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David K Yoo, Maurizio Zompatori, Annapina Barrile, Giorgia Rossi, Dejanira D'Amato, Gianluigi Sergiacomi, Paola Rogliani, Marco Mura
BACKGROUND: Associated pulmonary hypertension (APH) is frequently observed in fibrosing interstitial pneumonias (FIP), such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). APH is associated with worse prognosis, but it remains unclear whether it is associated with greater functional impairment. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) is widely used to assess functional capacity in pulmonary hypertension and FIP. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if APH independently contributes to exercise intolerance in FIP, irrespective of the extent of underlying fibrosis...
August 16, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Li Wang, Luis E F Almeida, Sayuri Kamimura, Jack H van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Martha Quezado, Paul Wakim, Zenaide M N Quezado
Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients can have limited exercise capacity and muscle dysfunction characterized by decreased force, atrophy, microvascular abnormalities, fiber distribution changes, and skeletal muscle energetics abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that in SCD, there is alteration in nitric oxide (NO) availability/signaling and that nitrate/nitrite can serve as a NO reservoir and enhance muscle performance. Here, we examined effects of nitrite on muscle strength, exercise capacity, and on contractile properties of fast-(extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles in SCD mice...
August 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
J Bernard Heymann, Roberto Marabini, Mohsen Kazemi, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Maya Holmdahl, Joshua H Mendez, Scott M Stagg, Slavica Jonic, Eugene Palovcak, Jean-Paul Armache, Jianhua Zhao, Yifan Cheng, Grigore Pintilie, Wah Chiu, Ardan Patwardhan, Jose-Maria Carazo
The recent successes of cryo-electron microscopy fostered great expectation of solving many new and previously recalcitrant biomolecular structures. However, it also brings with it the danger of compromising the validity of the outcomes if not done properly. The Map Challenge is a first step in assessing the state of the art and to shape future developments in data processing. The organizers presented seven cases for single particle reconstruction, and 27 members of the community responded with 66 submissions...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Hilary M DuBrock, Omar F AbouEzzeddine, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Microvascular inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of both heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and pulmonary hypertension (PH). We investigated whether the inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) was associated with clinical characteristics, disease severity or PH in HFpEF. METHODS: Patients in the Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart failure (RELAX) trial had baseline high-sensitivity CRP levels measured (n = 214)...
2018: PloS One
Aalap C Shah, Kevin Ma, David Faraoni, Daniel C S Oh, G Alec Rooke, Gail A Van Norman
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) is associated with increased post-procedure morbidity and mortality. Pre-procedure echocardiography (ECHO) is a widely used tool for evaluation of these patients, but its accuracy in predicting post-procedure outcomes is unproven. Self-reported exercise tolerance has not been evaluated for operative risk stratification of PHTN patients. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed whether self-reported exercise tolerance predicts outcomes (hospital length-of-stay [LOS], mortality and morbidity) in PHTN patients (WHO Class I-V) undergoing anesthesia and surgery...
2018: PloS One
Jayaraj Joseph, Nabeel P M, Malay Ilesh Shah, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of local arterial properties has become increasingly important in cardiovascular research as well as in clinical domains. Vascular wall stiffness indices are related to local pulse pressure (ΔP) level, mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the arterial vessel. Non-invasive evaluation of local ΔP from the central arteries (aorta and carotid) is not straightforward in a non-specialist clinical setting. In this work, we present a method and system for real-time and beat-by-beat evaluation of local ΔP from superficial arteries-a non-invasive, cuffless and calibration-free technique...
2018: PloS One
Diego Moya-Nájera, Ángel Moya-Herraiz, Pedro Gargallo, Joaquin Calatayud, Javier Escrig-Sos, Juan C Colado
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant improvements in physical function and strength after training programs on Liver Transplant (LT) recipients, there is a lack of knowledge on how it affects in static and dynamic balance, being an important part of these participants' tasks development. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a 6-month multicomponent circuit training program on static and dynamic balance in LT participants. METHODS: 54 participants were randomized at 6 months after LT into 2 groups: exercise group (EXER) and control group (CONTROL), with repeat testing at 6 (baseline) and 12 months after LT...
August 15, 2018: Transplantation
Emilie Woehrle, Alexandra B Harriss, Kolten C Abbott, Marcy Erin Moir, Christopher S Balestrini, Lisa K Fischer, Douglas D Fraser, Joel Kevin Shoemaker
OBJECTIVE: Test the hypotheses that (1) concussion in adolescents impairs autonomic neural control of heart rate (HR), and (2) HR reactivity improves with symptom resolution. DESIGN: Observational, case-control. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen concussed adolescents (8 female adolescents; age 15 ± 2 years) and 16 healthy controls (6 female adolescents, age 15 ± 2 years). INTERVENTION: All participants performed an isometric handgrip (IHG) at 30% maximum voluntary contraction lasting 30 seconds...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Kathleen A Sluka, Laura Frey-Law, Marie Hoeger Bement
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Pain
Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Gerhard Blasche, Barbara Szabo, Michaela Wagner-Menghin, Cem Ekmekcioglu, Erwin Gollner
Research is scarce on ways to enhance the effect of rest breaks during mentally demanding tasks. The present study investigated the effectiveness of two rest-break interventions on well-being during an academic lecture. Sixty-six students (53 females, mean age 22.5 years) enrolled in two different university classes of 4-hr duration participated in the study. Two measures of well-being (fatigue and vigor) were assessed immediately before, after, and 20 minutes after the break. A control condition without a break as well as an unstructured break was compared with breaks either encompassing physical activity or a relaxation exercise...
