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Cancer microenvironment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220576/oxygenic-hybrid-semiconducting-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-photodynamic-therapy
#1
Houjuan Zhu, Jingchao Li, Xiaoying Qi, Peng Chen, Kanyi Pu
Photodynamic nanotheranostics has shown great promise for cancer therapy; however, its therapeutic efficacy is limited due to the hypoxia of tumor microenvironment and the unfavorable bioavailability of existing photodynamic agents. We herein develop hybrid core-shell semiconducting nanoparticles (SPN-Ms) that can undergo O2 evolution in hypoxic solid tumor to promote photodynamic process. Such oxygenic nanoparticles are synthesized through a one-pot surface growth reaction and have a unique multilayer structure cored and coated with semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220291/emerging-targeted-and-immune-based-therapies-in-sarcoma
#2
Seth M Pollack, Matthew Ingham, Matthew B Spraker, Gary K Schwartz
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin, and more than 50 subtypes are defined. For most sarcomas, locally advanced or unresectable disease is still treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, our understanding of subtype-specific cancer biology has expanded, and it has revealed distinct molecular alterations responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These findings have motivated the development of targeted therapies that are being evaluated in subtype-specific or biomarker-driven clinical trials...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218300/the-dual-role-of-cellular-senescence-in-developing-tumors-and-their-response-to-cancer-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Michael Breitenbach
Cellular senescence describes an irreversible growth arrest characterized by distinct morphology, gene expression pattern, and secretory phenotype. The final or intermediate stages of senescence can be reached by different genetic mechanisms and in answer to different external and internal stresses. It has been maintained in the literature but never proven by clearcut experiments that the induction of senescence serves the evolutionary purpose of protecting the individual from development and growth of cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218246/angiopoietin-like-protein-2-facilitates-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-progression-by-promoting-the-polarization-of-m2-tumor-associated-macrophages
#4
Xiaojuan Wei, Siyue Nie, Hui Liu, Jingyu Sun, Jie Liu, Juan Li, Shuyan Li, Shuyun Wang, Shuyi Han, Jun Wang, Yuping Sun
The functional phenotypes (M1 and M2) of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are influenced by the tumor microenvironment (TME) and contribute greatly to the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the molecular mechanisms for TAM polarization remain unclear. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) is involved in tumor progression. In this study, Angptl2 expression was aberrantly increased in NSCLC cells and positively correlated with TAM infiltration, tumor size and poor patient survival...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218236/psmb5-plays-a-dual-role-in-cancer-development-and-immunosuppression
#5
Chih-Yang Wang, Chung-Yen Li, Hui-Ping Hsu, Chien-Yu Cho, Meng-Chi Yen, Tzu-Yang Weng, Wei-Ching Chen, Yu-Hsuan Hung, Kuo-Ting Lee, Jui-Hsiang Hung, Yi-Ling Chen, Ming-Derg Lai
Tumor progression and metastasis are dependent on the intrinsic properties of tumor cells and the influence of microenvironment including the immune system. It would be important to identify target drug that can inhibit cancer cell and activate immune cells. Proteasome β subunits (PSMB) family, one component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, has been demonstrated to play an important role in tumor cells and immune cells. Therefore, we used a bioinformatics approach to examine the potential role of PSMB family...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217528/t-cells-expressing-checkpoint-receptor-tigit-are-enriched-in-follicular-lymphoma-tumors-and-characterized-by-reversible-suppression-of-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#6
Sarah E Josefsson, Kanutte Huse, Arne Kolstad, Klaus Beiske, Daniela Pende, Chloé B Steen, Else Marit Inderberg, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Bjørn Østenstad, Erlend B Smeland, Ronald Levy, Jonathan M Irish, June H Myklebust
PURPOSE: T cells infiltrating follicular lymphoma (FL) tumors are considered dysfunctional, yet the optimal target for immune checkpoint blockade is unknown. Characterizing co-inhibitory receptor expression patterns and signaling responses in FL T-cell subsets might reveal new therapeutic targets. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Surface expression of 9 co-inhibitory receptors governing T-cell function was characterized in T-cell subsets from FL lymph node tumors and from healthy donor tonsils and peripheral blood samples, using high-dimensional flow cytometry...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217518/enhancement-of-mammary-tumor-growth-by-igfbp-3-involves-impaired-t-cell-accumulation
#7
Tiffany Scully, Carolyn Scott, Sue Mei Firth, Lisa M Sedger, John E Pintar, Stephen Twigg, Robert C Baxter
Epidemiological studies show an association between obesity and poor breast cancer prognosis. We previously demonstrated that global IGFBP-3 deficiency, in IGFBP-3-null mice, resulted in a 50% reduction in mammary tumor growth over 3 weeks relative to tumors in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. This growth reduction was ameliorated by high-fat feeding-induced obesity. This study aimed to examine how IGFBP-3 promotes tumor growth by influencing the immune tumor microenvironment in healthy and obese mice. Syngeneic EO771 cells, which lack detectable IGFBP-3 expression, were grown as orthotopic tumors in wild-type and IGFBP-3-null C57BL/6 mice placed on either a control chow or high-fat diet, and examined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
December 7, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216863/ccl5-ccr5-interactions-modulate-metabolic-events-during-tumor-onset-to-promote-tumorigenesis
#8
Darrin Gao, Lisa H Cazares, Eleanor N Fish
BACKGROUND: In earlier studies we have shown that CCL5 activation of CCR5 induces the proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells in a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner and that this is in part due to CCR5-mediated increases in glycolytic metabolism. METHODS: Using the MDA-MB-231 triple negative human breast cancer cell line and mouse mammary tumor virus - polyomavirus middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT) mouse primary breast cancer cells, we conducted in vivo tumor transplant experiments to examine the effects of CCL5-CCR5 interactions in the context of regulating tumor metabolism...
