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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156401/nine-reasons-why-ecstasy-is-not-quite-what-it-used-to-be
#1
Jane Mounteney, Paul Griffiths, Alessandra Bo, Andrew Cunningham, Joao Matias, Alessandro Pirona
This paper explores the recent resurgence in use of ecstasy/MDMA in Europe and highlights keys areas of continuity and divergence between the ecstasy market of the 1990s and the current MDMA market. Based on a scoping study involving a targeted multi-source data collection exercise on MDMA, it highlights nine areas that have undergone some level of change, linked with both supply and demand for the drug. Factors discussed include: innovation in production techniques; changes in precursor chemical availability; the role of online markets; competition with other stimulants and new psychoactive substances; the increased availability of high-strength MDMA; and the shift from subcultural towards more mainstream use of the drug...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156142/cutaneous-vasomotor-adaptation-following-repeated-isothermal-heat-exposures-evidence-of-adaptation-specificity
#2
Sean R Notley, Elizabeth A Taylor, Norikazu Ohnishi, Nigel A S Taylor
Unequivocal enhancement of cutaneous vasomotor function has yet to be demonstrated following heat acclimation, possibly because the adaptation stimulus was not sustained, or because thermoeffector function was not assessed at equivalent deep-body temperatures. Therefore, forearm and local cutaneous vascular conductances were evaluated during exercise eliciting matched deep-body temperatures (37.5oC, 38.5oC), before and after isothermal heat acclimation. Both indices increased (21% and 25%), confirming cutaneous vasomotor adaptation can occur, provided those experimental design specifications are satisfied...
November 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156141/one-year-unsupervised-individualized-exercise-training-intervention-enhances-cardiorespiratory-fitness-but-not-muscle-deoxygenation-or-glycemic-control-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Antti-Pekka E Rissanen, Heikki O Tikkanen, Anne S Koponen, Jyrki M Aho, Juha E Peltonen
Adaptations to long-term exercise training in type 1 diabetes are sparsely studied. We examined the effects of a 1-year individualized training intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise-induced active muscle deoxygenation, and glycemic control in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Eight men with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and eight healthy men (CON) matched for age, anthropometry, and peak pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇O2peak), completed a 1-year individualized training intervention in an unsupervised real-world setting...
November 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156108/optimizing-quality-of-dental-carving-by-preclinical-dental-students-through-anatomy-theory-reinforcement
#4
Renato A de Azevedo, Marcos B Correa, Marcos A Torriani, Rafael G Lund
Knowledge of dental anatomy is of great importance in the practice of dentistry, especially in oral rehabilitation, because without this knowledge, professional practice is not possible. Dental carving plays a major role in training dental students as it develops their manual dexterity. This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the influence of didactic-theoretical reinforcement on the theoretical and practical knowledge of dental anatomy of preclinical students by examining the quality of the anatomical restorations performed by these students before and after a didactic-theoretical reinforcement...
November 20, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156065/examining-exercise-in-older-adults-using-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-temporal-discounting
#5
Linda M Tate, Pao-Feng Tsai, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Reid D Landes, Leanne L Lefler, Keneshia Bryant-Moore
Exercise is one of the most important health behaviors to reduce and prevent the severity of many chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to determine if adding temporal discounting (TD) would affect the predictability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in exercising among older adults. One hundred thirty-seven older adults were recruited from 11 churches in rural Arkansas using a cross-sectional design. Information regarding participants' exercise behavior, constructs of the TPB, TD rates, and demographics was collected...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155965/is-frozen-embryo-transfer-better-for-mothers-and-babies-can-cumulative-meta-analysis-provide-a-definitive-answer
#6
Abha Maheshwari, Shilpi Pandey, Edwin Amalraj Raja, Ashalatha Shetty, Mark Hamilton, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Initial observational studies and a systematic review published 5 years ago have suggested that obstetric and perinatal outcomes are better in offspring conceived following frozen rather than fresh embryo transfers, with reduced risks of preterm birth, small for gestational age, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia. More recent primary studies are beginning to challenge some of these findings. We therefore conducted an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis to examine if these results have remained consistent over time...
