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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343230/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-switzerland-diagnosis-and-treatment
#1
Manuela Funke-Chambour, Andrea Azzola, Dan Adler, Constance Barazzone-Argiroffo, Christian Benden, Annette Boehler, Pierre-Olivier Bridevaux, Martin Brutsche, Christian F Clarenbach, Katrin Hostettler, Rebekka Kleiner-Finger, Laurent P Nicod, Paola M Soccal, Michael Tamm, Thomas Geiser, Romain Lazor
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe progressive and irreversible lung disease. Novel antifibrotic drugs that slow disease progression are now available. However, many issues regarding patient management remain unanswered, such as the choice between available drugs, their use in particular subgroups and clinical situations, time of treatment onset, termination, combination or switch, or nonpharmacologic management. To guide Swiss respiratory physicians in this evolving field still characterized by numerous areas of uncertainty, the Swiss Working Group for interstitial and rare lung diseases of the Swiss Respiratory Society provides a position paper on the diagnosis and treatment of IPF...
March 25, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343213/gross-hematuria-is-more-common-in-male-and-older-patients-with-renal-tuberculosis-in-china-a-single-center-15-year-clinical-experience
#2
Yudong Cao, Yu Fan, Yuke Chen, Zheng Zhao, Yi Song, Cheng Shen, Xin Li, Haichao Huang, Wei Yu, Jie Jin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of renal tuberculosis and identify the age- and gender-related differences. METHODS: A total of 419 patients at the Peking University First Hospital from January 2000 to July 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, complications, laboratory results, radiologic imaging, surgical procedures, and pathology features were collected and compared between genders and 3 different age groups (under 40 years, 41-60, years and over 60 years)...
March 25, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343205/-biliary-atresia-signs-and-symptoms-diagnosis-clinical-management
#3
Ewa Orłowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Piotr Socha
Biliary atresia is a chronic cholangiopathy leading to progressive fibrosis of both intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. The cause of the condition is unknown. Fundamental management of biliary atresia is surgical intervention and the outcomes of the treatment depend on the child's age with best results when performed within the first 2 months of life. Thus, the main role of pediatric healthcare is an urgent differential diagnosis and prompt qualification for the surgery, optimal postoperative management and early qualification for the liver transplantation in patients with persistent cholestasis...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342980/muscarinic-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-hepatocytes-from-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrotic-rat
#4
Lin Luo, Chenghao Xi, Tingting Xu, Gaoshan Zhang, E Qun, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerves are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate for patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes, but little is known about the role of mAChR in hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis and the signaling pathway of this receptor in regulation of hepatocytes remains elusive. Here, 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis in rats and the hepatocytes were isolated to investigate the expression of mAchR and the cell signaling pathways which were involved in...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342757/role-of-enzymatic-free-radical-scavengers-in-management-of-oxidative-stress-and-autoimmune-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Shikha Srivastava, Deependra Singh, Satish Patel, Manju R Singh
Autoimmune disorders are distinct with over production and accumulation of free radicals due to its undisclosed genesis. The cause of numerous disorders as cancer, arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes, alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's, respiratory distress syndrome, colitis, crohn's, pulmonary fibrosis, obesity and ageing have been associated with immune dysfunction and oxidative stress. In an oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species generally provoke the series of oxidation at cellular level. The buildup of free radicals in turn triggers various inflammatory cells causing release of various inflammatory interleukins, cytokines, chemokines, and tumor necrosis factors which mediate signal transduction and transcription pathways as nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342743/measurement-of-ion-fluxes-across-epithelia
#6
REVIEW
Miroslaw Zajac, Krzysztof Dolowy
Epithelial tissues line all wet surfaces of vertebrate bodies. Their major function is directional transport of ions and water. Cells forming an epithelial layer are bound together by a tight junction that forms a barrier to ion flux. Ions and water are transported via specialized molecules. The presence of a defect in a single ion channel molecule leads to cystic fibrosis - the most common, fatal, human genetic disease. The paper describes ion transport data obtained by means of different experimental techniques...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340470/calcifying-giant-cell-cardiomyopathy-a-possible-new-entity-images-in-cardiovascular-pathology
#7
Ke-Yong Wang, Sohsuke Yamada, Shohei Shimajiri, Ryuji Nakano, Naoki Yamashita, Tetsuya So, Akihide Tanimoto
We demonstrated an extremely unusual case of an 83-year-old male's sudden death secondary to characteristic myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with calcification and multinucleated giant cells infiltration, possibly due to sepsis and Stage IV pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma-induced cachexia after postmortem study. We propose that this calcifying giant cell cardiomyopathy (CGC) would be a new entity especially from the pathological viewpoints and should be considered in the classification of noninfectious myocarditis...
