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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677644/antimicrobial-activity-and-cytotoxicity-of-xanthoquinodin-analogs-from-the-fungus-cytospora-eugeniae-bcc42696
#1
Karoon Sadorn, Siriporn Saepua, Nattawut Boonyuen, Tanapong Boonruangprapa, Pranee Rachtawee, Pattama Pittayakhajonwut
Eleven previously undescribed compounds, including cytosporanthraxanthone, xanthoquinodins A7-A10, ketoxanthoquinodin A6, xanthoquinodins B6-B8, and spiroxanthoquinodins A and B, and one synthetically known compound, 2-methoxy pinselin, as well as ten known compounds, including xanthoquinodins A4-A6, B4, and B5, chrysophanol, physcion, (4S)-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-α-tetralone, (4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (or isosclerone), and gonytolide C were isolated from the fungus Cytospora eugeniae BCC42696. Their chemical structures were determined based on the analysis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data...
April 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677588/in-vitro-bioassays-reveal-that-additives-are-significant-contributors-to-the-toxicity-of-commercial-household-pesticides
#2
Jason P van de Merwe, Peta A Neale, Steven D Melvin, Frederic D L Leusch
Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay...
March 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677546/bacitracin-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-stimulating-the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-smad-axis
#3
Hui Li, Bin'en Nie, Zhe Du, Shutao Zhang, Teng Long, Bing Yue
Bacitracin, a widely used metallopeptide antibiotic, has been reported to be locally used in treating wounds without systemic adverse reactions. Our preliminary study showed that bacitracin might enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). The present study investigated whether bacitracin affects the osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs and the molecular mechanisms involved. The proliferation of HBMSCs in the presence of bacitracin was examined using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677476/cd4-helper-and-cd8-cytotoxic-t-cell-differentiation
#4
Ichiro Taniuchi
A fundamental question in developmental immunology is how bipotential thymocyte precursors generate both CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell lineages. The MHC specificity of αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) on precursors is closely correlated with cell fate-determining processes, prompting studies to characterize how variations in TCR signaling are linked with genetic programs establishing lineage-specific gene expression signatures, such as exclusive CD4 or CD8 expression. The key transcription factors ThPOK and Runx3 have been identified as mediating development of helper and cytotoxic T cell lineages, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677457/improved-protocol-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-leukocyte-subsets-and-epithelial-cells-from-murine-and-human-lung
#5
Christine Happle, Lena Meyer-Decking, Anika Dreier, Martin Wetzke, Stephanie Gläsener, Ruth Grychtol, Peter Braubach, Alexandra Jablonka, Sibylle Haid, Adan Chari Jirmo, Anika Habener, Jelena Skuljec, Gesine Hansen
PURPOSE: To study and isolate lung cells by flow cytometry, enzymatic digestion and generation of single cell suspensions is required. This significantly influences expression of cellular epitopes and protocols need to be adapted for the best isolation and subsequent analysis of specific cellular subsets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We optimized protocols for the simultaneous isolation and characterization of specific human and murine lung cell types. For alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), a primarily dispase based digestion method and for leukocytes, a primarily collagenase based technique was adapted...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677448/self-assembled-ph-responsive-polymeric-micelles-for-highly-efficient-non-cytotoxic-delivery-of-doxorubicin-chemotherapy-to-inhibit-macrophage-activation-in-vitro-investigation
#6
Zhi-Sheng Liao, Shan-You Huang, Jyun-Jie Huang, Jem-Kun Chen, Ai-Wei Lee, Juin-Yih Lai, Duu-Jong Lee, Chih-Chia Cheng
Self-assembled pH-responsive polymeric micelles, a combination of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) segments and hydrogen bonding interactions within a biocompatible polyurethane substrate, can spontaneously self-assemble into highly controlled, nanosized micelles in aqueous solution. These newly-developed micelles exhibit excellent pH-responsive behavior and biocompatibility, highly controlled drug (doxorubicin; DOX) release behavior and high drug encapsulation stability in different aqueous environments, making the micelles highly attractive potential candidates for safer, more effective drug delivery in applications such as cancer chemotherapy...