November 13, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155373/imaging-depression-new-biological-markers-may-mean-more-targeted-treatments-are-just-over-the-horizon
#7
Jennifer Berglund
On a balmy evening in mid-May 2017, Chris Cornell, the legendary head of the internationally renowned rock band Soundgarden, strummed his last chord at the Fox Theater in Detroit and headed to the MGM Grand Hotel. According to the police report, he swallowed a few tablets of the antidepression drug Ativan in his room and called his wife. "I'm just tired," he said and hung up the phone. Later that night, at the request of his concerned wife, his bodyguard forced open Cornell's door to discover him on the bathroom floor, an exercise band tied around his neck...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155341/outpatient-elective-posterior-lumbar-fusions-appear-to-be-safely-considered-for-appropriately-selected-patients
#8
Patawut Bovonratwet, Taylor D Ottesen, Raj J Gala, Daniel R Rubio, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Ryan P McLynn, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: There has been growing interest in performing posterior lumbar fusions (PLFs) in the outpatient setting to optimize patient satisfaction and reduce cost. Although still done in only a small percentage of cases, this has been more possible due to advances in surgical techniques and anesthesia. However, data on the perioperative course of outpatient compared to inpatient PLF in a large sample size is scarce. PURPOSE: To compare perioperative complications between outpatient and inpatient PLF in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database...
November 16, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155335/exercise-testing-in-patients-with-diaphragm-paresis
#9
Tristan Bonnevie, Francis-Edouard Gravier, Agathe Ducrocq, David Debeaumont, Catherine Viacroze, Antoine Cuvelier, Jean-François Muir, Catherine Tardif
PURPOSE: Diaphragm paresis (DP) is characterized by abnormalities of respiratory muscle function. However, the impact of DP on exercise capacity is not well known. This study was performed to assess exercise tolerance in patients with DP and to determine whether inspiratory muscle function was related to exercise capacity, ventilatory pattern and cardiovascular function during exercise. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with DP who underwent both diaphragmatic force measurements, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET)...
November 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155334/respiratory-muscle-strength-is-decreased-after-maximal-incremental-exercise-in-trained-runners-and-cyclists
#10
Ferid Oueslati, Ahmed Berriri, Jan Boone, Said Ahmaidi
The respiratory muscle fatigue seems to be able to limit exercise performance and may influence the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) or maximum aerobic work rate during maximal incremental test. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether maximal incremental exercise decreases respiratory muscle strength. We hypothesized that respiratory muscle strength (maximal pressure) will decrease after maximal incremental exercise to exhaustion. 36 runners and 23 cyclists completed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill or a cycle ergometer with continuous monitoring of expired gases...
November 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155225/a-systematic-review-of-the-long-term-effectiveness-of-work-based-lifestyle-interventions-to-tackle-overweight-and-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Greta Tam, May P S Yeung
Obesity is one of the five leading global risks for mortality, accounting for 5% of deaths worldwide. Workplace health promotion programs have the potential to deliver population-level interventions combining physical activity and exercise. However, there is no recent critical review of trials on long-term effectiveness of multicomponent lifestyle interventions in the workplace targeting obesity. Good quality evidence is needed to develop optimal strategies to tackle adult obesity. 1035 studies were retrieved by literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, PSYCH INFO and Cochrane library from 2005 to September 2016...
November 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155135/exercise-induced-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#12
REVIEW
Peter Aldiss, James Betts, Craig Sale, Mark Pope, Michael E Symonds
Global rates of obesity continue to rise and are necessarily the consequence of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This is the result of an expansion of adipose tissue due to both the hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and hyperplasia of adipocyte pre-cursors. Exercise elicits numerous physiological benefits on adipose tissue, which are likely to contribute to the associated cardiometabolic benefits. More recently it has been demonstrated that exercise, through a range of mechanisms, induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue from energy storing white adipocytes to thermogenic beige adipocytes...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154814/effects-of-aquarobic-exercise-and-burdock-intake-on-serum-blood-lipids-and-vascular-elasticity-in-korean-elderly-women
#13
Min-Seong Ha, Ji-Hyeon Kim, You-Sin Kim, Do-Yeon Kim
BACKGROUND: The elderly's health issues are often complex and tend to lead to chronic diseases; such issues can be due to a fitness decline resulting from a lack of physical activities. The burdock root is a blood purifier, lymphatic system strengthener, and natural diuretic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aquarobic exercise and burdock intake on serum blood lipids and vascular elasticity in elderly women by implementing a 12-week program with these interventions...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154748/cdc-safety-training-course-for-ebola-virus-disease-healthcare-workers
