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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772844/leucine-supplementation-does-not-attenuate-skeletal-muscle-loss-during-leg-immobilization-in-healthy-young-men
#1
Evelien M P Backx, Astrid M H Horstman, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Janneau van Kranenburg, Joey S Smeets, Cas J Fuchs, Anniek A W Janssen, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Tim Snijders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Short successive periods of physical inactivity occur throughout life and contribute considerably to the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. The maintenance of muscle mass during brief periods of disuse is required to prevent functional decline and maintain metabolic health. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether daily leucine supplementation during a short period of disuse can attenuate subsequent muscle loss in vivo in humans. METHODS: Thirty healthy (22 ± 1 y) young males were exposed to a 7-day unilateral knee immobilization intervention by means of a full leg cast with (LEU, n = 15) or without (CON, n = 15) daily leucine supplementation (2...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770871/the-effects-of-acute-leucine-or-leucine-glutamine-co-ingestion-on-recovery-from-eccentrically-biased-exercise
#2
Mark Waldron, Cameron Ralph, Owen Jeffries, Jamie Tallent, Nicola Theis, Stephen David Patterson
This study investigated the effects of leucine or leucine + glutamine supplementation on recovery from eccentric exercise. In a double-blind independent groups design, 23 men were randomly assigned to a leucine (0.087 g/kg; n = 8), leucine + glutamine (0.087 g/kg + glutamine 0.3 g/kg; n = 8) or placebo (0.3 g/kg maltodextrin; n = 7) group. Participants performed 5 sets of drop jumps, with each set comprising 20 repetitions. Isometric knee-extensor strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) height, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured at baseline, 1, 24, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757056/whey-protein-augments-leucinemia-and-post-exercise-p70s6k1-activity-compared-to-a-hydrolysed-collagen-blend-when-in-recovery-from-training-with-low-carbohydrate-availability
#3
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#4
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728917/short-and-long-term-effects-of-leucine-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-of-a-protein-and-energy-reduced-diet-on-muscle-protein-metabolism-in-neonatal-pigs
#5
Rodrigo Manjarín, Daniel A Columbus, Jessica Solis, Adriana D Hernandez-García, Agus Suryawan, Hanh V Nguyen, Molly M McGuckin, Rafael T Jimenez, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
The objective of this study was to determine if enteral leucine or branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation increases muscle protein synthesis in neonates who consume less than their protein and energy requirements, and whether this increase is mediated via the upregulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway or the decrease in muscle protein degradation signaling. Neonatal pigs were fed milk replacement diets containing reduced energy and protein (R), R supplemented with BCAA (RBCAA), R supplemented with leucine (RL), or complete protein and energy (CON) at 4-h intervals for 9 (n = 24) or 21 days (n = 22)...
May 4, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722584/no-difference-between-the-effects-of-supplementing-with-soy-protein-versus-animal-protein-on-gains-in-muscle-mass-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-exercise
#6
Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M Dickinson, Katharine E Reed
Much attention has been given to determining the influence of total protein intake and protein source on gains in lean body mass (LBM) and strength in response to resistance exercise training (RET). Acute studies indicate that whey protein, likely related to its higher leucine content, stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a greater extent than proteins such as soy and casein. Less clear is the extent to which the type of protein supplemented impacts strength and LBM in longer term studies (≥6 weeks)...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708079/barriers-to-cancer-nutrition-therapy-excess-catabolism-of-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-induced-by-tumour-products-and-chemotherapy
#7
Dalton L Schiessel, Vickie E Baracos
Cancer-associated malnutrition is driven by reduced dietary intake and by underlying metabolic changes (such as inflammation, anabolic resistance, proteolysis, lipolysis and futile cycling) induced by the tumour and activated immune cells. Cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapies also elicit proteolysis and lipolysis at the tissue level. In this review, we summarise specific mediators and chemotherapy effects that provoke excess proteolysis in muscle and excess lipolysis in adipose tissue. A nutritionally relevant question is whether and to what degree these catabolic changes can be reversed by nutritional therapy...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706852/associations-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-with-parameters-of-energy-balance-and-survival-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-results-from-the-colocare-study
#8
Mahmoud Delphan, Tengda Lin, David B Liesenfeld, Johanna Nattenmüller, Jürgen T Böhm, Biljana Gigic, Nina Habermann, Lin Zielske, Petra Schrotz-King, Martin Schneider, Alexis Ulrich, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Jennifer Ose
Background: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been previously linked to survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. It is unclear whether BCAAs are prognostic biomarkers or surrogate markers for energy balance. Objectives: We aimed to determine correlations of BCAAs with markers of energy balance over time and to investigate prognostic significance of BCAAs in CRC. Methods: We used urinary samples from newly diagnosed CRC patients [n=163; (stage I - IV)] from the ColoCare study in Heidelberg, Germany, collected at surgery (n=163), 6 (n=83) and 12 months follow-up (n=54)...