December 8, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215754/inhibition-of-jak2-stat3-reduces-tumor-induced-angiogenesis-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#9
Jian-Feng Liu, Wei-Wei Deng, Lei Chen, Yi-Cun Li, Lei Wu, Si-Rui Ma, Wen-Feng Zhang, Lin-Lin Bu, Zhi-Jun Sun
Angiogenesis is an essential event in tumor growth and metastasis, and immune system also contributes to the tumor evasion. Emerging evidences have suggested the bidirectional link between angiogenesis and immunosuppression. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) is a kind of immunosuppressive cells and plays an important role in this process. However, the actual regulatory mechanisms of angiogenesis and MDSCs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were unclear. In this study, through analyzing the immunohistochemistry staining of human HNSCC tissue microarray, we found that the microvascular density (MVD) was significantly increased in HNSCC patients...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215746/reactive-oxygen-species-and-colorectal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Sisi Lin, Yongyu Li, Andrey A Zamyatnin, Jens Werner, Alexandr V Bazhin
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the worldwide. It is urgent to find more effective therapeutic strategies for it. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play multiple roles in normal cellular physiology processes. Thus, a certain level of ROS is essential to keep normal cellular function. However, the accumulation of ROS shows dual roles for cells, which is mainly dependent on the concentration of ROS, the origin of the cancer cell and the activated signaling pathways during tumor progression...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215705/activation-of-fibroblasts-by-nicotine-promotes-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-motility-of-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Pin-Cyuan Chen, Wen-Ying Lee, Hsiang-Hsi Ling, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Ku-Chung Chen, Cheng-Wei Lin
The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumor initiation and progression. It is well documented that nicotine participates in cigarette smoking-related malignancies. Previous studies focused on the effects of nicotine on tumor cells; however, the role of the microenvironment in nicotine-mediated tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the effect and molecular mechanism of nicotine on fibroblasts and its contribution to breast cancer. We found that nicotine induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells and promoted activation of fibroblasts...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214727/importance-and-regulation-of-adult-stem-cell-migration
#12
REVIEW
Beatriz de Lucas, Laura M Pérez, Beatriz G Gálvez
Cell migration is an essential process throughout the life of vertebrates, beginning during embryonic development and continuing throughout adulthood. Stem cells have an inherent ability to migrate, that is as important as their capacity for self-renewal and differentiation, enabling them to maintain tissue homoeostasis and mediate repair and regeneration. Adult stem cells reside in specific tissue niches, where they remain in a quiescent state until called upon and activated by tissue environmental signals...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213088/nsd1-inactivation-defines-an-immune-cold-dna-hypomethylated-subtype-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Kevin Brennan, June Ho Shin, Joshua K Tay, Marcos Prunello, Andrew J Gentles, John B Sunwoo, Olivier Gevaert
Chromatin modifying enzymes are frequently mutated in cancer, resulting in widespread epigenetic deregulation. Recent reports indicate that inactivating mutations in the histone methyltransferase NSD1 define an intrinsic subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) that features pronounced DNA hypomethylation. Here, we describe a similar hypomethylated subtype of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) that is enriched for both inactivating mutations and deletions in NSD1. The 'NSD1 subtypes' of HNSC and LUSC are highly correlated at the DNA methylation and gene expression levels, featuring ectopic expression of developmental transcription factors and genes that are also hypomethylated in Sotos syndrome, a congenital disorder caused by germline NSD1 mutations...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212855/t-cell-densities-in-brain-metastases-are-associated-with-patient-survival-times-and-diffusion-tensor-mri-changes
#14
Rasheed Zakaria, Angela Platt-Higgins, Nitika Rathi, Mark Radon, Sumit Das, Kumar Das, Maneesh Bhojak, Andrew Brodbelt, Emmanuel Chavredakis, Michael D Jenkinson, Philip S Rudland
Brain metastases are common and are usually detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a derivative MRI technique which can detect disruption of white matter tracts in the brain. We have matched preoperative DTI with image-guided sampling of the brain-tumor interface in 26 patients during resection of a brain metastasis and assessed mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). The tissue samples were analysed for vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltration, growth pattern, and tumor expression of proteins associated with growth or local invasion such as Ki67, S100A4, and MMP2, 9, and 13...
