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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036018/effects-of-supplementation-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-to-reduced-protein-diet-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-the-fed-and-fasted-states-in-a-piglet-model
#1
Liufeng Zheng, Hongkui Wei, Pingli He, Shengjun Zhao, Quanhang Xiang, Jiaman Pang, Jian Peng
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA...
December 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017449/anabolic-resistance-does-not-explain-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-compared-with-healthy-controls-despite-reduced-mtor-pathway-activity
#2
Daniel J Cuthbertson, John Babraj, Graham Leese, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Ageing and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are risk factors for skeletal muscle loss. We investigated whether anabolic resistance to feeding might underlie accelerated muscle loss in older people with T2DM and whether dysregulated mTOR signalling was implicated. SUBJECTS: 8 obese men with T2DM, and 12 age-matched controls were studied (age 68 ± 3 vs. 68±6 y; BMI: 30 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 5 kg m(-2)). METHODS: Body composition was measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009536/leucine-protects-against-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-lipopolysaccharide-challenged-rats
#3
Jin Wan, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a decrease in muscle mass that occurs when protein degradation exceeds protein synthesis. Leucine (Leu), an essential branched-chain amino acid in animal nutrition, regulates skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether Leu could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced skeletal muscle wasting by modulating skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation. A total of 24 rats were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 8): (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS-challenged control; and (3) LPS +3...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960294/free-amino-acid-profile-and-expression-of-genes-implicated-in-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle-of-growing-pigs-fed-low-protein-diets-supplemented-with-branched-chain-amino-acids
#4
Yehui Duan, Qiuping Guo, Chaoyue Wen, Wenlong Wang, Yinghui Li, Bie Tan, Fengna Li, Yulong Yin
Revealing the expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism as affected by diets would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance among the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which include leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val). Therefore, we used growing pigs to explore the effects of different dietary BCAA ratios on muscle protein metabolism. The Leu:Ile:Val ratio was 1:0.51:0.63 (20% crude protein, CP), 1:1:1 (17% CP), 1:0.75:0.75 (17% CP), 1:0.51:0.63 (17% CP), and 1:0...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956466/plasma-amino-acid-levels-are-elevated-in-young-healthy-low-birth-weight-men-exposed-to-short-term-high-fat-overfeeding
#5
Amalie Ribel-Madsen, Lars I Hellgren, Charlotte Brøns, Rasmus Ribel-Madsen, Christopher B Newgard, Allan A Vaag
Low birth weight (LBW) individuals exhibit a disproportionately increased, incomplete fatty acid oxidation and a decreased glucose oxidation, compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals, and furthermore have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that changes in amino acid metabolism may occur parallel to alterations in fatty acid and glucose oxidation, and could contribute to insulin resistance. Therefore, we measured fasting plasma levels of 15 individual or pools of amino acids in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and after a 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938033/long-term-leucine-supplementation-improves-metabolic-but-not-molecular-responses-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-trained-rats-submitted-to-exhaustive-exercise
#6
Gustavo Barbosa Dos Santos, André Gustavo de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Miguel Arcanjo Areas
AIM: Although there is some evidence of an ergogenic effect of leucine supplementation on acute response to exercise, there is a paucity of information on whether long-term leucine supplementation influences the adaptive response to chronic endurance training and performance. The main aim of our study was to assess the role of long-term leucine supplementation on molecular and metabolic response in skeletal muscle of trained rats after an exhaustion test. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
December 12, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935521/leucine-supplementation-enhances-integrative-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-in-free-living-older-men-consuming-lower-and-higher-protein-diets-a-parallel-group-crossover-study
#7
Caoileann H Murphy, Nelson I Saddler, Michaela C Devries, Chris McGlory, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
BACKGROUND: Leucine co-ingestion with lower-protein (LP)-containing meals may overcome the blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in the elderly but may be effective only in individuals who consume LP diets. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of leucine co-ingestion with mixed macronutrient meals on integrated 3-d rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) in free-living older men who consumed higher protein (HP) (1.2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) or LP (0...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934658/proposals-for-upper-limits-of-safe-intake-for-arginine-and-tryptophan-in-young-adults-and-an-upper-limit-of-safe-intake-for-leucine-in-the-elderly
#8
REVIEW
