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toll like receptors and pancreatic cancer

Hridayesh Prakash, Vinod Nadella, Sandhya Singh, Hubertus Schmitz-Winnenthal
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth major cause of cancer related deaths in the world and 5 year survival is below 5%. Among various tumor directed therapies, stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) has shown promising effects in various tumor models. However, pancreatic cancer cells frequently express these receptors themselves and their stimulation (TLR 2 and/or 4 particularly) within tumor microenvironment is known to potentially enhance tumor cell proliferation and cancer progression. Consistent stimulation of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), in particular with tumor derived TLR ligand within the tumor microenvironment promotes cancer related inflammation, which is sterile, non-immunogenic and carcinogenic in nature...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yunliang Sun, Congshan Wu, Jianxia Ma, Yu Yang, Xiaohua Man, Hongyu Wu, Shude Li
Deregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is closely associated with the progression of various types of cancers, but its role in pancreatic carcinogenesis is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of TLR4 in the angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The culture supernatant (conditioned medium) of PANC-1 cells after appropriate treatment was used for the treatment of HUVECs. The proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs were assessed by MTT, Transwell and Matrigel, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Anthony L Schwartz, Eric Dickerson, Nilesh Dagia, Ramiro Malgor, Kelly D McCall
Heightened co-expression and dysregulated signaling associated with Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and Wnt5a is an integral component of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Our previous findings in pancreatic cancer and melanoma suggest that inhibition of these pathways by a TLR3 signaling inhibitor, phenylmethimazole (C10), results in significantly decreased IL-6 levels, STAT3 phosphorylation, minimal cancer cell migration and reduced cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we extended our earlier observations by performing studies in human breast cancer cells...
July 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Lena Seifert, Gregor Werba, Shaun Tiwari, Nancy Ngoc Giao Ly, Sara Alothman, Dalia Alqunaibit, Antonina Avanzi, Rocky Barilla, Donnele Daley, Stephanie H Greco, Alejandro Torres-Hernandez, Matthew Pergamo, Atsuo Ochi, Constantinos P Zambirinis, Mridul Pansari, Mauricio Rendon, Daniel Tippens, Mautin Hundeyin, Vishnu R Mani, Cristina Hajdu, Dannielle Engle, George Miller
Neoplastic pancreatic epithelial cells are believed to die through caspase 8-dependent apoptotic cell death, and chemotherapy is thought to promote tumour apoptosis. Conversely, cancer cells often disrupt apoptosis to survive. Another type of programmed cell death is necroptosis (programmed necrosis), but its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is unclear. There are many potential inducers of necroptosis in PDA, including ligation of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), CD95, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, Toll-like receptors, reactive oxygen species, and chemotherapeutic drugs...
April 14, 2016: Nature
Tae Heung Kang, Young Seob Kim, Seokho Kim, Benjamin Yang, Je-Jung Lee, Hyun-Ju Lee, Jaemin Lee, In Duk Jung, Hee Dong Han, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sang Seok Koh, T-C Wu, Yeong-Min Park
Dendritic cell (DC) based cancer vaccines represent a promising immunotherapeutic strategy against cancer. To enhance the modest immunogenicity of DC vaccines, various adjuvants are often incorporated. Particularly, most of the common adjuvants are derived from bacteria. In the current study, we evaluate the use of a human pancreatic cancer derived protein, pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), as a novel DC vaccine adjuvant. We show that PAUF can induce activation and maturation of DCs and activate NFkB by stimulating the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway...
September 29, 2015: Oncotarget
Bing-Bing Zou, Fang Wang, Lei Li, Feng-Wei Cheng, Rui Jin, Xin Luo, Li-Xin Zhu, Xiaoping Geng, Sheng-Quan Zhang
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant types of tumor and has a poor prognosis. Toll‑like receptor 7 (TLR7) has been found to be present and have different roles in different types of cancer cells. In the present study, the roles of TLR7 in BxPC‑3 cells, a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, were investigated. The cells were treated with gardiquimod, an agonist of TLR7, following which the properties of the cells, including proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptosis, were analyzed...