March 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340353/molecular-structure-of-the-human-cftr-ion-channel
#8
Fangyu Liu, Zhe Zhang, László Csanády, David C Gadsby, Jue Chen
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that uniquely functions as an ion channel. Here, we present a 3.9 Å structure of dephosphorylated human CFTR without nucleotides, determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Close resemblance of this human CFTR structure to zebrafish CFTR under identical conditions reinforces its relevance for understanding CFTR function. The human CFTR structure reveals a previously unresolved helix belonging to the R domain docked inside the intracellular vestibule, precluding channel opening...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340310/viruses-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-airways
#9
Lisa Billard, Rozenn Le Berre, Léa Pilorgé, Christopher Payan, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud, Sophie Vallet
Although bacteria have historically been considered to play a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway damage, a strong impact of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is also now recognized. Emerging evidence confirms that respiratory viruses are associated with deterioration of pulmonary function and exacerbation and facilitation of bacterial colonization in CF patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on respiratory viruses in CF airways, to discuss the resulting inflammation and RVI response, to determine how to detect the viruses, and to assess their clinical consequences, prevalence, and interactions with bacteria...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340212/accelerated-senescence-in-skin-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-multi-organ-injury
#10
Elizabeth A McCart, Rajesh L Thangapazham, Eric D Lombardini, Steven R Mog, Ronald Allan M Panganiban, Kelley M Dickson, Rihab A Mansur, Vitaly Nagy, Sung-Yop Kim, Reed Selwyn, Michael R Landauer, Thomas N Darling, Regina M Day
Accidental high-dose radiation exposures can lead to multi-organ injuries, including radiation dermatitis. The types of cellular damage leading to radiation dermatitis are not completely understood. To identify the cellular mechanisms that underlie radiation-induced skin injury in vivo, we evaluated the time-course of cellular effects of radiation (14, 16 or 17 Gy X-rays; 0.5 Gy/min) in the skin of C57BL/6 mice. Irradiation of 14 Gy induced mild inflammation, observed histologically, but no visible hair loss or erythema...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340198/reasons-to-wait-or-to-treat-naive-patients-affected-by-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-low-fibrosis-stage-and-genotypes-2-or-3
#11
Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
New interferon (IFN)-free therapies are not currently available for all patients with chronic hepatitis C due to higher costs; in Italy, patients with genotype 2 (GT2) or GT3 without severe fibrosis can choose between wait or treatment with pegylated (PEG)-IFN and ribavirin. This study wants to examine the real rate of patients that accept or refused this therapy and the reasons related to decision. This prospective, observational analysis was performed at our centre between January 2014 and June 2015. Epidemiological, social and clinical data were collected in medical records; reasons for treatment acceptance/refusal were recorded through a questionnaire...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340131/interobserver-variability-in-histologic-evaluation-of-liver-fibrosis-using-categorical-and-quantitative-scores
#12
Michael Pavlides, Jacqueline Birks, Eve Fryer, David Delaney, Nikita Sarania, Rajarshi Banerjee, Stefan Neubauer, Eleanor Barnes, Kenneth A Fleming, Lai Mun Wang
Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the interobserver agreement for categorical and quantitative scores of liver fibrosis. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive biopsy specimens from patients with mixed liver disease etiologies were assessed by three pathologists using the Ishak and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) scoring systems, and the fibrosis area (collagen proportionate area [CPA]) was estimated by visual inspection (visual-CPA)...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339984/the-link-between-phenotype-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Dan-Qian Chen, Hua Chen, Lin Chen, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ming Wang, Xiang-Ri Li, Ying-Yong Zhao
Background.: The kidney plays a central role in elimination of metabolic waste products and regulation of low-molecular weight metabolites via glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and reabsorption. Disruption of these processes results in profound changes in the biochemical milieu of the body fluids, which contribute to complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by inducing cytotoxicity and inflammation. Insight into the changes of the composition of metabolites and dysregulation of target genes and proteins enhances the understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD and its complications, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339958/postconditioning-protects-renal-fibrosis-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-induced-mitochondrial-injury
#14
Shuxian Zhang, Xiaohua Tan, Yan Chen, Xiuying Zhang
Background.: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in renal fibrosis. We hypothesize that mitochondrial DNA damage and DNA deletions caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) might lead to EMT in renal fibrosis. Methods.: Rats were classified into seven groups: sham-operation, IRI, postconditioning (POC), I/R + apocynin, POC +  apocynin, I/R + Mito-Tempol (Mito-T) and POC +  Mito-T...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339908/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-pathological-adaption-of-cardiac-hypertrophy1-2
#15
C Y Chen, H Y Lin, Y W Chen, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#16
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339804/intra-cardiac-and-peripheral-levels-of-biochemical-markers-of-fibrosis-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Gordon A Begg, Rashed Karim, Tobias Oesterlein, Lee N Graham, Andrew J Hogarth, Stephen P Page, Christopher B Pepper, Kawal Rhode, Gregory Y H Lip, Arun V Holden, Sven Plein, Muzahir H Tayebjee
Aims: Measurement of circulating biomarkers of fibrosis may have a role in selecting patients and treatment strategy for catheter ablation. Pro-collagen type III N-terminal pro-peptide (PIIINP), C-telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and galectin 3 (gal-3) have all been suggested as possible biomarkers for this indication, but studies assessing whether peripheral levels reflect intra-cardiac levels are scarce. Methods and results: We studied 93 patients undergoing ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) (n = 63) or non-paroxysmal AF (n = 30)...
February 27, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339802/alterations-in-urinary-collagen-peptides-in-lupus-nephritis-subjects-correlate-with-renal-dysfunction-and-renal-histopathology
#18
Ru Wei, Benbo Gao, Fei Shih, Ann Ranger, Andrea Dearth, Harald Mischak, Justyna Siwy, Nicolas Wisniacki, Michelle Petri, Linda C Burkly
Background.: The excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the renal tubulointerstitium is a key component of chronic renal damage in lupus nephritis (LN) and a critical determinant of the disease progression to renal failure. Detection of fibrosis requires renal biopsy and is therefore limited by high risks associated with an invasive procedure. This study explores whether a unique LN urinary peptidome can be identified and whether LN-specific alteration reflects the underlying fibrogenic process of altered ECM turnover...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339739/unabated-occupational-risk-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
V K Holden, S J Kligerman, T G Hastings, S E Hines
Background: This case highlights the importance of considering hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and of obtaining an occupational history so that remediable risk factors may be identified and managed. Aims: To report a case of a chicken sexer with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed progressively worsening dyspnoea and restrictive lung disease associated with pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Clinical investigation included physical examination, occupational history, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), chest imaging and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), as well as serological tests including standard IgE bird feather mixture and local IgG precipitin preparation to chicken excrement...
February 23, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#20
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
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