Read by QxMD icon Read

Hyperosmolar no ketosis

Gregg D Stoner
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Although there are multiple precipitating causes, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, nonadherence to therapy, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, substance abuse, and coexisting disease. In children and adolescents, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is often present when type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. Physical findings include profound dehydration and neurologic symptoms ranging from lethargy to coma...
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
Julie Omolola Okiro, Catherine Mc Hugh, Abuelmagd Abdalla
We report two patients with chronic hyperglycaemia secondary to type 2 diabetes who developed severe vomiting on d. The first patient was diagnosed with a mixed picture of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) and the second, with DKA. They were on insulin therapy which was discontinued on commencing d because of inefficacy and weight gain. The HHS patient developed dehydration secondary to vomiting and had lactic acidosis but no other precipitant could be found in either case...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
D Benaiges, J J Chillarón, M J Carrera, F Cots, J Puig de Dou, E Corominas, J Pedro-Botet, J A Flores-Le Roux, C Claret, A Goday, J F Cano
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to compare the costs of day hospital (DH) care for hyperglycemic crisis in elderly diabetic patients with those of conventional hospitalization (CH). Secondary objectives were to compare these two clinical scenarios in terms of glycemic control, number of emergency and outpatient visits, readmissions, hypoglycemic episodes, and nosocomial morbidity. METHODS: The study population comprised diabetic patients aged >74 years consecutively admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Spain for hyperglycemic crisis (sustained hyperglycemia [>300 mg/dL] for at least 3 days with or without ketosis)...
2014: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Dick Mul, Caroline R Meijer
Recently the Paediatric Association of the Netherlands (NVK) published a new guideline on the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in children and adolescents. DKA comprises hyperglycaemia, ketosis and acidosis. Cerebral oedema is a feared, life-threatening complication of DKA. HHS is characterized by hyperglycaemia, hyperosmolarity, severe dehydration, and little or no ketone production. Multi-organ failure, rhabdomyolysis and thrombosis are the most common complications...
2013: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Wilhelm Krone
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are the two most serious metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). These disorders can occur in both type 1 and type 2 DM. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketone body formation and metabolic acidosis. Precipitating causes are usually infection or insulin omission. Over the past 20 years, there has been no reduction in the DKA mortality rates, which remain between 3.4% and 4.6%. HHS is manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose, hyperosmolality and little or no ketosis...
March 22, 2006: Medizinische Klinik
Ekrem Dogan, Reha Erkoc, Hayriye Sayarlioglu, Akif Buyukbese
Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma (NHC) is characterized by severe hyperglycemia; absence of, or only slight ketosis; nonketotic acidosis; severe dehydration; depressed sensorium or frank coma; and various neurologic signs. This condition is uncommon in type 1 diabetes. Because of little or no osmotic diuresis in patients with diabetic nephropathy, increases in plasma osmolality and therefore the likelihood of neurologic symptoms are limited. A 20-year-old male patient with type 1 diabetes with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 18 mL/dk) presented with acute nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome...
September 2005: Advances in Therapy
Gregg D Stoner
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose, hyperosmolarity, and little or no ketosis. With the dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the aging population, this condition may be encountered more frequently by family physicians in the future. Although the precipitating causes are numerous, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, non-compliance, undiagnosed diabetes, substance abuse, and coexisting disease...
May 1, 2005: American Family Physician
M J R Kershaw, T Newton, T G Barrett, K Berry, J Kirk
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common mode of presentation of diabetes mellitus in children, accounting for 26% of new cases. Rarely, children with diabetes may develop other forms of metabolic decompensation associated with hyperglycaemia and hyperosmolality. Hyperglycaemia and hyperosmolality without ketoacidosis has high mortality in adults, although there is no data on mortality in children. CASE REPORTS: We describe three children who presented to Birmingham Children's Hospital and were initially suspected to have DKA...
May 2005: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
M F Magee, B A Bhatt
DKA and HHS represent two extremes in the spectrum of decompensated diabetes mellitus. Their pathogenesis is related to absolute or relative deficiency in insulin levels and elevations in insulin counterregulatory hormones that lead to altered metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat and varying degrees of osmotic diuresis and dehydration, ketosis, and acidosis. In DKA, insulin deficiency and ketoacidosis are the prominent features of the clinical presentation, and insulin therapy is the cornerstone of therapy...