March 2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687650/effect-of-protein-supplementation-during-diet-induced-weight-loss-on-muscle-mass-and-strength-a-randomized-controlled-study
#9
Gordon I Smith, Paul K Commean, Dominic N Reeds, Samuel Klein, Bettina Mittendorfer
OBJECTIVE: High protein (particularly leucine-rich whey protein) intake is recommended to mitigate the adverse effect of weight loss on muscle mass. The effectiveness of this approach is unknown. METHODS: Seventy middle-aged (50-65 years old) postmenopausal women with obesity were randomized to (1) weight maintenance (WM), (2) weight loss and the recommended daily allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/d) (WL group), or (3) weight loss plus whey protein supplementation (total protein: 1...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671767/effects-of-whey-protein-hydrolysate-ingestion-on-postprandial-aminoacidemia-compared-with-a-free-amino-acid-mixture-in-young-men
#10
Kyosuke Nakayama, Chiaki Sanbongi, Shuji Ikegami
To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture...
April 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624009/the-concentration-of-free-amino-acids-in-blood-serum-of-dairy-cows-with-primary-ketosis
#11
J Marczuk, P Brodzki, A Brodzki, Ł Kurek
Ketosis is a common condition found in the initial stages of lactation in high-yielding dairy cows. The major cause of ketosis is a negative energy balance. During the energy deficiency, proteolysis processes develop parallel to lipolysis. During proteolysis, muscle tissue can be used as a source of amino acid. To date, the participation of amino acids in gluconeogenesis (glucogenic amino acids) and ketogenesis (ketogenic amino acids) has not been determined in detail. This paper presents the study on determination of the parameters of protein and free amino acid metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621530/molecular-cloning-and-expression-study-on-toll-like-receptor-5m-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#12
Dahai Liu, Jingjing Chen, Song Li, Guobin Hu
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in mammals and play an important role in innate immunity. In the present study, a TLR5M gene was cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, and its immune responsive expression was subsequently studied in vivo. The Scophthalmus maximus (Sm)TLR5M gene is 4268 bp in length, consists of four exons and three introns and encodes a peptide of 892 amino acids (aa). The deduced protein possesses a signal peptide sequence, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain composed of 23 LRR motifs, a transmembrane (TM) domain and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618652/the-metalloproteinase-proteoglycans-adamts7-and-adamts12-provide-an-innate-tendon-specific-protective-mechanism-against-heterotopic-ossification
#13
Timothy J Mead, Daniel R McCulloch, Jason C Ho, Yaoyao Du, Sheila M Adams, David E Birk, Suneel S Apte
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a significant clinical problem with incompletely resolved mechanisms. Here, the secreted metalloproteinases ADAMTS7 and ADAMTS12 are shown to comprise a unique proteoglycan class that protects against a tendency toward HO in mouse hindlimb tendons, menisci, and ligaments. Adamts7 and Adamts12 mRNAs were sparsely expressed in murine forelimbs but strongly coexpressed in hindlimb tendons, skeletal muscle, ligaments, and meniscal fibrocartilage. Adamts7-/- Adamts12-/- mice, but not corresponding single-gene mutants, which demonstrated compensatory upregulation of the intact homolog mRNA, developed progressive HO in these tissues after 4 months of age...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617841/applications-for-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-in-human-nutrition
#14
Donald K Layman, Bo Lönnerdal, John D Fernstrom
α-Lactalbumin is a whey protein that constitutes approximately 22% of the proteins in human milk and approximately 3.5% of those in bovine milk. Within the mammary gland, α-lactalbumin plays a central role in milk production as part of the lactose synthase complex required for lactose formation, which drives milk volume. It is an important source of bioactive peptides and essential amino acids, including tryptophan, lysine, branched-chain amino acids, and sulfur-containing amino acids, all of which are crucial for infant nutrition...
