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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903833/meal-distribution-of-dietary-protein-and-leucine-influences-long-term-muscle-mass-and-body-composition-in-adult-rats
#1
Layne E Norton, Gabriel J Wilson, Christopher J Moulton, Donald K Layman
BACKGROUND: Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. METHODS: Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903518/habituation-to-low-or-high-protein-intake-does-not-modulate-basal-or-postprandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-rates-a-randomized-trial
#2
Stefan Hm Gorissen, Astrid Mh Horstman, Rinske Franssen, Imre Wk Kouw, Benjamin T Wall, Nicholas A Burd, Lisette Cpgm de Groot, Luc Jc van Loon
BACKGROUND: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887984/impact-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-on-age-related-functional-deficits-in-mice
#3
Michael Munroe, Yair Pincu, Jennifer Merritt, Adam Cobert, Ryan Brander, Tor Jensen, Justin Rhodes, Marni D Boppart
β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine. Recent studies demonstrate a decline in plasma HMB concentrations in humans across the lifespan, and HMB supplementation may be able to preserve muscle mass and strength in older adults. However, the impact of HMB supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the impact of HMB on muscle strength, neurogenesis and cognition in young and aged mice...
November 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857540/meat-quality-and-physicochemical-trait-assessments-of-berkshire-and-commercial-3-way-crossbred-pigs
#4
Sivakumar Allur Subramaniyan, Da Rae Kang, Shah Ahmed Belal, Eun-So-Ri Cho, Jong-Hyun Jung, Young-Chul Jung, Yang-Il Choi, Kwan-Seob Shim
In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798640/altered-expression-of-human-smooth-muscle-myosin-phosphatase-targeting-mypt-isovariants-with-pregnancy-and-labor
#5
Jon Lartey, Julie Taggart, Stephen Robson, Michael Taggart
BACKGROUND: Myosin light-chain phosphatase is a trimeric protein that hydrolyses phosphorylated myosin II light chains (MYLII) to cause relaxation in smooth muscle cells including those of the uterus. A major component of the phosphatase is the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT), which directs a catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate MYLII. There are 5 main MYPT family members (MYPT1 (PPP1R12A), MYPT2 (PPP1R12B), MYPT3 (PPP1R16A), myosin binding subunit 85 MBS85 (PPP1R12C) and TIMAP (TGF-beta-inhibited membrane-associated protein (PPP1R16B))...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798336/dietary-leucine-supplementation-decreases-whole-body-protein-turnover-before-but-not-during-immune-system-stimulation-in-pigs
#6
Marko Rudar, Cuilan L Zhu, Cornelis Fm de Lange
BACKGROUND: Immune system stimulation (ISS) adversely affects protein metabolism and reduces pig productivity. Leu has a regulatory role in skeletal muscle and whole-body protein turnover, which may be affected by ISS. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effect of supplemental Leu intake on whole-body protein turnover in pigs before and during ISS. METHODS: Pigs [mean ± SD initial body weight (BW): 10.6 ± 1.1 kg] were surgically fitted with jugular vein catheters and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780822/pre-sleep-protein-ingestion-does-not-compromise-the-muscle-protein-synthetic-response-to-protein-ingested-the-following-morning
#7
Benjamin T Wall, Nicholas A Burd, Rinske Franssen, Stefan Hm Gorissen, Tim Snijders, Joan M Senden, Annemie P Gijsen, Luc J C van Loon
: Protein ingestion before sleep augments post-exercise muscle protein synthesis during overnight recovery. PURPOSE: It is unknown whether post-exercise and pre-sleep protein consumption modulates post-prandial protein handling and myofibrillar protein synthetic responses the following morning. Sixteen healthy young (24±1 y) men performed unilateral resistance-type exercise (contralateral leg acting as a resting control) at 20:00 h. Participants ingested 20 g protein immediately after exercise plus 60 g protein pre-sleep (PRO group; n=8) or equivalent boluses of carbohydrate (CON; n=8)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779167/a-missense-mutation-in-epsilon-subunit-of-acetylcholine-receptor-causing-autosomal-dominant-slow-channel-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-in-a-chinese-family
#8
Jia-Ze Tan, Yuan Man, Fei Xiao
BACKGROUND: Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a group of rare disorders that are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and caused by mutations in the genes encoding proteins of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we described a Chinese family that presented with phenotypes of classic slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS). METHODS: Clinical characteristics and electrophysiological features of three patients from a Chinese family were examined, and next-generation sequencing followed by direct sequencing was carried out...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745529/increasing-insulin-availability-does-not-augment-post-prandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-rates-in-healthy-young-and-older-men
#9
Bart B L Groen, Astrid M Horstman, Henrike M Hamer, Michiel de Haan, Janneau van Kranenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Will K W H Wodzig, Blake B Rasmussen, Luc J C van Loon
CONTEXT: Skeletal muscle protein synthesis is highly responsive to food intake. It has been suggested that the post-prandial increase in circulating insulin modulates the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a greater post-prandial rise in circulating insulin level increases amino acid uptake in muscle and augments post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates. PARTICIPANTS: and design. 48 healthy young (age 22±1 y; BMI 22...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743615/both-basal-and-post-prandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-rates-following-the-ingestion-of-a-leucine-enriched-whey-protein-supplement-are-not-impaired-in-sarcopenic-older-males
#10
Irene Fleur Kramer, Lex B Verdijk, Henrike M Hamer, Sjors Verlaan, Yvette C Luiking, Imre W K Kouw, Joan M Senden, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemarie P Gijsen, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725371/mypt1-isoforms-expressed-in-hek293t-cells-are-differentially-phosphorylated-after-gtp%C3%AE-s-treatment
#11
Simon Lin, Frank V Brozovich
Agonist stimulation of smooth muscle is known to activate RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and Rho kinase phosphorylates the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase at Thr696 and Thr853, which inhibits the activity of MLC phosphatase to produce a Ca(2+) independent increase in MLC phosphorylation and force (Ca(2+) sensitization). Alternative mRNA splicing produces four MYPT1 isoforms, which differ by the presence or absence of a central insert (CI) and leucine zipper (LZ). This study was designed to determine if Rho kinase differentially phosphorylates MYPT1 isoforms...
