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leucine muscle

Bart B L Groen, Astrid M Horstman, Henrike M Hamer, Michiel de Haan, Janneau van Kranenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Will K W H Wodzig, Blake B Rasmussen, Luc J C van Loon
CONTEXT: Skeletal muscle protein synthesis is highly responsive to food intake. It has been suggested that the post-prandial increase in circulating insulin modulates the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a greater post-prandial rise in circulating insulin level increases amino acid uptake in muscle and augments post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates. PARTICIPANTS: and design. 48 healthy young (age 22±1 y; BMI 22...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Irene Fleur Kramer, Lex B Verdijk, Henrike M Hamer, Sjors Verlaan, Yvette C Luiking, Imre W K Kouw, Joan M Senden, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemarie P Gijsen, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Simon Lin, Frank V Brozovich
Agonist stimulation of smooth muscle is known to activate RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and Rho kinase phosphorylates the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase at Thr696 and Thr853, which inhibits the activity of MLC phosphatase to produce a Ca(2+) independent increase in MLC phosphorylation and force (Ca(2+) sensitization). Alternative mRNA splicing produces four MYPT1 isoforms, which differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and leucine zipper (LZ). This study was designed to determine if Rho kinase differentially phosphorylates MYPT1 isoforms...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
Haiyan Zhang, Guobin Hu, Qiuming Liu, Shicui Zhang
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in mammals is a member of the ancient Toll-like family of receptors that predominantly recognizes conserved components of Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, a tlr2 gene and its 5'-flanking sequence were cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, its responsive expressions to various immunostimulants were subsequently studied in vivo. The turbot (sm)tlr2 gene spans over 9.0 kb with a structure of 12 exon-11 intron and encodes 816 amino acids. The deduced protein shows the highest sequence identity (76...
October 3, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Stuart M Phillips
Protein supplementation during resistance exercise training augments hypertrophic gains. Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Edvina Galié, Rosaria Renna, Domenico Plantone, Andrea Pace, Mirella Marino, Bruno Jandolo, Tatiana Koudriavtseva
Morvan's syndrome (MoS) is a rare, complex neurological disorder characterized by neuromyotonia, neuropsychiatric features, dysautonomia and neuropathic pain. The majority of MoS cases have a paraneoplastic aetiology, usually occurring prior to the diagnosis of the underlying tumour and showing improvement following its treatment. The present study reports the case of a 35-year-old Caucasian male patient who was diagnosed with stage IVA thymoma. Thymectomy, lung resection, diaphragmatic pleurectomy and pericardio-phrenectomy were performed 6 months after neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Arif Tasleem Jan, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi
Fibromodulin (FMOD) is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that plays roles in a series of biological and pathophysiological processes. The interaction between FMOD and lysyl oxidase (LOX; collagen cross-linking enzyme) helps regulate extracellular matrix composition, and thereby, provides a permissive environment for regulating cellular turnover. FMOD has been mostly studied in the context of matrix component assembly, but during recent years its association with muscle development, cell reprogramming, and the angiogenic program have demonstrated its activities well beyond extracellular matrix maintenance...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
John E Morley
Frailty is a pre-disability syndrome where an older person can be identified as being at risk when exposed to stressors associated with high risk for disability or needing to be hospitalized. Two major frailty definitions exist. The physical phenotype of frailty and the multiple deficit model. A simple frailty screening tool-FRAIL-has been validated. Treatment of frailty involves resistance exercise, optimization of nutrition, and treatment of fatigue (sleep apnea, depression), treatable causes of weight loss and adjustment of polypharmacy...