Luc Cynober, Dennis M Bier, Motoni Kadowaki, Sidney M Morris, Rajavel Elango, Miro Smriga
On the basis of research presented during the 9th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop, a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for diet-added arginine (added mostly in the form of dietary supplements) of 30 g/d and an upper limit of safe intake (ULSI) for diet-added tryptophan (added mostly in the form of dietary supplements) of 4.5 g/d have been proposed. Both recommendations apply to healthy young adults. The total dietary leucine ULSI proposed for elderly individuals is 500 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) All 3 recommendations are relevant only to high-quality amino acid-containing products with specifications corresponding to those listed in the US Pharmacopeia Because the above amino acids are extensively utilized as dietary supplements for various real or perceived benefits, such as vasodilation, spermatogenesis, sleep, mood regulation, or muscle recovery, the above safety recommendations will have an important impact on regulatory and nutritional practices...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934655/safety-and-tolerability-of-leucine-supplementation-in-elderly-men
#9
REVIEW
Rajavel Elango, Betina Rasmussen, Kenneth Madden
Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, has been shown to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and has been suggested to play a role in the prevention of age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Although leucine supplementation may be beneficial, the efficacious dose of leucine is unknown. Before conducting studies with increased doses of leucine, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for leucine needs to be determined. The objective of this review is to describe 2 current studies to determine the UL for leucine in young and elderly men...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934654/efficacy-and-safety-of-leucine-supplementation-in-the-elderly
#10
REVIEW
Michael S Borack, Elena Volpi
Leucine supplementation has grown in popularity due to the discovery of its anabolic effects on cell signaling and protein synthesis in muscle. The current recommendation is a minimum intake of 55 mg ⋅ kg(-1)(.) d(-1) Leucine acutely stimulates skeletal muscle anabolism and can overcome the anabolic resistance of aging. The value of chronic leucine ingestion for muscle growth is still unclear. Most of the research into leucine consumption has focused on efficacy. To our knowledge, very few studies have sought to determine the maximum safe level of intake...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934653/leucine-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-dependent-activation-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-aging
#11
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal De Bandt
The preservation or restoration of muscle mass is of prime importance for healthy aging. However, aging has been repeatedly shown to be associated with resistance of muscle to the anabolic effects of feeding. Leucine supplementation has been proposed as a possible strategy because of its regulatory role on protein homeostasis. Indeed, it acts independently of growth factors and leads to enhanced cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation and increased protein synthesis. Leucine acts as a signaling molecule directly at the muscle level via the activation of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917847/poultry-products-enriched-with-nutricines-have-beneficial-effects-on-human-health
#12
Gordana Kralik, Zlata Kralik
The paper presents nutritive value of broiler meat and table eggs, as these animal products are used for human nutrition on a daily basis. In the Republic of Croatia, average consumption of poultry meat amounts to 18.3 kg and to 160 eggs per capita.The most quality parts of broiler carcass are breasts and drumsticks with thighs. Breast muscles contain 21-23% protein, 1.90-1.97% fat, 75.28-76.01% water and 0.74-0.77% collagen. Thigh muscles contain 4.70-6.05% fat, 19.03-19.93% protein and 0.91-1.13% collagen...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914915/physical-activity-modifies-the-association-between-dietary-protein-and-lean-mass-of-postmenopausal-women
#13
Jessica A Martinez, Betsy C Wertheim, Cynthia A Thomson, Jennifer W Bea, Robert Wallace, Matthew Allison, Linda Snetselaar, Zhao Chen, Rami Nassir, Patricia A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903833/meal-distribution-of-dietary-protein-and-leucine-influences-long-term-muscle-mass-and-body-composition-in-adult-rats
#14
Layne E Norton, Gabriel J Wilson, Christopher J Moulton, Donald K Layman
BACKGROUND: Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. METHODS: Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903518/habituation-to-low-or-high-protein-intake-does-not-modulate-basal-or-postprandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-rates-a-randomized-trial
#15
Stefan Hm Gorissen, Astrid Mh Horstman, Rinske Franssen, Imre Wk Kouw, Benjamin T Wall, Nicholas A Burd, Lisette Cpgm de Groot, Luc Jc van Loon
BACKGROUND: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887984/impact-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-on-age-related-functional-deficits-in-mice
#16
Michael Munroe, Yair Pincu, Jennifer Merritt, Adam Cobert, Ryan Brander, Tor Jensen, Justin Rhodes, Marni D Boppart
β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine. Recent studies demonstrate a decline in plasma HMB concentrations in humans across the lifespan, and HMB supplementation may be able to preserve muscle mass and strength in older adults. However, the impact of HMB supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the impact of HMB on muscle strength, neurogenesis and cognition in young and aged mice...