April 20, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677444/disassembly-of-hydrophobic-photosensitizer-by-bio-degradable-zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-8-for-photodynamic-cancer-therapy
#7
Dandan Xu, Yongqiang You, Fanyu Zeng, Yong Wang, Chunyan Liang, Huanhuan Feng, Xing Ma
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an alternative to conventional cancer therapeutics, has gained increasingly attentions for its non-invasive advantages and simultaneously fluorescence imaging property. PDT is a tripartite process that functions in simultaneous presence of a photosensitizer (PS), light and available oxygen molecules. However, many highly efficient PSs are hydrophobic and easily self-aggregate in aqueous solution, leading to quickly quenching of PDT effect. Here we construct zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) containing water insoluble photosensitizer zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc), a typical hydrophobic PS, by one-step coprecipitation process, named as ZnPc@ZIF-8...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677349/repeat-associated-non-atg-ran-translation-in-fuchs-endothelial-corneal-dystrophy
#8
Elisabetta Soragni, Lina Petrosyan, Tommy A Rinkoski, Eric D Wieben, Keith H Baratz, Michael P Fautsch, Joel M Gottesfeld
Purpose: The strongest genetic association with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the presence of an intronic (CTG·CAG)n trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion in the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene. Repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, an unconventional protein translation mechanism that does not require an initiating ATG, has been described in many TNR expansion diseases, including myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Given the similarities between DM1 and FECD, we wished to determine whether RAN translation occurs in FECD...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677149/prior-puma-lentivirus-infection-modifies-early-immune-responses-and-attenuates-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-cats
#9
Wendy S Sprague, Ryan M Troyer, Xin Zheng, Britta A Wood, Martha Macmillian, Scott Carver, Susan VandeWoude
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4⁺ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677109/antiproliferative-and-antioxidant-activities-of-two-extracts-of-the-plant-species-euphorbia-dendroides-l
#10
Agena Ghout, Amar Zellagui, Noureddine Gherraf, Ibrahim Demirtas, Yaglioglu Ayse Sahin, Meriem Boukhenaf, Mesbah Lahouel, Gema Nieto, Salah Akkal
Background: These days, the desire for naturally occurring antioxidants has significantly increased, especially for use in foodstuffs, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products, to replace synthetic antioxidants that are regularly constrained due to their carcinogenicity. Methods : The study in hand aimed to appraise the antioxidant effect of two Euphorbia dendroides extracts using reducing power, anti-peroxidation, and DPPH (1,1 Diphenyl 2 Pycril Hydrazil) scavenging essays, in addition to the anticancer activity against two tumor cell lines, namely C6 (rat brain tumor)cells, and Hela (human uterus carcinoma)cell lines...
April 20, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676913/glutathione-gsh-reduces-cytotoxicity-evoked-by-patulin-pat-in-hek293-cells-by-preventing-oxidative-damage-and-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#11
Xiaorui Wang, Chengni Jin, Yujie Zhong, Xuan Li, Jiahui Han, Wei Xue, Peng Wu, Xiaodong Xia, Xiaoli Peng
Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin which frequently detected in moldy fruits and fruit products. This study investigated the protective role of glutathione (GSH), a antioxidant agent, against PAT induced cytotoxicity and its potential mechanisms in HEK293 cells. The obtained results showed that addition of GSH significantly reduced cell viability and apoptosis induced by PAT. Additionally, GSH decreased intracellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS overproduction, suppressed the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential, and maintained the cellular ATP content...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676660/new-tailored-substituted%C3%A2-benzothiazole-schiff-base-cu-ii-zn-ii-antitumor-drug-entities-effect-of-substituents-on-dna-binding-profile-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-activity
#12
Siffeen Zehra, Mohammad Shavez Khan, Iqbal Ahmad, Farukh Arjmand
New tailored Cu(II) & Zn(II) metal-based antitumor drug entities were synthesized from substituted benzothiazole o‒vanillin Schiff base ligands. The complexes were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic studies {IR, 1 H & 13 C NMR, ESI-MS, EPR} and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The structure activity relationship (SAR) studies of benzothiazole Cu(II) & Zn(II) complexes having molecular formulas [C30 H22 CuN5 O7 S2 ], [C30 H20 Cl2 CuN5 O7 S2 ], [C30 H20 CuF2 N5 O7 S2 ], [C30 H22 N4 O4 S2 Zn], [C30 H20 Cl2 N4 O4 S2 Zn] and [C30 H20 F2 N5 O7 S2 Zn], with CT‒DNA were performed by employing absorption, emission titrations and hydrodynamic measurements...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676596/lung-dendritic-cells-drive-nk-cytotoxicity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-via-il-15r%C3%AE
#13
Donna K Finch, Valerie R Stolberg, John Ferguson, Henrih Alikaj, Mohamed R Kady, Bradley W Richmond, Vasiliy V Polosukhin, Timothy S Blackwell, Lisa McCloskey, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman
RATIONALE: Lung natural killer (NK) cells kill a greater percentage of autologous lung parenchymal cells in COPD than in non-obstructed smokers. To become cytotoxic, NKs require priming, typically by dendritic cells (DC), but whether priming occurs in the lungs in COPD is unknown. METHODS: We used lung tissue and in some cases peripheral blood from patients undergoing clinically-indicated resections to determine in vitro killing of CD326+ lung epithelial cells by isolated lung CD56+ NKs...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676546/alginate-catechol-cross-linking-interferes-with-insulin-secretion-capacity-in-isolated-murine-islet-cells
#14
Yu Sik Kim, Seung Woo Cho, Bomin Ko, Jisoo Shin, Chul Woo Ahn
Over the past three decades, human pancreatic islet isolation and transplantation techniques have developed as a routine clinical procedure for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, due to the donor shortage and required chronic systemic immunosuppression, the widespread application of islet transplantation is limited. To overcome these limitations, providing a physical barrier to transplanted islet cells with encapsulating biomaterial has emerged as a promising approach to enhance engraftment and promote islet survival post-transplantation...