September 26, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
I C Ospina-Rojas, A E Murakami, C R A Duarte, G R Nascimento, E R M Garcia, M I Sakamoto, R V Nunes
The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performance, serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch. A total of 1,500 21-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments with 3 replicates of 20 birds each...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
Jorn Trommelen, Andrew M Holwerda, Imre W K Kouw, Henning Langer, Shona L Halson, Ian Rollo, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that protein ingestion prior to sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. Whether prior exercise further augments the muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion remains to be established. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether resistance-type exercise performed in the evening increases the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion. METHODS: Twenty four healthy young men were randomly assigned to ingest 30 g intrinsically L-[1-C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-C]-leucine labeled casein protein before going to sleep with (PRO+EX: n=12) or without (PRO: n=12) prior resistance-type exercise performed in the evening...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yuechun Zhong, Liyi Zou, Zonggui Wang, Yaqiong Pan, Zhong Dai, Xinguang Liu, Liao Cui, Changqing Zuo
Many transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the guidance of myogenic differentiation have been investigated in previous studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of myogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. In the present study, by performing a meta-analysis of C2C12 myogenic differentiation microarray data, we found that leucine-rich repeat-containing 75B (Lrrc75b), also known as AI646023, a molecule of unknown biological function, was downregulated during C2C12 myogenic differentiation...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Adriana D Hernandez-García, Daniel A Columbus, Rodrigo Manjarín, Hanh V Nguyen, Agus Suryawan, Renán A Orellana, Teresa A Davis
Sepsis disrupts skeletal muscle proteostasis and mitigates the anabolic response to leucine (Leu) in muscle of mature animals. We have shown that Leu stimulates muscle protein synthesis (PS) in healthy neonatal piglets. To determine if supplemental Leu can stimulate PS and reduce protein degradation (PD) signaling in neonatal muscle during endotoxemia, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused for 8 h with LPS or saline while plasma amino acids, glucose, and insulin were maintained at fasting levels during pancreatic-substrate clamps...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Richard A Perry, Lemuel A Brown, David E Lee, Jacob L Brown, Jamie I Baum, Nicholas P Greene, Tyrone A Washington
The data described herein is related to the article "Differential Effects of Leucine Supplementation in Young and Aged Mice at the Onset of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration" [1]. Aging is associated with a decreased ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate following injury. Leucine supplementation has been extensively shown, in young subjects, to promote protein synthesis during regeneration; however, the effects of leucine supplementation on the Akt/mTOR pathway in aged mice at the onset of muscle regeneration are not fully elucidated...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Jamie K Schnuck, Michele A Johnson, Lacey M Gould, Nicholas P Gannon, Roger A Vaughan
Leucine modulates synthetic and degradative pathways in muscle, possibly providing metabolic benefits for both athletes and diseased populations. Leucine has become popular among athletes for improving performance and body composition, however little is known about the metabolic effects of the commonly consumed leucine-derived metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB). Our work measured the effects of HMB on metabolic protein expression, mitochondrial content and metabolism, as well as lipid content in skeletal muscle cells...
October 2016: Lipids
Jared M Dickinson, Paul T Reidy, David M Gundermann, Michael S Borack, Dillon K Walker, Andrew C D'Lugos, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
Essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis, and in particular, the anabolic response of older adults appears sensitive to the quantity of ingested leucine. The effect of leucine ingestion on muscle breakdown following resistance exercise (RE) is less understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of postexercise leucine ingestion on the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagosomal-lysosomal systems following acute RE in older men. Subjects (72±2yr) performed RE and 1h postexercise ingested 10g of EAA containing a leucine quantity similar to quality protein (Control, 1...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Nese Sinmaz, Tina Nguyen, Fiona Tea, Russell C Dale, Fabienne Brilot
BACKGROUND: Our knowledge of autoantibody-associated diseases of the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems has expanded greatly over the recent years. A number of extracellular and intracellular autoantigens have been identified, and there is no doubt that this field will continue to expand as more autoantigens are discovered as a result of improved clinical awareness and methodological practice. In recent years, interest has shifted to uncover the target epitopes of these autoantibodies...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Andrea Carpentieri, Tania Gamberi, Alessandra Modesti, Angela Amoresano, Barbara Colombini, Marta Nocella, Maria Angela Bagni, Tania Fiaschi, Lorenzo Barolo, Massimo Gulisano, Francesca Magherini
Understanding the relationship between physical exercise, reactive oxygen species, and skeletal muscle modification is important in order to better identify the benefits or the damages that appropriate or inappropriate exercise can induce. Heart and skeletal muscles have a high density of mitochondria with robust energetic demands, and mitochondria plasticity has an important role in both the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical activity on the oxidation profiles of mitochondrial proteins from heart and tibialis anterior muscles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Mathieu Rambeau, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Blandine Comte, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
PURPOSE: In the present study, we aimed to metabolically characterize the postprandial adaptations of the major tissues involved in energy, lipids and amino acids metabolisms in mini-pigs. METHOD: Mini-pigs were fed on high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 2 months and several tissues explored for metabolic analyses. Further, the urine metabolome was followed over the time to picture the metabolic adaptations occurring at the whole body level following overfeeding...
August 27, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Shashi K Gupta, Anna Zoccarato, Rika Kitazume-Taneike, Marika Fava, Xiaoke Yin, Tessa Werner, Marc N Hirt, Anna Zampetaki, Alessandro Viviano, Mei Chong, Marshall Bern, Antonios Kourliouros, Nieves Domenech, Peter Willeit, Ajay M Shah, Marjan Jahangiri, Liliana Schaefer, Jens W Fischer, Renato V Iozzo, Rosa Viner, Thomas Thum, Joerg Heineke, Antoine Kichler, Kinya Otsu, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a feature of many cardiac diseases. We used proteomics to profile glycoproteins in the human cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). METHODS: Atrial specimens were analyzed by mass spectrometry after extraction of ECM proteins and enrichment for glycoproteins or glycopeptides. RESULTS: ECM-related glycoproteins were identified in left and right atrial appendages from the same patients. Several known glycosylation sites were confirmed...
September 13, 2016: Circulation
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