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Hemodynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775547/acute-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-does-not-attenuate-oxidative-stress-or-the-hemodynamic-response-during-submaximal-exercise-in-hypobaric-hypoxia
#1
Colin R Carriker, Paige Rombach, Brooke M Stevens, Roger A Vaughan, Ann L Gibson
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in oxidative stress, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) while exercising in hypobaric hypoxia following acute dietary nitrate supplementation. METHODS: Nine well-trained (60.8±7.8 ml/kg/min) males (29±7 years) visited the lab on 3 occasions, each separated by 1 week. Visit 1 included a maximal aerobic cycling test (VO2max) and 5 five-minute increasing intensity exercise bouts in a normobaric environment (1600m)...
May 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775415/exercise-cardiac-mri-unmasks-right-ventricular-dysfunction-in-acute-hypoxia-and-chronic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Shareen Kaur Jaijee, Marina Quinlan, Pawel Tokarczuk, Matthew Clemence, Luke S Howard, J Simon R Gibbs, Declan O'Regan
Background - Coupling of right ventricular (RV) contractility to afterload is maintained at rest in the early stages of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but exercise may unmask depleted contractile reserves. We assessed whether elevated afterload reduces RV contractile reserve despite compensated resting function using non-invasive exercise imaging. Methods and Results - Fourteen patients with PAH (mean age 39.1 years, 10 females) and 34 healthy control subjects (mean age 35.6 years, 17 females) completed real-time cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during sub-maximal exercise breathing room-air...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775414/venoarterial-communication-mediates-arterial-wall-shear-stress-induced-maternal-uterine-vascular-remodeling-during-pregnancy
#3
Nga Ling Ko, Liam John, Aaron Gelinne, Maurizio Mandala, George Osol
Although expansive remodeling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy is essential for maintaining uteroplacental perfusion and normal fetal growth, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood. Using a rat model, surgical approaches were used to alter uterine hemodynamics and wall shear stress (WSS) in order to evaluate the effects of WSS and venoarterial communication (e.g. transfer of placentally derived growth signals from post-placental veins to pre-placental arteries) on gestational uterine vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774551/in-vitro-hemodynamic-evaluation-of-an-adult-pulsatile-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-system
#4
Shigang Wang, Morgan Moroi, Christoph E Brehm, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study was to evaluate a pulsatile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system in terms of hemodynamic energy generation and transmission under various pulsatile amplitudes, flow rates, and pseudopatient pressures in a simulated adult ECMO circuit. Surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), a measure of the quality of pulsatility, was used to quantify pulsatile flow. The circuit consisted of an i-cor diagonal pump, an adult XLung oxygenator, a 21 Fr Medtronic Biomedicus femoral arterial cannula, a 23/25 Fr Sorin RAP femoral venous cannula, and 3/8 in ID tubing for both arterial and venous lines...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774222/asymmetrical-traumatic-bilateral-hip-dislocations-with-hemodynamic-instability-and-an-unstable-pelvic-ring-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Kai Huang, Grey Giddins, Jian-Fang Zhang, Jian-Wei Lu, Jun-Ming Wan, Peng-Li Zhang, Shao-Yu Zhu
Simultaneous anterior and posterior traumatic dislocations of both hips are very rare. Only 33 cases have been previously reported in the English language literature. Although they were all due to high-energy injuries, they were hemodynamically stable and had a stable pelvic ring. We report a unique case of asymmetrical hip dislocations with an unstable pelvic ring and hemodynamic instability. A 40-year-old man was injured in a high-energy motor vehicle accident. He was hemodynamically unstable when he presented in the emergency department...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773582/activation-of-large-conductance-calcium-activated-k-channels-by-nitric-oxide-mediates-apelin-induced-relaxation-of-coronary-arteries
#6
Amreen Mughal, Chengwen Sun, Stephen T O'Rourke
Apelin increases coronary blood flow, cardiac contractility and cardiac output. Based on these favorable hemodynamic effects, apelin and apelin-like analogs are being developed for treating heart failure and related disorders; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying apelin-induced coronary vasodilation are unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the signaling pathways by which apelin causes smooth muscle relaxation in coronary arteries. Receptors for apelin (APJ receptors) were expressed in coronary arteries, as determined by Western blot and PCR analyses...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773497/indications-for-red-cell-transfusions-in-pediatric-patients
#7
REVIEW
Jill M Cholette, Suzie A Noronha, Jerard Seghatchian, Neil Blumberg
Red cell transfusions are amongst the most common therapeutic procedures in seriously ill children, particularly in the inpatient setting. This is despite the fact that there is no evidence base for most clinical settings, with the exception of patients with hemoglobinopathies, particularly thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Obviously exsanguinating hemorrhage and life threatening anemia are urgent indications for which no other therapeutic approach is currently available. Most transfusions are, however, given prophylactically to prevent the complications of hypoxia or hemodynamic stability, based upon expert opinion and a faith in the oxygen carrying capacity and beneficial hemodynamic properties of transfused red cells...