April 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675859/fabrication-of-superparamagnetic-nanofibrous-poly-l-lactic-acid-%C3%AE-fe-2-o-3-microspheres-for-cell-carriers
#15
Moyuan Qu, Wenqian Xiao, Jiarong Tian, Song Wang, Hong Li, Xue Liu, Xiaoling Yang, Bo Li, Xiaoling Liao
Nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microspheres are extensively studied to be used as cell carriers in the field of tissue engineering because the unique structure can promote cell proliferation and migration. But as injectable scaffold materials, PLLA microspheres easily run off to the soft tissue space because of the lack of cohesive force. It will affect the treatment efficiency and even cause additional inflammatory response. In order to overcome this disadvantage, superparamagnetic γ-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles assisted with oxidative polymerization of dopamine were used for surface modification of PLLA microspheres in this study...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675830/dna-oxidation-photoinduced-by-norharmane-rhenium-i-polypyridyl-complexes-effect-of-the-bidentate-n-n-ligands-on-the-damage-profile
#16
Ivan Maisuls, Franco Cabrerizo, Pedro David Gara, Bernd Epe, Gustavo Teodosio Ruiz
Re(I)-polypyridyl complexes show quite interesting and distinctive photochemical and photosensitizing properties. This work describes the capability to induce (or photoinduce) DNA damage of three Re(I)-complexes with a naturally occurring alkaloid called norharmane (nHo) as ligand: [Re(CO)3(nHo)(L)]CF3SO3 where L = 2,2´-bipyridine (ReBpy), phenanthroline (RePhen) or dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (ReDppz). The interaction of the complexes with DNA was investigated by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy...
April 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675806/comparative-study-of-predominant-phytochemical-compounds-and-proapoptotic-potential-of-broccoli-sprouts-and-florets
#17
Paweł Paśko, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Agnieszka Galanty, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Paweł Żmudzki, Henryk Bartoń, Paweł Zagrodzki, Shela Gorinstein
The study compares lyophilized broccoli sprouts and florets in terms of their chemical composition, cytotoxic and proapoptotic potential against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, colorectal cancer SW480, and skin fibroblast BJ cells. Sinapic and isochlorogenic acids were predominant phenolics in the sprouts and florets, respectively. The amount of sulforaphane in the sprouts was significantly higher vs. florets. Oleic and linoleic acids dominated in the sprouts, while caproic, stearic and oleic acids in the florets...
April 19, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675747/retreatment-with-pembrolizumab-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-previously-treated-with-nivolumab-emerging-reports-of-12-cases
#18
Kohei Fujita, Naohiro Uchida, Osamu Kanai, Misato Okamura, Koichi Nakatani, Tadashi Mio
PURPOSE: After approval of anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1 antibodies, treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has drastically changed. However, even in patients with favorable effects, therapeutic efficacy does not last long. Recently, retreatment with anti-PD-1 antibody has received attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retreatment with pembrolizumab in NSCLC patients previously treated with nivolumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed NSCLC patients retreated with pembrolizumab who were previously treated with nivolumab...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675368/mincle-in-the-innate-immune-response-of-mice-fungal-keratitis
#19
Guo-Rong Yu, Jing Lin, Jie Zhang, Cheng-Ye Che, Xu-Dong Peng, Cui Li, Li-Ting Hu, Guo-Qiang Zhu, Kun He, Gui-Qiu Zhao
AIM: To investigate how macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) influences inflammation in mice fungal keratitis induced by Aspergillus fumigatus ( A. fumigatus ). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with A. fumigatus after pretreated with Mincle agonist TDB or Mincle neutralizing antibody (MincleAb), taking DMSO or IgG as control group respectively. The cornea lesions were monitored with slit-lamp microscope and evaluated by clinical score. Mincle expression was assessed using reverse transcription-ploymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675245/coupling-of-sterically-demanding-peptides-by-%C3%AE-thiolactone-mediated-native-chemical-ligation
#20
Huan Chen, Yunxian Xiao, Ning Yuan, Jiaping Weng, Pengcheng Gao, Leonard Breindel, Alexander Shekhtman, Qiang Zhang
The ligation of sterically demanding peptidyl sites such as those involving Val-Val and Val-Pro linkages has proven to be extremely challenging with conventional NCL methods that rely on exogenous thiol additives. Herein, we report an efficient β-thiolactone-mediated additive-free NCL protocol that enables the establishment of these connections in good yield. The rapid NCL was followed by in situ desulfurization. Reaction rates between β-thiolactones and conventional thioesters towards NCL were also investigated, and direct aminolysis was ruled out as a possible pathway...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
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