October 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Tanja Grimmig, Niels Matthes, Katharina Hoeland, Sudipta Tripathi, Anil Chandraker, Martin Grimm, Romana Moench, Eva-Maria Moll, Helmut Friess, Igor Tsaur, Roman A Blaheta, Cristoph T Germer, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Martin Gasser
Chronic inflammation as an important epigenetic and environmental factor for putative tumorigenesis and tumor progression may be associated with specific activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR). Recently, carcinogenesis has been suggested to be dependent on TLR7 signaling. In the present study, we determined the role of both TLR7 and TLR8 expression and signaling in tumor cell proliferation and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. Expression of TLR7/TLR8 in UICC stage I-IV pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, normal pancreatic tissue and human pancreatic (PANC1) cancer cell line was examined...
September 2015: International Journal of Oncology
Matteo Santoni, Kalliopi Andrikou, Valeria Sotte, Alessandro Bittoni, Andrea Lanese, Chiara Pellei, Francesco Piva, Alessandro Conti, Massimo Nabissi, Giorgio Santoni, Stefano Cascinu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate interactions between environmental stimuli and innate immunity. TLRs play a major role in the development of numerous pancreatic diseases, making these molecules attractive as potential therapeutic targets. TLR2, TLR7 and TLR9 are involved in the initiation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), whereas TLR2 and TLR4 play a major role in the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, TLRs cause derangements in several tumor suppressor proteins (such as p16, p21, p27, p53 and pRb), induce STAT3 activation and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition as well as oncogene-induced senescence...
July 2015: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Sebastian Schölch, Conrad Rauber, Alexandra Tietz, Nuh N Rahbari, Ulrich Bork, Thomas Schmidt, Christoph Kahlert, Uwe Haberkorn, Mark A Tomai, Kenneth E Lipson, Rafael Carretero, Jürgen Weitz, Moritz Koch, Peter E Huber
In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer...
March 10, 2015: Oncotarget
Min Zhou, Jionghuang Chen, Liangjing Zhou, Wenchao Chen, Guoping Ding, Liping Cao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are aberrant in many human tumors which can be transferred to immune cells by tumor-derived exosomes. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in activation of immune response. However, the effect of tumor-derived exosomes on toll-like receptor (TLR) in DCs remains unclear. We investigated the influence of pancreatic cancer derived exosomes on TLR4, and downstream cytokines via miR-203. Our results showed that miR-203 expressed in panc-1 cells and exosomes, and upregulated in exosomes-treated DCs...
November 2014: Cellular Immunology
R Chen, R Kang, X-G Fan, D Tang
Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecular pattern molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of exogenous histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses through activating Toll-like receptors and inflammasome pathways. Anti-histone treatment (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, activated protein C, recombinant thrombomodulin, and heparin) protect mice against lethal endotoxemia, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, trauma, pancreatitis, peritonitis, stroke, coagulation, and thrombosis...
2014: Cell Death & Disease
Juan Vaz, Roland Andersson
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a devastating disease with pronounced morbidity and a high mortality rate. Currently available treatments lack convincing cost-efficiency determinations and are in most cases not associated with relevant success rate. Experimental stimulation of the immune system in murine PDA models has revealed some promising results. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pillars of the immune system that have been linked to several forms of malignancy, including lung, breast and colon cancer...
May 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jianhui Liu, Dong Xu, Qingguang Wang, Datong Zheng, Xiuqin Jiang, Lijian Xu
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is aggressive; 80-90 % of pancreatic cancer patients have already developed metastatic cancer at the time of diagnosis. Inflammation has been shown to facilitate pancreatic cancer migration. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) pathway is an important inflammatory signal transduction pathway. However, the mechanism of inflammation pathway to induce pancreatic cancer migration is unclear. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inflammation affects pancreatic cancer migration...
July 2014: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ling Zhou, Lianwen Qi, Lifeng Jiang, Ping Zhou, Jiang Ma, Xiaojun Xu, Ping Li
Advanced pancreatic cancer still has a poor prognosis, even with the approval of several drugs, such as gemcitabine. Therefore, developing effective and safe antitumor agents is urgently needed. 6-Shogaol, a phenol extracted from ginger, has been linked to suppression of proliferation and survival of cancer with different mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated whether 6-shogaol could suppress pancreatic cancer progress and potentiate pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine treatment in vitro and in vivo...
