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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823141/targeted-therapy-of-ovarian-cancer-including-immune-check-point-inhibitor
#1
Jin Young Kim, Chi Heum Cho, Hong Suk Song
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women because most patients present with advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. Although cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy remain the gold standards of treatment, the recurrence rate of ovarian cancer remains high. Attempts to improve this standard two-drug chemotherapy by adding a third cytotoxic drug have failed to affect either progression-free survival or overall survival and have resulted in an increase in toxic side effects...
August 22, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823104/novel-polymeric-composites-based-on-carboxymethyl-chitosan-and-poly-acrylic-acid-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#2
Qurat-Ul-Ain Sharif, Muhammad Sohail, Mahmood Ahmad, Muhammad Usman Minhas, Shahzeb Khan, Samiullah Khan, Mubeen Kousar
The purpose of the study was to develop a novel, efficient, stable, chemically crosslinked polymeric system that have pH responsive behaviour and can effectively release 5-FU in a controlled manner. Furthermore it can target colonic cancer minimizing the side effects of in vivo chemotherapy via 5-FU. Swelling and drug release studies were performed to evaluate its in vitro release behaviour. Hydrogels were also characterized by FTIR, SEM and DSC. In vitro cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hydrogels were determined by MTT assay using HeLa cells...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823085/chromaffin-cells-as-a-model-to-evaluate-mechanisms-of-cell-death-and-neuroprotective-compounds
#3
REVIEW
Cristobal de Los Rios, Maria F Cano-Abad, Mercedes Villarroya, Manuela G López
In this review, we show how chromaffin cells have contributed to evaluate neuroprotective compounds with diverse mechanisms of action. Chromaffin cells are considered paraneurons, as they share many common features with neurons: (i) they synthesize, store, and release neurotransmitters upon stimulation and (ii) they express voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, in addition to a wide variety of receptors. All these characteristics, together with the fact that primary cultures from bovine adrenal glands or chromaffin cells from the tumor pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 are easy to culture, make them an ideal model to study neurotoxic mechanisms and neuroprotective drugs...
August 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823053/identification-of-a-ron-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-binding-peptide-using-phage-display-technique-and-computational-modeling-of-its-binding-mode
#4
Omid Zarei, Silvia Benvenuti, Fulya Ustun-Alkan, Maryam Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Siavoush Dastmalchi
RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) tyrosine kinase receptor is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in cancer therapy. The aim of this work was identification of RON-binding peptides using phage display and computational modeling their mode of binding. A 12-mer peptide phage library was utilized to perform biopanning against RON. The RON-binding ability of the selected peptide-displaying phage and their possible binding sites were examined by ELISA. Binding modes and affinities were also predicted by docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822947/cell-metabolomics-reveals-the-neurotoxicity-mechanism-of-cadmium-in-pc12-cells
#5
Li Zong, Junpeng Xing, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Fengrui Song
The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can induce neurotoxicity. Extensive studies about the effects of Cd on human health have been reported, however, a systematic investigation on the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Cd on central nervous system is still needed. In this paper, the neuronal PC-12 cells were treated with a series of concentrations of CdCl2 for 48h. Then the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC15 value (15% inhibiting concentration) was selected for further mechanism studies...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822873/surface-modification-of-an-intraocular-lens-material-by-plasma-assisted-grafting-with-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hema-for-controlled-release-of-moxifloxacin
#6
A Paula Vieira, Andreia F R Pimenta, Diana Silva, M Helena Gil, Patrícia Alves, Patrícia Coimbra, José L G C Mata, Dimitriya Bozukova, Tiago R Correia, Ilídio J Correia, A Paula Serro, A Jorge Guiomar
Endophthalmitis, an inflammation of the eye due to perioperative infection, may occur after cataract surgery. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) loaded with an antibiotic have been proposed as an alternative to the conventional postoperative endophthalmitis prophylaxis, since the antibiotic is delivered directly to the target site. In this work, an IOL-based antibiotic releasing system was prepared from a copolymer used in the production of IOLs and a fluoroquinolone used in endophthalmitis prophylaxis (moxifloxacin, MFX)...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822705/anti-dermatophyte-activity-of-leguminosae-plants-from-southern-brazil-with-emphasis-on-mimosa-pigra-leguminosae
#7
C B de Morais, M Scopel, G P R Pedrazza, F K da Silva, D F Dalla Lana, M L Tonello, S T S Miotto, M M Machado, L F S De Oliveira, A M Fuentefria, J A S Zuanazzi
BACKGROUND: Intensive prophylactic use of antifungals leads to the increase of drug resistance and the need for new and more effective treatments are real. Plants from Leguminosae family are rich in flavonoids, for which numerous biological activities have been described, including antifungal effects. PURPOSE: To screen methanolic extracts from Leguminosae species looking for alternative sources for antifungal agents (anti-dermatophyte and anti-Candida) and their innocuity...