May 10, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772982/randomized-pilot-study-to-compare-metal-needles-versus-plastic-cannulae-in-the-development-of-complications-in-hemodialysis-access
#8
Rosa M Marticorena, Niki Dacouris, Sandra M Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis requires needle insertions every treatment. Needle injury (mechanical or hemodynamic) may cause complications (aneurysms/stenosis) that compromise dialysis delivery requiring interventions. Metal needles have a sharp slanted "V"-shaped cutting tip; plastic cannulae have a dull round tip and four side holes. Preliminary observations demonstrated a difference in intradialytic blood flow images and mean Doppler velocities at cannulation sites between the two devices...
May 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772936/the-effect-of-supine-positioning-on-maternal-hemodynamics-during-late-pregnancy
#9
Aimee Humphries, S Ali Mirjalili, Gregory P Tarr, John M D Thompson, Peter Stone
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have demonstrated an association between maternal supine sleep position and an increased risk of late stillbirth. During late pregnancy the gravid uterus compresses the inferior vena cava when a woman lies in the supine position. The azygos system of veins is the dominant pathway of collateral venous return back to the heart in the event of acute obstruction of the inferior vena cava. It is suggested that this pathway provides adequate collateral venous circulation in the event of inferior vena caval compression in the supine position during late pregnancy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772591/-monitoring-and-modern-hemodynamic-concepts-in-cardiac-anesthesia
#10
Matthias Heringlake, Christian Schmidt, Sebastian Brandt
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are growing older, present with more comorbidities, and are frequently scheduled for more complex and prolonged surgical procedures. Routine application of neurological as well as extended hemodynamic monitoring combined with goal-directed perioperative hemodynamic optimization, targeting optimization of systemic and cerebral oxygen balance, show promise to reduce postoperative complications and to improve mortality in this high risk population. Expert recommendations suggest to avoid synthetic colloids for fluid optimization...
May 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772321/use-of-polidocanol-endovenous-microfoam-to-improve-hemodynamics-and-symptomology-in-patients-with-challenging-clinical-presentations-a-case-series
#11
Paul E Davis, John Phillips, Raghu Kolluri
BACKGROUND: We performed a retrospective review of treatment effects with FDA-approved Polidocanol endovenous microfoam (PEM, Varithena® 1%) on venous symptomology in ten (N=10) C3-C6 patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and concomitant complex disease/pathology that limited the use of endothermal ablation (ETA). METHODS: Pathology included: risk of bruising or bleeding, severe lipodermatosclerosis (LDS), Hydradenitis Suppurativa, chronic fibrosis of the vein from prior superficial thrombosis, risk for nerve injury and failed prior ETA...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772208/influence-of-blood-flow-on-cardiac-development
#12
REVIEW
Katherine Courchaine, Graham Rykiel, Sandra Rugonyi
The role of hemodynamics in cardiovascular development is not well understood. Indeed, it would be remarkable if it were, given the dauntingly complex array of intricately synchronized genetic, molecular, mechanical, and environmental factors at play. However, with congenital heart defects affecting around 1 in 100 human births, and numerous studies pointing to hemodynamics as a factor in cardiovascular morphogenesis, this is not an area in which we can afford to remain in the dark. This review seeks to present the case for the importance of research into the biomechanics of the developing cardiovascular system...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771607/mechanistic-insights-into-the-modulatory-role-of-the-mechanoreflex-on-central-hemodynamics-using-passive-leg-movement-in-humans
#13
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
The aim of this study was to examine the independent contributions of joint range of motion (ROM), muscle fascicle length (MFL) and joint angular velocity on mechanoreceptor mediated central cardiovascular dynamics using passive leg movement (PLM) in humans. Twelve healthy males (age: 23{plus minus}2 yrs, body mass index: 23.7 kg/m2 ) performed continuous PLM at various randomized joint angles ROM (0-50{degree sign} vs. 50-100{degree sign} vs. 0-100{degree sign}) and joint angular velocities ('fast': 200{degree sign}/s vs...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771447/intermedin1-53-protects-cardiac-function-in-rats-with-septic-shock-via-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis
#14
Y-J Yu, A-H Su, H-B Yang, J-X Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of intermedin1-53 (IMD1-53) on cardiac function in rats with septic shock and its underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into three groups, namely the control group (NC group), septic shock group (ET group) and IMD1-53 treatment group (IMD group), with 8 rats in each group. Levels of hemodynamic indicators, blood glucose, lactate acid, CK-MB (creatine kinase-MB) and cTnI (cardiac troponin I) in rats were determined...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770770/adjustable-diameter-tips-in-the-pediatric-patient-the-constrained-technique
#15
Brandon C Perry, Eric J Monroe, Giridhar Shivaram
Placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is necessary in children with portal hypertension complicated by variceal bleeding or ascites. However, placement of adult-sized endografts may be problematic due to the smaller anatomy of pediatric patients. On the other hand, placement of fixed diameter smaller stents have the corresponding problem of not accommodating future growth of the child. We describe a novel method to create an adjustable diameter TIPS as a technical solution to these problems...