March 29, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584425/leucine-promotes-the-growth-of-fetal-pigs-by-increasing-protein-synthesis-through-the-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-at-late-gestation
#15
Chaoxian Wang, Fang Chen, Wenfei Zhang, Shihai Zhang, Kui Shi, Hanqing Song, Yijiang Wang, Sun Woo Kim, Wutai Guan
Leucine (Leu) plays an important role in protein synthesis and metabolism. The present study tested whether Leu supplementation in the diet for sows during late pregnancy could improve piglet birth weight, and also investigated the possible underlying mechanism. Two hundreds sows at day 70 of pregnancy were selected and assigned to four groups fed with following four diets until farrowing respectively: corn and soybean meal-based diet group (CON), CON + 0.40% Leu, CON + 0.80% Leu and CON + 1.20% Leu. We found that supplementing with 0...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576350/differential-effects-of-leucine-and-leucine-enriched-whey-protein-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-aged-mice
#16
Francina J Dijk, Miriam van Dijk, Stéphane Walrand, Luc J C van Loon, Klaske van Norren, Yvette C Luiking
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been suggested that anabolic resistance, or a blunted protein synthetic response to anabolic stimuli, contributes to the failure of muscle mass maintenance in older adults. The amino acid leucine is one of the most prominent food-related anabolic stimuli. However, data on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) after administration of a single bolus of leucine in aged populations is lacking and long-term single leucine supplementation has not been shown to increase muscle mass...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574525/the-putative-leucine-sensor-sestrin2-is-hyperphosphorylated-by-acute-resistance-exercise-but-not-protein-ingestion-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#17
Nina Zeng, Randall F D'Souza, Brie Sorrenson, Troy L Merry, Matthew P G Barnett, Cameron J Mitchell, David Cameron-Smith
PURPOSE: Dietary protein and resistance exercise (RE) are both potent stimuli of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Sestrins1, 2, 3 are multifunctional proteins that regulate mTORC1, stimulate autophagy and alleviate oxidative stress. Of this family, Sestrin2 is a putative leucine sensor implicated in mTORC1 and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) regulation. There is currently no data examining the responsiveness of Sestrin2 to dietary protein ingestion, with or without RE...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569540/leucine-promotes-differentiation-of-porcine-myoblasts-through-the-protein-kinase-b-akt-forkhead-box-o1-signalling-pathway
#18
Shurun Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Hong Chen, Junqiu Luo, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu
Leucine, one of the branched-chain amino acids, is the only amino acid to regulate protein turnover in skeletal muscle. Leucine not only increases muscle protein synthesis, but also decreases muscle protein degradation. It is well documented that leucine plays a positive role in differentiation of murine muscle cells. However, the role of leucine on porcine myoblast differentiation and its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, porcine myoblasts were induced to differentiate with differentiation medium containing different concentrations of leucine, and wortmannin was used to interdict the activity of protein kinase B (Akt)...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529164/is-leucine-content-in-dietary-protein-the-key-to-muscle-preservation-in-older-women
#19
Elena Volpi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529146/protein-leucine-content-is-a-determinant-of-shorter-and-longer-term-muscle-protein-synthetic-responses-at-rest-and-following-resistance-exercise-in-healthy-older-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Michaela C Devries, Christopher McGlory, Douglas R Bolster, Alison Kamil, Maike Rahn, Laura Harkness, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Background: Older women may not be consuming enough protein to maintain muscle mass. Augmentation of protein intake with leucine may enhance the muscle protein synthetic response in older women to aid in maintaining muscle mass. Objective: We measured the acute (hourly) and integrated (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) response to consumption of a high-quality mixed protein beverage compared with an isonitrogenous protein beverage with added leucine...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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