August 16, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822650/progressive-and-reversible-conduction-disease-with-checkpoint-inhibitors
#8
Neeti Reddy, Rohit Moudgil, Juan C Lopez-Mattei, Kaveh Karimzad, Elie N Mouhayar, Neeta Somaiah, Anthony P Conley, Shreyaskumar Patel, Dana E Giza, Cezar Iliescu
Novel antineoplastic therapies are focused on harnessing our own immune system to fight cancer. To that end, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death ligand 1 are 2 coinhibitory signals that play central roles in decreasing T-cell response and represent a class of medications termed "checkpoint inhibitors." We present an unusual case of progressive conduction abnormalities induced by checkpoint inhibitors. Prompt medical intervention resulted in full recovery. Despite the anticancer efficacy, the newer antineoplastic agents pose a significant and often life-threatening risk of cardiotoxicity...
June 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822352/vibrio-vulnificus-martx-cytotoxin-causes-inactivation-of-phagocytosis-related-signaling-molecules-in-macrophages
#9
Chun-Liang Chen, Shu-Chun Chien, Tzeng-Horng Leu, Hans I-Chen Harn, Ming-Jer Tang, Lien-I Hor
BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterial species that causes opportunistic infections manifested by serious skin lesions and fulminant septicemia in humans. We have previously shown that the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats in toxin (MARTXVv1) of a biotype 1 V. vulnificus strain promotes survival of this organism in the host by preventing it from engulfment by the phagocytes. The purpose of this study was to further explore how MARTXVv1 inhibits phagocytosis of this microorganism by the macrophage...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822236/synthesis-structural-studies-and-biological-activity-of-novel-cu-ii-complexes-with-thiourea-derivatives-of-4-azatricyclo-5-2-1-0-2-6-dec-8-ene-3-5-dione
#10
Aleksandra Drzewiecka-Antonik, Paweł Rejmak, Marcin T Klepka, Anna Wolska, Piotr Pietrzyk, Karolina Stępień, Giuseppina Sanna, Marta Struga
The new Cu(II) complexes of 1/2/3-(bromophenyl)-3-(1,7,8,9-tetramethyl-3,5-dioxo-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-en-4-yl)thiourea derivatives have been synthesized. The spectroscopic studies together with density functional theory calculations of Cu(II) complexes revealed that two parent ligands coordinate to the copper cation in bidentate fashion via thiocarbonyl S and deprotonated N atoms forming rarely observed four-membered chelate ring, with nearly planar [CuN2S2] moiety. In solid state, the mononuclear complex is formed for thiourea derivative with 3-bromophenyl, whereas for Cu(II) connection with 2- and 4-bromophenyl-thioureas the formation of dinuclear complexes is observed, the latter formed by the stacking of mononuclear complexes...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822218/locally-produced-xenin-and-the-neurotensinergic-system-in-pancreatic-islet-function-and-%C3%AE-cell-survival
#11
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
Modulation of neuropeptide receptors is important for pancreatic β-cell function. Here, islet distribution and effects of the neurotensin (NT) receptor modulators, xenin and NT, was examined. Xenin, but not NT, significantly improved glucose disposal and insulin secretion, in mice. However, both peptides stimulated insulin secretion from rodent β-cells at 5.6 mM glucose, with xenin having similar insulinotropic actions at 16.7 mM glucose. In contrast, NT inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion. Similar observations were made in human 1...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822186/-lignan-glycosides-and-sucrose-esters-from-roots-of-securidaca-inappendiculata
#12
Zhi Wang, Xue-Dong Yang, Hai-Yan Zha, Li-Na Guo, Dan Shen, Li-Zhen Xu, Shi-Lin Yang
Nine compounds, including five lignan glycosides (1-5), three sucrose esters (6-8), and one organic acid ester (9), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata by various chromatographic methods including silica gel, MPLC and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as acernikol-4″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), (7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), (7R, 8S)-5-methoxydihydrodehy-drodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3, 6'-O-diferuloylsucrose (6), 3-O-feruloyl-6'-O-sinapoylsucrose (7), sibricose A5 (8), and mehyl ferulate (9) on the basis of 1H-, 13C-NMR and MS experiments...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822150/-antimicrobial-and-anti-tumor-activities-of-endophytes-from-lycium-barbarum-of-ningxia
#13
Jin-Xia Dai, Xiao-Ning Du
The antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in vitro of the fermentation broth of 10 endophytic strains isolated from Lycium barbarum were determined to screen high activity endophytic strains. Sequences analysis of ITS and 16S rDNA was used for molecular identification of the strains. The results showed that 5 endophytic fungi had no inhibitory activity against the tested pathogens. Endophytic actinomycete strain AL6 had a certain inhibitory effect on 3 kinds of pathogenic fungi, and strain AL5 only had strong inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822075/recycling-endosomes-in-human-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-constitute-an-auxiliary-intracellular-trafficking-pathway-for-newly-synthesized-perforin
#14
Kelsey Lesteberg, Jordan Orange, George Makedonas
Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) store perforin within cytoplasmic secretory granules for immediate use, perforin is synthesized anew within hours of TCR stimulation. Previously, we observed new perforin protein at an immunologic synapse independent of secretory lysosomes; herein, we aimed to determine how new perforin transits to the synapse if not via lytic granules. We analyzed antigen-specific human CTLs via imaging flow cytometry and high-resolution confocal microscopy, with attention to intracellular trafficking components and new perforin...
