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Cancer microenvironment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028873/mirna-in-tumour-metabolism-and-why-could-it-be-the-preferred-pathway-for-energy-reprograming
#1
Aliaa A Alamoudi, Amina Alnoury, Hoda Gad
The current literature on the role of microRNA (miRNA) in tumour metabolism is growing, and a number of studies regularly confirm the impact miRNA can have in energy reprograming in tumours. However, there remains to be a lack of understanding of the larger perspective of the role of miRNA in the metabolism story. In the first part of this review, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the extensive role of miRNAs in tumour metabolism including glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. However, in the second part, we aim to provide a description of the multidimensional role miRNA can be playing in tumour metabolism...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027915/a-combination-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-with-metronomic-chemotherapy-as-a-way-of-targeting-therapy-resistant-cancer-cells
#2
REVIEW
Irina Kareva
Therapeutic resistance remains a major obstacle in treating many cancers, particularly in advanced stages. It is likely that cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) have the potential to eliminate therapy-resistant cancer cells. However, their effectiveness may be limited either by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, or by immune cell death induced by cytotoxic treatments. High-frequency low-dose (also known as metronomic) chemotherapy can help improve the activity of CTLs by providing sufficient stimulation for cytotoxic immune cells without excessive depletion...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027617/zebrafish-as-a-model-to-study-neuroblastoma-development
#3
REVIEW
Mattie J Casey, Rodney A Stewart
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid tumor arising from embryonic neural crest progenitor cells that normally generate the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. As such, the location of neuroblastoma tumors is correlated with the distribution of major post-ganglionic clusters throughout the sympathetic chain, with the highest incidence in the adrenal medulla or lumbar sympathetic ganglia (~65%). Neuroblastoma is an enigmatic tumor that can spontaneously regress with minimal treatment or become highly metastatic and develop resistance to aggressive treatments, including radiation and high-dose chemotherapy...
October 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027232/immune-recognition-of-irradiated-cancer-cells
#4
REVIEW
Erik Wennerberg, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sophia Bornstein, Takahiro Yamazaki, Sandra Demaria, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Ionizing irradiation has been extensively employed for the clinical management of solid tumors, with therapeutic or palliative intents, for decades. Until recently, radiation therapy (RT) was believed to mediate antineoplastic activity mostly (if not only) as a consequence of cancer cell-intrinsic effects. Indeed, the macromolecular damage imposed to malignant cells by RT initiates one or multiple signal transduction cascades that drive a permanent proliferative arrest (cellular senescence) or regulated cell death...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027231/the-renaissance-of-anti-neoplastic-immunity-from-tumor-cell-demise
#5
REVIEW
Yuting Ma, Jonathan M Pitt, Qingqing Li, Heng Yang
Cancer therapies can temporarily reduce tumor burdens by inducing malignant cell death. However, cancer cure is still far from realization because tumors often gain resistance to current treatment and eventually relapse. Accumulating evidence suggests that successful cancer interventions require anti-tumor immunity. Therapy-induced cell stress responses ultimately result in one or more cell death modalities, including apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. These irreversible dying processes are accompanied by active or passive release of cell death-associated molecular patterns (CDAMPs), which can be sensed by corresponding pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on tumor-infiltrating immune cells...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027229/extracellular-nucleosides-and-nucleotides-as-immunomodulators
#6
REVIEW
Oliver Kepp, Friedemann Loos, Peng Liu, Guido Kroemer
Some anticancer agents induce immunogenic cell death that is accompanied by the emission of danger signals into the tumor microenvironment, thus attracting and activating innate immune effectors and finally inducing anticancer immunity. The release of extracellular nucleosides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the tumor in response to anticancer therapy plays a pivotal role in the attraction of antigen presenting cells and the activation of inflammasome-mediated proinflammatory cascades. In contrast, the ectonucleotidase-catalyzed phosphohydrolysis of nucleotides to nucleosides reduces the extracellular availability of nucleotides, hence limiting the recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027226/efferocytosis-of-dying-cells-differentially-modulate-immunological-outcomes-in-tumor-microenvironment
#7
REVIEW
Sushil Kumar, David Calianese, Raymond B Birge
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an integral part of tissue homeostasis in complex organisms, allowing for tissue turnover, repair, and renewal while simultaneously inhibiting the release of self antigens and danger signals from apoptotic cell-derived constituents that can result in immune activation, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Unlike cells in culture, the physiological fate of cells that die by apoptosis in vivo is their rapid recognition and engulfment by phagocytic cells (a process called efferocytosis)...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027224/immunomodulation-by-ionizing-radiation-impact-for-design-of-radio-immunotherapies-and-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin Frey, Michael Rückert, Lisa Deloch, Paul F Rühle, Anja Derer, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl
Ionizing radiation is often regarded as an element of danger. But, danger responses on the cellular and molecular level are often beneficial with regard to the induction of anti-tumor immunity and for amelioration of inflammation. We outline how in dependence of radiation dose and fraction, radiation itself-and especially in combination with immune modulators-impacts on the innate and adaptive immune system. Focus is set on radiation-induced changes of the tumor cell phenotype and the cellular microenvironment including immunogenic cancer cell death...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027156/mapping-bone-marrow-niches-of-disseminated-tumor-cells
#9
Weijie Zhang, Hin Ching Lo, Xiang H-F Zhang
Breast cancer cells may disseminate early, before tumor diagnosis. Disseminated tumor cells, or DTCs, reside in the bone marrow, and may persist for years or even decades. Some of these cells may be re-activated to resume aggressive growth, and eventually become overt bone metastases. Recent studies have begun to shed light on this complicated process and revealed multiple steps and intermediate states of colonizing DTCs. However, how cancer-host interactions evolve during this process needs to be further understood...