January 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857540/meat-quality-and-physicochemical-trait-assessments-of-berkshire-and-commercial-3-way-crossbred-pigs
#17
Sivakumar Allur Subramaniyan, Da Rae Kang, Shah Ahmed Belal, Eun-So-Ri Cho, Jong-Hyun Jung, Young-Chul Jung, Yang-Il Choi, Kwan-Seob Shim
In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798640/altered-expression-of-human-smooth-muscle-myosin-phosphatase-targeting-mypt-isovariants-with-pregnancy-and-labor
#18
Jon Lartey, Julie Taggart, Stephen Robson, Michael Taggart
BACKGROUND: Myosin light-chain phosphatase is a trimeric protein that hydrolyses phosphorylated myosin II light chains (MYLII) to cause relaxation in smooth muscle cells including those of the uterus. A major component of the phosphatase is the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT), which directs a catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate MYLII. There are 5 main MYPT family members (MYPT1 (PPP1R12A), MYPT2 (PPP1R12B), MYPT3 (PPP1R16A), myosin binding subunit 85 MBS85 (PPP1R12C) and TIMAP (TGF-beta-inhibited membrane-associated protein (PPP1R16B))...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798336/dietary-leucine-supplementation-decreases-whole-body-protein-turnover-before-but-not-during-immune-system-stimulation-in-pigs
#19
Marko Rudar, Cuilan L Zhu, Cornelis Fm de Lange
BACKGROUND: Immune system stimulation (ISS) adversely affects protein metabolism and reduces pig productivity. Leu has a regulatory role in skeletal muscle and whole-body protein turnover, which may be affected by ISS. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effect of supplemental Leu intake on whole-body protein turnover in pigs before and during ISS. METHODS: Pigs [mean ± SD initial body weight (BW): 10.6 ± 1.1 kg] were surgically fitted with jugular vein catheters and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1...
January 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780822/presleep-protein-ingestion-does-not-compromise-the-muscle-protein-synthetic-response-to-protein-ingested-the-following-morning
#20
Benjamin T Wall, Nicholas A Burd, Rinske Franssen, Stefan H M Gorissen, Tim Snijders, Joan M Senden, Annemie P Gijsen, Luc J C van Loon
Protein ingestion before sleep augments postexercise muscle protein synthesis during overnight recovery. It is unknown whether postexercise and presleep protein consumption modulates postprandial protein handling and myofibrillar protein synthetic responses the following morning. Sixteen healthy young (24 ± 1 yr) men performed unilateral resistance-type exercise (contralateral leg acting as a resting control) at 2000. Participants ingested 20 g of protein immediately after exercise plus 60 g of protein presleep (PRO group; n = 8) or equivalent boluses of carbohydrate (CON; n = 8)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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