August 16, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Bent R Rønnestad, Maria Moen, Sofia Gunnerød, Sjur Øfsteng
The importance of accumulated time ≥90% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ) to improve performance in well-trained endurance athletes is well established. The present study compared the acute effects of adding vibrations (VIB; 40 Hz) to the work intervals during a high-intensity cycling session (HIT) with a traditional HIT session without vibration (TRAD) on time ≥90% of VO2max , time ≥90% of peak heart rate (HRpeak ), electromyography (EMG) activity and mean power in well-trained cyclists (n=10, VO2max =78...
August 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Joseph W Beals, Sarah K Skinner, Colleen F McKenna, Elizabeth G Poozhikunnel, Samee A Farooqi, Stephan van Vliet, Isabel G Martinez, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Nicholas A Burd
KEY POINTS: Lifestyle modifications that include the regular performance of exercise are likely important to counteract the negative consequences of obesity on postprandial myofibrillar protein synthetic responses to protein dense food ingestion. We show that the interactive effect of resistance exercise and feeding on the stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis rates is diminished with obesity when compared to normal weight adults. The blunted myofibrillar protein synthetic response with resistance exercise in people with obesity may be underpinned by alterations in muscle anabolic signaling phosphorylation (p70S6K and 4E-BP1)...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Dariusz A Kosior, Marcin Szulc, Marek Rosiak, Daniel Rabczenko, Grzegorz Opolski
Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated that rhythm does not provide additional benefit over rate-control in terms of morbidity or mortality, and is less cost effective, in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). It remains to be determined if either treatment strategy should be favored on the basis of the quality of life (QoL) and/or functional capacity. Objectives This HOT CAFE substudy was conducted to compare the functional status of patients with persistent AF assigned either rate or rhythm-control strategy...
August 16, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Sean R Notley, Robert D Meade, Andrew W D'Souza, Brian J Friesen, Glen P Kenny
PURPOSE: Prolonged work in the heat may exacerbate the rise in core temperature on the next work day, especially in older workers who display impairments in whole-body heat loss that increase body heat storage and core temperature relative to young adults during heat stress. We therefore evaluated whether whole-body heat loss in older adults was impaired on the day after prolonged work in the heat. METHODS: Whole-body heat exchange and heat storage were assessed in nine older (53-64 yr) men during three 30-min bouts of semirecumbent cycling at fixed rates of metabolic heat production (150 [Ex1], 200 [Ex2], 250 W·m [Ex3]), each separated by 15-min recovery, in hot-dry conditions (40°C, 20% relative humidity), immediately before (day 1), and on the day after (day 2) a prolonged, work simulation (~7...
September 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jacob D Meyer, Elisa R Torres, Maggie L Grabow, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Hao Yang Teng, Christopher L Coe, Bruce P Barrett
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise training (AET) programs improve health and well-being. Exercise participation has been related to mindfulness and may be altered by MBSR training. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare 8 wk of MBSR, AET, and no-treatment control during the fall season on objectively measured physical activity in healthy adults. METHODS: Participants (n = 66) wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 d prerandomization and after 8 wk MBSR or AET interventions, or neither (control)...
September 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hallgeir Viken, Line Skarsem Reitlo, Nina Zisko, Javaid Nauman, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Dorthe Stensvold
PURPOSE: Dropout from exercise programs, both in the real world and in research, is a challenge, and more information on dropout-predictors is needed for establishing strategies to increase the likelihood of maintaining participants in a prescribed exercise program. The aim of the present study was to determine the dropout rate and its predictors during a 3-year exercise program in older adults. METHODS: In total, 1514 men and women (age 72.4±1.9 years) were included in the present study...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sarah T Ridge, Mark T Olsen, Dustin A Bruening, Kevin Jurgensmeier, David Griffin, Irene S Davis, A Wayne Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Weakness of foot muscles may contribute to a variety of loading related injuries. Supportive footwear may contribute to intrinsic foot muscle weakness by reducing the muscles' role in locomotion (e.g. absorbing forces and controlling motion). Increased stimulus to the foot muscles can be provided through a variety of mechanisms, including minimalist footwear and directed exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of walking in minimalist footwear or performing foot strengthening exercises on foot muscle size and strength...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jiabing Huang, Pengfei Chen, Xinqun Hu, Jianjun Tang, Zhenfei Fang
RATIONALE: Cardiogenic shock secondary to aortic stenosis (AS) is a challenging problem owing to the high mortality associated with treatment, and successful treatment of such patients has been rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 77-year-old man presented with exercise intolerance and progressive exertional dyspnea and chest pain. The patient was suffered from cardiogenic shock after percutaneous coronary intervention. DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and coronary angiogram...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dunya Tomic, William W Kemp, Stuart K Roberts
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the world. It involves a spectrum of conditions from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis, and is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is defined by presence of steatosis in 5% of hepatocytes or more in the absence of other causes of fatty liver. The metabolic syndrome is the major known risk factor for NAFLD. Dietary contributors such as high fructose intake and coffee consumption appear to increase and decrease the risk of disease respectively, but these links are unclear...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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