October 11, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026949/a-filamentous-bacteriophage-targeted-to-carcinoembryonic-antigen-induces-tumor-regression-in-mouse-models-of-colorectal-cancer
#10
Paola Murgas, Nicolás Bustamante, Nicole Araya, Sebastián Cruz-Gómez, Eduardo Durán, Diana Gaete, César Oyarce, Ernesto López, Andrés Alonso Herrada, Nicolás Ferreira, Hans Pieringer, Alvaro Lladser
Colorectal cancer is a deadly disease, which is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages, where conventional treatments are no longer effective. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a new form to treat different malignancies by turning-on the immune system against tumors. However, tumors are able to evade antitumor immune responses by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Single-stranded DNA containing M13 bacteriophages are highly immunogenic and can be specifically targeted to the surface of tumor cells to trigger inflammation and infiltration of activated innate immune cells, overcoming tumor-associated immunosuppression and promoting antitumor immunity...
October 12, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026524/beyond-adhesion-%C3%A2-emerging-roles-for-integrins-in-control-of-the-tumor-microenvironment
#11
REVIEW
Whitney Longmate, C Michael DiPersio
While integrins were originally discovered as cell adhesion receptors, recent studies have reinforced the concept that integrins have central roles in cancer that extend far beyond controlling cell adhesion and migration. Indeed, as transmembrane cell surface receptors that occupy a critical position at the interface of cellular and extracellular interactions and are capable of both "inside-out" and "outside-in" signaling, integrins are uniquely poised to regulate the cell's ability to promote, sense, and react to changes in the tumor microenvironment...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026308/role-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-lipid-core-nanocapsules-on-melanoma-neutrophil-crosstalk
#12
Carine C Drewes, Aline de Cs Alves, Cristina B Hebeda, Isabela Copetti, Silvana Sandri, Mayara K Uchiyama, Koiti Araki, Silvia S Guterres, Adriana R Pohlmann, Sandra H Farsky
Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with increasing incidence and limited therapies in advanced stages. Systemic neutrophilia or abundant neutrophils in the tumor contribute toward its worst prognosis, and the interplay of cancer and the immune system has been shown in tumor development and metastasis. We recently showed the in vivo efficacy of poly(ε-caprolactone) lipid-core nanocapsule (LNC) or LNC loaded with acetyleugenol (AcE-LNC) to treat B16F10-induced melanoma in mice. In this study, we investigated whether LNC or AcE-LNC toxicity could involve modifications on crosstalk of melanoma cells and neutrophils...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026204/engineering-and-physical-sciences-in-oncology-challenges-and-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Michael J Mitchell, Rakesh K Jain, Robert Langer
The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026068/hollow-mno2-as-a-tumor-microenvironment-responsive-biodegradable-nano-platform-for-combination-therapy-favoring-antitumor-immune-responses
#14
Guangbao Yang, Ligeng Xu, Yu Chao, Jun Xu, Xiaoqi Sun, Yifan Wu, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
Herein, an intelligent biodegradable hollow manganese dioxide (H-MnO2) nano-platform is developed for not only tumor microenvironment (TME)-specific imaging and on-demand drug release, but also modulation of hypoxic TME to enhance cancer therapy, resulting in comprehensive effects favoring anti-tumor immune responses. With hollow structures, H-MnO2 nanoshells post modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG) could be co-loaded with a photodynamic agent chlorine e6 (Ce6), and a chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025995/metabolic-recycling-of-ammonia-via-glutamate-dehydrogenase-supports-breast-cancer-biomass
#15
Jessica B Spinelli, Haejin Yoon, Alison E Ringel, Sarah Jeanfavre, Clary B Clish, Marcia C Haigis
Ammonia is a ubiquitous by-product of cellular metabolism, however the biological consequences of ammonia production are not fully understood, especially in cancer. We find that ammonia is not merely a toxic waste product, but is recycled into central amino acid metabolism to maximize nitrogen utilization. Cancer cells primarily assimilated ammonia through reductive amination catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and secondary reactions enabled other amino acids, such as proline and aspartate, to directly acquire this nitrogen...