2016: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716121/leucine-rich-diet-alters-the-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomic-profile-without-changing-the-walker-256-tumour-mass-in-rats
#12
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713068/cloning-and-expression-study-of-a-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-gene-from-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#13
Haiyan Zhang, Guobin Hu, Qiuming Liu, Shicui Zhang
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in mammals is a member of the ancient Toll-like family of receptors that predominantly recognizes conserved components of Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, a tlr2 gene and its 5'-flanking sequence were cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, its responsive expressions to various immunostimulants were subsequently studied in vivo. The turbot (sm)tlr2 gene spans over 9.0 kb with a structure of 12 exon-11 intron and encodes 816 amino acids. The deduced protein shows the highest sequence identity (76...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708684/the-impact-of-protein-quality-on-the-promotion-of-resistance-exercise-induced-changes-in-muscle-mass
#14
Stuart M Phillips
Protein supplementation during resistance exercise training augments hypertrophic gains. Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698847/paraneoplastic-morvan-s-syndrome-following-surgical-treatment-of-recurrent-thymoma-a-case-report
#15
Edvina Galié, Rosaria Renna, Domenico Plantone, Andrea Pace, Mirella Marino, Bruno Jandolo, Tatiana Koudriavtseva
Morvan's syndrome (MoS) is a rare, complex neurological disorder characterized by neuromyotonia, neuropsychiatric features, dysautonomia and neuropathic pain. The majority of MoS cases have a paraneoplastic aetiology, usually occurring prior to the diagnosis of the underlying tumour and showing improvement following its treatment. The present study reports the case of a 35-year-old Caucasian male patient who was diagnosed with stage IVA thymoma. Thymectomy, lung resection, diaphragmatic pleurectomy and pericardio-phrenectomy were performed 6 months after neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693429/fibromodulin-a-regulatory-molecule-maintaining-cellular-architecture-for-normal-cellular-function
#16
Arif Tasleem Jan, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi
Fibromodulin (FMOD) is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that plays roles in a series of biological and pathophysiological processes. The interaction between FMOD and lysyl oxidase (LOX; collagen cross-linking enzyme) helps regulate extracellular matrix composition, and thereby, provides a permissive environment for regulating cellular turnover. FMOD has been mostly studied in the context of matrix component assembly, but during recent years its association with muscle development, cell reprogramming, and the angiogenic program have demonstrated its activities well beyond extracellular matrix maintenance...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670855/frailty-and-sarcopenia-in-elderly
#17
John E Morley
Frailty is a pre-disability syndrome where an older person can be identified as being at risk when exposed to stressors associated with high risk for disability or needing to be hospitalized. Two major frailty definitions exist. The physical phenotype of frailty and the multiple deficit model. A simple frailty screening tool-FRAIL-has been validated. Treatment of frailty involves resistance exercise, optimization of nutrition, and treatment of fatigue (sleep apnea, depression), treatable causes of weight loss and adjustment of polypharmacy...
September 26, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664200/leucine-and-valine-supplementation-of-low-protein-diets-for-broiler-chickens-from-21-to-42-days-of-age
#18
I C Ospina-Rojas, A E Murakami, C R A Duarte, G R Nascimento, E R M Garcia, M I Sakamoto, R V Nunes
The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performance, serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch. A total of 1,500 21-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments with 3 replicates of 20 birds each...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643743/resistance-exercise-augments-postprandial-overnight-muscle-protein-synthesis-rates
#19
Jorn Trommelen, Andrew M Holwerda, Imre W K Kouw, Henning Langer, Shona L Halson, Ian Rollo, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that protein ingestion prior to sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. Whether prior exercise further augments the muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion remains to be established. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether resistance-type exercise performed in the evening increases the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion. METHODS: Twenty four healthy young men were randomly assigned to ingest 30 g intrinsically L-[1-C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-C]-leucine labeled casein protein before going to sleep with (PRO+EX: n=12) or without (PRO: n=12) prior resistance-type exercise performed in the evening...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633041/lrrc75b-is-a%C3%A2-novel-negative-regulator%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-c2c12-myogenic%C3%A2-differentiation
#20
Yuechun Zhong, Liyi Zou, Zonggui Wang, Yaqiong Pan, Zhong Dai, Xinguang Liu, Liao Cui, Changqing Zuo
Many transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the guidance of myogenic differentiation have been investigated in previous studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of myogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. In the present study, by performing a meta-analysis of C2C12 myogenic differentiation microarray data, we found that leucine-rich repeat-containing 75B (Lrrc75b), also known as AI646023, a molecule of unknown biological function, was downregulated during C2C12 myogenic differentiation...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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