March 2014: AAPS Journal
Chun Wai Mai, Yew Beng Kang, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is well known for its host innate immunity. Despite the fact that TLR-4 activation confers antitumor responses; emerging evidence suggests that TLR-4 is associated with tumor development and progression. It is now clear that overactivation of TLR-4, through various immune mediators, may cause immune response dysfunction, resulting in tumorigenesis. Different cancers could have different extents of TLR-4 involvement during tumorigenesis or tumor progression. In this review, we focus on infection- and inflammation-related TLR-4 activation in noncancer and cancer cells, as well as on the current evidence about the role of TLR-4 in ten of the most common cancers, viz, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer...
2013: OncoTargets and Therapy
Claudia Maletzki, Michael Linnebacher, Rajkumar Savai, Uwe Hobohm
Mistletoe extract (ME) is applied as an adjuvant treatment in cancer therapy in thousands of patients each year in Europe. The main immunostimulating component of mistletoe extract, mistletoe lectin, recently has been shown to be a pattern recognition receptor ligand and hence is binding to an important class of pathogen-sensing receptors. Pattern recognition receptor ligands are potent activators of dendritic cells. This activation is a prerequisite for a full-blown T-cell response against cancer cells. Pattern recognition receptor ligands are increasingly recognized as important players in cancer immunotherapy...
August 2013: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Chao-Ying Liu, Juan-Ying Xu, Xiao-Yan Shi, Wei Huang, Ting-Yan Ruan, Ping Xie, Jun-Li Ding
M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key regulators of the link between inflammation and cancer. A negative correlation between infiltration intensity of M2-polarized TAMs and prognosis of pancreatic cancer has been reported. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important biological process in the progression of primary tumors toward metastasis. Inflammation-induced EMT has been previously shown, therefore, we hypothesized M2-polarized TAMs could induce EMT in pancreatic cancer. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has an active role in tumor progression during chronic inflammation and the receptor is primarily expressed on macrophages...
July 2013: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Rosalba Salcedo, Christophe Cataisson, Uzma Hasan, Stuart H Yuspa, Giorgio Trinchieri
Toll-like and interleukin-1 (IL-1) family receptors recognize microbial or endogenous ligands and inflammatory mediators, respectively, and with the exception of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), signal via the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). MyD88 is involved in oncogene-induced cell intrinsic inflammation and in cancer-associated extrinsic inflammation, and as such MyD88 contributes to skin, liver, pancreatic, and colon carcinogenesis, as well as sarcomagenesis. MyD88 is also protective, for example in oncogenic virus carcinogenesis or, acting downstream of IL-18R to strengthen mucosal repair, in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis...
August 2013: Trends in Immunology
Constantinos P Zambirinis, George Miller
We have recently shown that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling exacerbates pancreatic fibro-inflammation and promotes carcinogenesis in mice. Paradoxically, inhibition of the TLR-MYD88 signaling pathway is pro-tumorigenic owing to the dendritic cell-mediated TH2-polarization of CD4(+) T cells. TLR signaling appears to be central in pancreatic cancer-associated inflammation.
January 1, 2013: Oncoimmunology
Yongzhong Wu, Jiamo Lu, Smitha Antony, Agnes Juhasz, Han Liu, Guojian Jiang, Jennifer L Meitzler, Melinda Hollingshead, Diana C Haines, Donna Butcher, Krishnendu Roy, James H Doroshow
Pancreatitis is associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species and plays an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer. We recently demonstrated that dual oxidase (Duox)2, an NADPH oxidase essential for reactive oxygen species-related, gastrointestinal host defense, is regulated by IFN-γ-mediated Stat1 binding to the Duox2 promoter in pancreatic tumor lines. Because LPS enhances the development and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer in vivo following TLR4-related activation of NF-κB, we examined whether LPS, alone or combined with IFN-γ, regulated Duox2...
February 15, 2013: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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