December 6, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212519/gper-mediates-the-angiocrine-actions-induced-by-igf1-through-the-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-pathway-in-the-breast-tumor-microenvironment
#15
Ernestina M De Francesco, Andrew H Sims, Marcello Maggiolini, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti, Robert B Clarke
BACKGROUND: The G protein estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 mediates estrogen action in breast cancer cells as well as in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are key components of microenvironment driving tumor progression. GPER is a transcriptional target of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and activates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in hypoxic breast tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, IGF1/IGF1R signaling, which has angiogenic effects, has been shown to activate GPER in breast cancer cells...
December 6, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212306/oncogene-driven-metabolic-alterations-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Hye-Young Min, Ho-Young Lee
Cancer is the leading cause of human deaths worldwide. Understanding the biology underlying the evolution of cancer is important for reducing the economic and social burden of cancer. In addition to genetic aberrations, recent studies demonstrate metabolic rewiring, such as aerobic glycolysis, glutamine dependency, accumulation of intermediates of glycolysis, and upregulation of lipid and amino acid synthesis, in several types of cancer to support their high demands on nutrients for building blocks and energy production...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212301/convergence-of-cancer-metabolism-and-immunity-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Chi Van Dang, Jung-Whan Kim
Cancer metabolism as a field of research was founded almost 100 years ago by Otto Warburg, who described the propensity for cancers to convert glucose to lactate despite the presence of oxygen, which in yeast diminishes glycolytic metabolism known as the Pasteur effect. In the past 20 years, the resurgence of interest in cancer metabolism provided significant insights into processes involved in maintenance metabolism of non-proliferating cells and proliferative metabolism, which is regulated by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors in normal proliferating cells...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212270/exosomal-mir-141-3p-regulates-osteoblast-activity-to-promote-the-osteoblastic-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer
#18
Yun Ye, Su-Liang Li, Yue-Yun Ma, Yan-Jun Diao, Liu Yang, Ming-Quan Su, Zhuo Li, Yang Ji, Juan Wang, Lin Lei, Wei-Xiao Fan, La-Xiu Li, Yi Xu, Xiao-Ke Hao
Exosomes from cancer cells, which contain microRNA and reach metastasis loci prior to cancer cells, stimulate the formation of a metastatic microenvironment. Previous studies have shown that exosomal miR-141-3p is associated with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role and regulatory mechanism of miR-141-3p in the microenvironment of bone metastases require further study. In this study, we performed a series of experiments in vivo and in vitro to determine whether exosomal miR-141-3p from MDA PCa 2b cells regulates osteoblast activity to promote osteoblastic metastasis...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212256/matrix-metalloproteinase-mmp9-maintains-epithelial-barrier-function-and-preserves-mucosal-lining-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#19
Adani Pujada, Lewins Walter, Aashka Patel, Tien Anh Bui, Zhan Zhang, Yuchen Zhang, Timothy Luke Denning, Pallavi Garg
In colitis associated cancer (CAC), chronic inflammation exposes the epithelial mucosal defensive lining to inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) causing the dysbiosis of microbiota population and the dysregulation of immune response. Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc dependent endopeptidases which mediate inflammation, tissue remodeling, and carcinogenesis. MMP9 is undetectable in healthy tissue, although highly upregulated during inflammation and cancer. We have previously shown that MMP9 plays a protective role in CAC opposite to its conventional role of acute inflammation and cancer mediator...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212243/effects-of-silencing-rab27a-gene-on-biological-characteristics-and-chemosensitivity-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Xia Li, Haiying Wang, Qinggan Ni, Zhiyuan Tang, Jun Ni, Liqin Xu, Hua Huang, Songshi Ni, Jian Feng
Rab27a, a member of the Rab protein family, can regulate the tumor microenvironment and promote the development of the tumor. Elevated expression of Rab27a is closely connected with many human cancers containing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). But the role of Rab27a in non-small cell lung cancer and its possible mechanism is particularly unclear. In this research, we explored the effect of silencing Rab27a in vitro and in vivo, furnishing evidence that Rab27a could be a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
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