#14
Rupa Narra, Jeremy Sobel, Catherine Piper, Deborah Gould, Nahid Bhadelia, Mary Dott, Anthony Fiore, William A Fischer, Mary Jo Frawley, Patricia M Griffin, Douglas Hamilton, Barbara Mahon, Satish K Pillai, Emily F Veltus, Robert Tauxe, Michael Jhung
Response to sudden epidemic infectious disease emergencies can demand intensive and specialized training, as demonstrated in 2014 when Ebola virus disease (EVD) rapidly spread throughout West Africa. The medical community quickly became overwhelmed because of limited staff, supplies, and Ebola treatment units (ETUs). Because a mechanism to rapidly increase trained healthcare workers was needed, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented an introductory EVD safety training course to prepare US healthcare workers to work in West Africa ETUs...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154456/predicting-the-bending-properties-of-long-bones-insights-from-an-experimental-mouse-model
#15
Sarah J Peacock, Brittney R Coats, J Kyle Kirkland, Courtney A Tanner, Theodore Garland, Kevin M Middleton
OBJECTIVES: Analyses of bone cross-sectional geometry are frequently used by anthropologists and paleontologists to infer the loading histories of past populations. To address some underlying assumptions, we investigated the relative roles of genetics and exercise on bone cross-sectional geometry and bending mechanics in three mouse strains: high bone density (C3H/He), low bone density (C57BL/6), and a high-runner strain homozygous for the Myh4(Minimsc) allele (MM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Weanlings of each strain were divided into exercise (wheel) or control (sedentary) treatment groups for a 7-week experimental period...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154433/cardiac-muscle-wasting-in-individuals-with-cancer-cachexia
#16
Anush Barkhudaryan, Nadja Scherbakov, Jochen Springer, Wolfram Doehner
AIMS: Cachexia is a severe complication of cancer that adversely affects the course of the disease and is associated with high rates of mortality. Patients with cancer manifest symptoms, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and impaired exercise tolerance, which are clinical signs of chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac muscle wasting in cancer individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed 177 individuals who died of cancer, including 58 lung, 60 pancreatic, and 59 gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, and 42 cancer-free controls who died of other, non-cardiovascular reasons...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154428/muscle-wasting-and-sarcopenia-in-heart-failure-and-beyond-update-2017
#17
REVIEW
Jochen Springer, Joshua-I Springer, Stefan D Anker
Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and muscle function) is a strong predictor of frailty, disability and mortality in older persons and may also occur in obese subjects. The prevalence of sarcopenia is increased in patients suffering from chronic heart failure. However, there are currently few therapy options. The main intervention is resistance exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional support, which seems to enhance the beneficial effects of training. Also, testosterone has been shown to increased muscle power and function; however, a possible limitation is the side effects of testosterone...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154420/relationship-between-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-cardiac-function-during-exercise-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#18
Masamitsu Sugie, Kazumasa Harada, Tetsuya Takahashi, Marina Nara, Joji Ishikawa, Teruyuki Koyama, Hunkyung Kim, Jun Tanaka, Hajime Fujimoto, Shuichi Obuchi, Stephan von Haehling, Syunei Kyo, Hideki Ito
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and cardiac functional parameters in older adults during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-three Japanese community-dwelling older adults were enrolled (20 men and 43 women; mean age 80 years, range 65-97 years). Cardiac functional parameters during exercise were assessed using CPET. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated by dividing the appendicular lean mass (measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) by height in metres squared...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154407/exercise-dynamic-stability-under-unstable-conditions-increases-muscle-strength-and-balance-ability-in-the-elderly
#19
Azza Hamed, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific exercise intervention of mechanisms to control dynamic postural stability under unstable conditions in old adults. Forty-seven old adults (65-80 years) were assigned to two experimental groups (muscle strength group, n=15, perturbation-based group, n=16) and a control group (n=16). The strength group performed resistance exercises for legs and trunk muscles, while the perturbation-based group exercised mechanisms of dynamic stability under unstable conditions...
November 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154278/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#20
Kristian Steen Frederiksen, Le Gjerum, Gunhild Waldemar, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch
Physical exercise may be an important adjunct to pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies indicate that exercise may be disease modifying through several mechanisms including reduction of AD pathology. We carried out a systematic review of intervention studies of physical exercise with hippocampal volume (on MRI), amyloid-β, total tau, phosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 18F-FDG-PET or amyloid PET as outcome measures in healthy subjects, patients with subjective memory complaints, mild cognitive impairment, or AD...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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