrosis-after-prior-partial-excision
#12
Sung Hoo Kim, Dong Hoon Yang, Seok-Byung Lim
Endoscopic submucosal dissection is an effective procedure for treating non-invasive colorectal tumors. However, in cases of severe fibrosis, endoscopic submucosal dissection may be technically difficult, leading to incomplete resection. Here, we describe the case of a 74-year-old man who had early rectal cancer along with severe submucosal fibrosis caused by prior local excision. Combination treatment with endoscopic submucosal dissection and transanal minimally invasive surgery successfully enabled complete resection...
May 23, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791960/ultrasound-of-the-brachial-plexus
#13
James F Griffith
Examination of the brachial plexus with ultrasound is efficient because it allows many parts of the brachial plexus as well as the surrounding soft tissues to be assessed with high spatial resolution. The key to performing good ultrasound of the brachial plexus is being familiar with the anatomy and the common variants. That makes it possible to concentrate solely on the ultrasound appearances free of simultaneously wondering about the anatomy. Ultrasound of the brachial plexus is particularly good for assessing nerve sheath tumor, perineural fibrosis, metastases, some inflammatory neuropathies, neuralgic amyotrophy, and posttraumatic sequalae...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791487/patients-experiences-of-coping-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-their-recommendations-for-its-clinical-management
#14
Sameera Senanayake, Kim Harrison, Michael Lewis, Melitta McNarry, Joanne Hudson
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and life-limiting condition. From a healthcare perspective it is vital to establish effective methods of improving the quality of remaining life in these patients. This requires a detailed understanding of the multiple impacts of an IPF diagnosis on the individual. METHODS: We sought to understand how patients coped with their initial diagnosis, how they live with the disease day-to-day, and their experiences and opinions of the professional support they receive...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791059/the-use-of-high-resolution-colonic-manometry-to-establish-etiology-and-direct-treatment-in-patients-with-constipation-case-series-with-correlation-to-histology
#15
Yuwei Li, Jiying Cong, Fei Fei, Zhao Zhang, Yongjun Yu, Chen Xu, Xipeng Zhang, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Different clinical treatments are available to treat patients with constipation. We aimed to study the etiology and direct treatment in a case series of patients with constipation by the use of high-resolution colonic manometry (HRCM). METHODS: HRCM was used to record the colorectal peristaltic contractions of the entire colon in patients. Based on the results of HRCM, 151 patients with constipation were classified into groups and received different clinical treatment such as a total or subtotal colectomy, local excision, or conservative treatment...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790674/potential-pathogenicity-of-inquilinus-limosus-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-cystic-fibrosis
#16
T Spencer Poore, Isabel Virella-Lowell, Jennifer S Guimbellot
PRESENTATION: Patient is a 6-year-old male with CF, MRSA colonization, and pancreatic insufficiency that presented with worsening ppFEV1 and systemic symptoms despite multiple interventions. BAL grew NTM, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Inquilinus limosus, a rare organism found in patients with CF. COURSE: I. limosus treatment was deferred. Despite treatment of other pathogens, symptoms worsened. I. limosus was targeted with meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin along with clindamycin for MRSA colonization...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790537/physical-defects-in-basement-membrane-mimicking-collagen-iv-matrices-trigger-cellular-emt-and-invasion
#17
Christopher Walter, Joshua T Davis, Jairaj Mathur, Amit Pathak
In fibrosis and cancer, degradation of basement membrane (BM) and cell invasion are considered as key outcomes of a cellular transformation called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we pose a converse question - can preexisting physical defects in the BM matrix cause EMT in normal epithelial cells? On a BM-mimicking matrix of collagen-IV-coated polyacrylamide (PA) gel, we have discovered a reverse phenomenon in which preexisting defects trigger EMT in normal epithelial cells. Through spatiotemporal measurements and simulations in silico, we demonstrate that the EMT precedes cellular mechanoactivation on defective matrices, but they occur concurrently on stiff matrices...
May 23, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790305/lyme-disease-associated-igg4-autoantibodies-correlate-with-synovial-pathology-in-antibiotic-refractory-lyme-arthritis
#18
Katherine B Sulka, Klemen Strle, Jameson T Crowley, Robert B Lochhead, Robert Anthony, Allen C Steere
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether IgG subclasses of B. burgdorferi antibodies differ from those of 3 Lyme disease (LD)-associated autoantibodies. METHODS: The IgG antibody subclasses were determined by ELISA in serum samples from 215 patients representative of each of the 3 stages of Lyme disease. Antibody and cytokine profiles were measured in matched serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples from Lyme arthritis patients. Synovial tissue from patients with antibiotic-refractory arthritis was examined for histologic features, IgG subclasses of plasma cells, and mRNA subclass expression...
May 23, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790114/ivabradine-improved-left-ventricular-function-and-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-in-a-transverse-aortic-constriction-mouse-model
#19
Yihui Yu, Zuoying Hu, Bing Li, Zhimei Wang, Shaoliang Chen
This study aimed to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of ivabradine in preventing cardiac hypertrophy in an established transverse aortic constriction (TAC) mouse model. A total of 56 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into the following seven groups (8 mice per group): sham, TAC model, Iva-10 (10 mg/kg/day ivabradine), Iva-20 (20 mg/kg/day ivabradine), Iva-40 (40 mg/kg/day ivabradine), Iva-80 (80 mg/kg/day ivabradine), and Rap (rapamycin, a positive control). Echocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamics were performed...
May 22, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790083/point-quantification-elastography-in-the-evaluation-of-liver-elasticity-in-healthy-volunteers-a-reliability-study-based-on-operator-expertise
#20
Cristina Felicani, Chiara De Molo, Horia Stefanescu, Fabio Conti, Elena Mazzotta, Veronica Gabusi, Elena Nardi, Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate, Pietro Andreone, Carla Serra
PURPOSE: The assessment of liver fibrosis is essential in the management of patients with chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard procedure for this purpose, though the recent development of new elastosonographic techniques to measure liver stiffness (LS) noninvasively is promising. Point quantification elastography (PQE) showed good results but less is known about the level of skill needed to obtain reliable results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reproducibility of PQE in assessing LS in healthy subjects comparing three operators with different expertise...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
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