August 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822000/effects-of-fusariotoxin-co-exposure-on-thp-1-human-immune-cells
#15
Marie-Caroline Smith, Stéphanie Madec, Samuel Troadec, Emmanuel Coton, Nolwenn Hymery
Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA), and moniliformin (MON) mycotoxins are common food and feed contaminants produced by Fusarium spp. However, while they are usually found to co-occur in a large range of commodities, only few data are available on mycotoxin co-exposure effects and cellular response mechanisms. In this study, the individual and combined toxic effects of these fusariotoxins were evaluated on the THP-1 human immune cell line as major fusariotoxins are mostly potent immunomodulators...
August 18, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821990/upregulation-of-cd16-monocyte-subsets-in-systemic-lupus-erythematous-patients
#16
Ziyan Wu, Shulan Zhang, Lidan Zhao, Yunyun Fei, Li Wang, Jing Li, Xiaoting Wen, Xiaofeng Zeng, Fengchun Zhang, Yongzhe Li
Monocytes are an important component in the innate immune system. However, studies to date have failed to conclude whether their levels are altered in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We applied the cytodiff counting method and comprehensively measured the circulating levels of distinct white blood cell (WBC) subsets, including CD16+, CD16-, and total monocytes, in 61 SLE patients as well as in 203 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). The absolute number of CD16- monocytes, total monocytes, immature granulocytes, mature neutrophils, total neutrophils, and T cell blasts was significantly higher, that of non-cytotoxic T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T + NK lymphocytes, T + NK lymphocytes, total lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils significantly lower (all p < 0...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821633/cell-autonomous-cytotoxicity-of-type-i-interferon-response-via-induction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#17
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Athanasios G Papavassiliou, Hippokratis Kiaris
The interaction of IFN with specific membrane receptors that transduce death-inducing signals is considered to be the principle mechanism of IFN-induced cytotoxicity. In this study, the classic non-cell-autonomous cytotoxicity of IFN was augmented by cell-autonomous mechanisms that operated independently of the interaction of IFN with its receptors. Cells primed to produce IFN by 5-azacytidine (5-aza) underwent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), as well as the iron chelator ciclopirox (CPX), which reduces ER stress, alleviated the cytotoxicity of 5-aza...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821559/synergy-of-wee1-and-mtor-inhibition-in-mutant-kras-driven-lung-cancers
#18
Josephine Hai, Shengwu Liu, Lauren Bufe, Khanh Do, Ting Chen, Xiaoen Wang, Christine Ng, Shuai Li, Ming-Sound Tsao, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Kwok-Kin Wong
Purpose:KRAS-activating mutations are the most common oncogenic driver in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but efforts to directly target mutant KRAS have proved a formidable challenge. Therefore, multi-targeted therapy may offer a plausible strategy to effectively treat KRAS-driven NSCLCs. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and mechanistic rationale for combining mTOR and WEE1 inhibition as a potential therapy for lung cancers harboring KRAS mutations. <p>Experimental Design: We investigated the synergistic effect of combining mTOR and WEE1 inhibitors on cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair response using a panel of human KRAS-mutant and wild type NSCLC cell lines and patient-derived xenograft cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821436/carbon-quantum-dot-tailored-calcium-alginate-hydrogel-for-ph-responsive-controlled-delivery-of-vancomycin
#19
Niladri Sarkar, Gyanaranjan Sahoo, Rashmita Das, Gyanaranjan Prusty, Sarat K Swain
Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of highly luminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from Aloe vera leaf gel; in just 2h at 250°C through carbonization pathway. The prepared CQDs are structurally characterized with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), hydrodynamic diameter and surface polarity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The functional carbon nanoparticles are observed as non-cytotoxic materials...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821405/benzyl-isothiocyanate-ameliorates-acetaldehyde-induced-cytotoxicity-by-enhancing-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-murine-hepatoma-hepa1c1c7-cells
#20
Yujia Liu, Momoko Yamanaka, Naomi Abe-Kanoh, Xiaoyang Liu, Beiwei Zhu, Shintaro Munemasa, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata, Yoshimasa Nakamura
In the present study, we assessed benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), an organosulfur compound from cruciferous vegetables, as a potential inducer of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity using murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. BITC was shown to enhance not only the total ALDH activity, but also the ALDH activity of the cytosolic/microsomal and mitochondrial fraction. BITC also significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ALDH1A1, ALDH2 and ALDH3A1 in a concentrationdependent manner. Simultaneously, the gene expression of phase 2 drugmetabolizing enzymes, such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 and heme oxygenase-1, was increased by the BITC treatment...
August 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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