May 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770594/functional-optical-coherence-tomography-of-neurovascular-coupling-interactions-in-the-retina
#16
Taeyoon Son, Minhaj Alam, Devrim Toslak, Benquan Wang, Yiming Lu, Xincheng Yao
Quantitative evaluation of retinal neurovascular coupling is essential for a better understanding of visual function and early detection of eye diseases. However, there is no established method to monitor coherent interactions between stimulus-evoked neural activity and hemodynamic responses at high resolution. Here we report a multi-modal functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging methodology to enable concurrent intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging of stimulus-evoked neural activity and hemodynamic responses at capillary resolution...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770290/current-surgical-strategies-and-techniques-of-aortic-valve-diseases-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Kun Wang, Huifeng Zhang, Bing Jia
While the long-term outcome of surgical aortic valvotomy (SAV) appears to be better than that of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) as the primary procedure of aortic valve stenosis, the surgical strategies and techniques of treating aortic valve disease in children in other situations remain controversial. Valve repair should be first considered while replacement is still unavoidable in some cases, and new repair techniques developed by innovative surgeons are gradually becoming adopted. Some complex repair procedures such as cusp extension, leaflet replacement/reconstruction have provided satisfactory outcomes...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770267/role-of-noninvasive-imaging-of-cerebral-arterial-system-in-ischemic-stroke-comparison-of-transcranial-color-coded-doppler-sonography-with-magnetic-resonance-angiography
#18
Betty Simon, Sunithi Elizabeth Mani, Shyamkumar Nidugala Keshava, Mathew Alexander, Sanjith Aaron
Aim: To determine the accuracy of transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography (TCCS) in the evaluation of cerebral arterial system in patients with ischemic stroke attending a tertiary care hospital in South India. Objectives: (1) To describe the topographical distribution of atherosclerotic lesions in the cerebral circulation in patients presenting with ischemic stroke from the Indian subcontinent and (2) to determine the accuracy of TCCS for detection and quantification of intracranial stenoses in various segments of the intracerebral arterial system in comparison with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
2018: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769507/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-compare-the-efficacy-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-and-clonidine-as-adjuvants-to-low-dose-opioid-in-attenuation-of-hemodynamic-response-to-laryngoscopy-and-tracheal-intubation
#19
N Gupta, A Kumar, A Jain, N Hayaran, P Mishra
Increase in sympathetic activity as a result of cardiovascular stress response to laryngoscopy can be detrimental to the patient. The primary objective is to compare intravenous dexmedetomidine and clonidine as adjuvants to low dose opioid (fentanyl) for attenuation of hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. The secondary objectives are to compare the perioperative dose requirement of fentanyl and thiopentone, to compare the duration of postoperative analgesia, and to look for side effects in all three groups...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769166/coronary-lesion-progression-as-assessed-by-fractional-flow-reserve-ffr-and-angiography
#20
Panagiotis Xaplanteris, Argyris Ntalianis, Bernard De Bruyne, Teresa Strisciuglio, Mariano Pellicano, Giovanni Ciccarelli, Anastasios Milkas, Emanuele Barbato
AIMS: To explore the evolution of coronary lesions that had repeated physiologic evaluation by FFR as an endpoint, describe the clinical significance of longitudinal FFR change (ΔFFR = FFR follow-up - FFR baseline), its correlation with angiographic indices and identify predictors of FFR follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective, single-center analysis of 414 stenoses (331 patients) with consecutive FFR measurements at least six months apart was performed [median time interval: 24 (17, 37) months]...
May 15, 2018: EuroIntervention
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