January 2001: Critical Care Clinics
H M Khuu, C A Robinson, R M Brissie, R J Konrad
Although approximately 15.7 million Americans have diabetes mellitus, with the vast majority having type 2 diabetes, it is estimated that as many as 5.4 million are undiagnosed. The present case illustrates that undiagnosed diabetes can be a factor in otherwise unexplained deaths. A 39-year-old white male with no significant past medical history other than alcohol abuse was found deceased at his residence. The manner of death appeared to be natural, but no anatomic cause was found. Toxicological analysis revealed a blood ethanol level of 0...
May 1999: Journal of Forensic Sciences
C D Malchoff, S L Pohl, D L Kaiser, R M Carey
Diabetic hyperosmolar coma is a syndrome of marked hyperglycemia and minimal ketoacidosis. In general, the serum glucose concentrations are not predictive of the serum ketoacid concentrations in acutely decompensated diabetes. The endocrine factors that modulate glucose concentrations may be different from those that modulate ketoacid concentrations in patients with acutely decompensated diabetes. To test this hypothesis, regression analysis was used to determine the endocrine and metabolic characteristics that correlated with serum concentrations of glucose and ketoacids in 26 diabetic patients with spontaneous, acute hyperglycemia...
August 1984: American Journal of Medicine
D E Butts
DKA and HHNK are emergency conditions requiring quick medical care and nursing intervention. DKA can develop at any age and is most likely to occur in the insulin-dependent patient. The hallmark signs of DKA are a relative or absolute lack of insulin along with acidosis, ketosis, and hyperglycemia. Insulin and fluid and electrolyte therapy are initiated to control the hyperglycemia and prevent shock and further complications. The patient in HHNK presents with a very high serum glucose level (higher than in DKA), a high serum osmolarity, and usually no ketosis or acidosis...
December 1987: Nursing Clinics of North America
J Y Jeremy, D P Mikhailidis, C S Thompson, P Dandona
The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on prostacyclin (PGI2) production by the urinary bladder in rats was investigated. Acute ketotic (two days duration) and non-ketonuric (seven days duration) diabetes had no effect on PGI2 production by the aorta or the bladder. "Chronic" untreated non-ketonuric (62 days duration) diabetes had a marked inhibitory effect on aortic PGI2 secretion which was not observed when rats were treated with insulin. Urinary bladders from animals with "chronic" untreated non-ketonuric diabetes were larger and heavier, and their walls were hypertrophic...
June 1986: Journal of Urology
O Kinoshita, I Masuda, M Suzuki, M Tsushima, Y Nishioeda, T Matsuyama, H Kojima, Y Harano
We have seen a case of "diabetic non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma" with ketosis. An 84-year-old man was brought into the hospital in a deeply comatous and dehydrated state. The initial blood glucose level was 1252 mg/dl with plasma osmolarity of 435 mOsm/l, but no ketonuria was detected by the nitroprusside method (Ketostix). However, the plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHBA) level was 5 mM in a newly developed bedside film test. The serum ketone bodies were later found to be 5.56 and 0.82 mmol/l for 3-OHBA and acetoacetate (AcAc), respectively...
October 1991: Endocrinologia Japonica
A Harano, H Hidaka, H Kojima, Y Harano, Y Shigeta
In order to clarify if vasopressin (VP) plays a role in the pathophysiology of hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma (HNDC), VP has been infused to diabetic rats and plasma levels of glucose (PG), ketone bodies, FFA and glucagon were determined. High-dose VP infusion (1.2 U/kg/h) caused gradual elevation of PG (60%) and glucagon levels (600%), while ketone bodies showed transient decrease (20%) at 30 min. Under the suppression of endogenous glucagon secretion by constant infusion of somatostatin (100 micrograms/kg/h), high dose VP showed 25% increase in PG levels and 30% reduction of ketone body levels for the subsequent VP infusion for 1...
January 1992: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
M Chupin, B Charbonnel, B Dubin, J P Remi, J Guillon
Fifteen patients with non-ketotic hyperosmolar diabetic coma were investigated and compared with ketoacidotic patients. Basal plasma insulin levels were low in all patients (14.8 +/- 1.0 micronU/ml in hyperosmolar coma, 11.0 +/- 1.3 in keto-acidosis), but insulin level increased after intravenous tolbutamide (between 30 and 105 micronU/ml) in eight hyperosmolar comas. Insulin showed no increase in seven hyperosmolar comas and in none of the ketoacidotic patients. In hyperosmolar coma plasma free fatty acids (1710 +/- 197 micronEq/1), triglycerides (3,4 +/- 0,4 g/1) and cortisol levels (49,7 +/- 9,0 microgram/100 ml) were increased, must as in keto-acidosis...
December 1978: Diabète & Métabolisme
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"