October 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025424/understanding-immune-phenotypes-in-human-gastric-disease-tissues-by-multiplexed-immunohistochemistry
#16
Le Ying, Feng Yan, Qiaohong Meng, Xiangliang Yuan, Liang Yu, Bryan R G Williams, David W Chan, Liyun Shi, Yugang Tu, Peihua Ni, Xuefeng Wang, Dakang Xu, Yiqun Hu
BACKGROUND: Understanding immune phenotypes and human gastric disease in situ requires an approach that leverages multiplexed immunohistochemistry (mIHC) with multispectral imaging to facilitate precise image analyses. METHODS: We developed a novel 4-color mIHC assay based on tyramide signal amplification that allowed us to reliably interrogate immunologic checkpoints, including programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)T) and regulatory T cells (Foxp3), in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of various human gastric diseases...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025353/mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-analyses-in-kallikrein-related-peptidase-research-implications-for-cancer-research-and-therapy
#17
Lakmali Munasinghage Silva, Judith Ann Clements
Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a family of serine peptidases that are deregulated in numerous pathological conditions, with a multitude of KLK-mediated functional roles implicated in the progression of cancer. Advances in multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics have facilitated the quantitative measurement of deregulated KLK expression in cancer, identifying certain KLKs, as well as their substrates, as potential cancer biomarkers. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss how these approaches have been utilized for KLK biomarker discovery and unbiased substrate determination in complex protein pools that mimic the in vivo extracellular microenvironment...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024042/pro-inflammatory-m1-macrophage-enhances-metastatic-potential-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#18
Untack Cho, Boyun Kim, Soochi Kim, Youngjin Han, Yong Sang Song
Obesity is a serious health problem and critically related to poor prognosis in cancer, presumably through induction of chronic inflammation. The major culprit for cancer progression in obesity is presumed to be macrophages. Accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue due to obesity induced chronic inflammation has been observed. However, obesity-induced macrophage accumulation related to ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. So, the role of macrophage in cancer progression is needed to be further defined for therapeutic intervention...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023689/difference-of-lower-airway-microbiome-in-bilateral-protected-specimen-brush-between-lung-cancer-patients-with-unilateral-lobar-masses-and-control-subjects
#19
Hai-Xia Liu, Li-Li Tao, Jing Zhang, Ying-Gang Zhu, Yu Zheng, Dong Liu, Min Zhou, Hui Ke, Meng-Meng Shi, Jie-Ming Qu
The functional role of respiratory microbiota has attracted an accumulating attention recently. However, the role of respiratory microbiome in lung carcinogenesis is mostly unknown. This study aimed to characterize and compare bilateral lower airway microbiome of lung cancer patients with unilateral lobar masses and control subjects. Protected bronchial specimen brushing samples were collected from 24 lung cancer patients with unilateral lobar masses (paired samples from cancerous site and the contralateral noncancerous site) and 18 healthy controls undergoing bronchoscopies and further analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022515/immunopharmacological-activity-of-betulin-in-inflammation-associated-carcinogenesis
#20
Anja Schwiebs, Heinfried Radeke
This review highlights the multiple properties of the birch bark-derived pentacyclic triterpene betulin with special focus on its pharmacological activity in cancer and inflammation. While less well characterized compared to its hydrophilic derivative, betulinic acid, it exhibits potent anticancer activity described in many publications. Indeed, underinvestigated are its immunomodulatory functions in inflammatory diseases that appeared to enhance innate immune cell activities in an adjuvant-like fashion towards an interleukin-12 driven antitumor immunity...
October 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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