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Hemodynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731900/micro-and-macro-circulatory-changes-during-sepsis-and-septic-shock-in-a-rat-model
#1
Tianfeng Hua, Xiaobo Wu, Wei Wang, Hao Li, Jennifer Bradley, Mary Ann Peberdy, Joseph P Ornato, Wanchun Tang
Microcirculation is the motor of sepsis. In the present study, we investigated whether microcirculatory alterations occur prior to changes of systemic hemodynamics in a rat model of cecum ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. We further investigated renal microcirculatory changes during sepsis and compared those with buccal microcirculation. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a sham control group (n = 6) and a CLP group (n = 6). Perfused microvessel density (PVD) and microvascular flow index (MFI) were evaluated using sidestream dark field (SDF) video microscopy at baseline, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 360 minutes following CLP...
July 20, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731594/duplex-doppler-sonographic-assessment-of-the-superior-mesenteric-artery-in-patients-with-mesenteric-panniculitis
#2
Berat Acu, Mehmet Emrah Güven, Mehmet Ali Kaptan, Çiğdem Öztunalı, Erkan Gökçe, Murat Beyhan, Taylan Kara
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine how the hemodynamic parameters of the superior mesenteric artery are affected in mesenteric panniculitis. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with a diagnosis of mesenteric panniculitis on computed tomography were evaluated with duplex Doppler sonography. The control group consisted 20 asymptomatic volunteers. The peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), blood flow volume, and body mass index were measured in the group of patients with mesenteric panniculitis, and the findings were compared with those of the control group...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730844/correlation-between-uterine-artery-doppler-indices-and-menstrual-irregularities-among-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-and-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-users-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Mohamed Rezk, Alaa Al-Halaby, Mohamed Emarh, Mohamed Shawky
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether menstrual irregularities among users of levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), were associated with changes in uterine artery Doppler indices or not. METHODS: This three-year prospective observational study included 102 women using LNG-IUS and 104 women using DMPA for contraception. Participants were followed at regular intervals over three years with performance of transvaginal ultrasound to measure uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) before starting the method and at six months, 12 months, two and three years thereafter...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730400/evaluation-of-retrobulbar-blood-flow-and-choroidal-thickness-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Ali Kal, Enes Duman, Almila Sarıgül Sezenöz, Mahmut Oğuz Ulusoy, Öznur Kal
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether retrobulbar blood flow and choroidal thickness (CT) are affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the relationship between these values. METHODS: We evaluated 40 eyes of 20 RA patients and 40 eyes of 20 healthy controls. The enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, color Doppler imaging, was held. Statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of ophthalmic (OA) and central retinal artery (CRA) were significantly higher in RA...
July 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729906/update-on-pediatric-sepsis-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Tatsuya Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality among children worldwide. Unfortunately, however, reliable evidence was insufficient in pediatric sepsis and many aspects in clinical practice actually depend on expert consensus and some evidence in adult sepsis. More recent findings have given us deep insights into pediatric sepsis since the publication of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2012. MAIN TEXT: New knowledge was added regarding the hemodynamic management and the timely use of antimicrobials...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729830/resting-state-fluctuations-of-eeg-sensorimotor-rhythm-reflect-bold-activities-in-the-pericentral-areas-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#6
Shohei Tsuchimoto, Shuka Shibusawa, Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Kenji Kato, Hiroki Ebata, Meigen Liu, Takashi Hanakawa, Junichi Ushiba
Blockade of the scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is a well-known phenomenon following attempted or executed motor functions. Such a frequency-specific power attenuation of the SMR occurs in the alpha and beta frequency bands and is spatially registered at primary somatosensory and motor cortices. Here, we hypothesized that resting-state fluctuations of the SMR in the alpha and beta frequency bands also covary with resting-state sensorimotor cortical activity, without involving task-related neural dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729396/acute-volume-loading-exacerbates-direct-ventricular-interaction-in-a-model-of-copd
#7
William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan I Harper, Neil Derek Eves
Volume loading increases left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (LVSV) through series interaction but may paradoxically reduce LVSV in the presence of large increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload due to direct ventricular interaction (DVI). RV afterload is often increased in COPD as a result of pathological changes to respiratory mechanics, namely increased negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP), dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). These hallmarks of COPD negatively impact LV hemodynamics in normovolemia...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729387/leg-blood-flow-is-impaired-during-small-muscle-mass-exercise-in-copd-patients
#8
Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Gregers Druedal Wibe Munch, Mette Rugbjerg, Camilla Koch Ryrsø, Niels Secher, Ylva Hellsten, Peter Lange, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Pia Thaning, Stefan P Mortensen
Skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated to match the oxygen demand and dysregulation could contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with COPD. We measured leg hemodynamics and metabolites from vasoactive compounds in muscle interstitial fluid and plasma at rest, during one-legged knee-extensor exercise, and during arterial infusions of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. Ten patients with moderate to severe COPD and eight age- and sex matched healthy controls were studied...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728750/trigeminocardiac-reflex-during-non-surgical-root-canal-treatment-of-teeth-with-irreversible-pulpitis
#9
James I-Sheng Huang, Hao-Hueng Chang, Chun-Pei Lin, Wan-Chuen Liao, Chia-Tze Kao, Tsui-Hsien Huang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) is a unique clinical incident of acute change in hemodynamic balance, which may lead to hypotension, bradycardia, and even clinical crisis. Up to date, no study so far considers the impact of non-surgical root canal treatment (NSRCT) of irreversible pulpitis teeth under either local infiltration or block anesthesia on hemodynamic change possibly related to TCR. METHODS: This study enrolled 111 patients with 138 irreversible pulpitis teeth that were treated by two sessions of NSRCT...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728686/spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-associated-with-pregnancy
#10
Marysia S Tweet, Sharonne N Hayes, Elisabeth Codsi, Rajiv Gulati, Carl H Rose, Patricia J M Best
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most common cause of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction and remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess presentation, clinical factors, and outcomes of pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (P-SCAD) compared with spontaneous coronary artery dissection not associated with pregnancy (NP-SCAD). METHODS: A Mayo Clinic registry was established in 2010 to include comprehensive retrospective and prospective SCAD data...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727900/head-midline-position-for-preventing-the-occurrence-or-extension-of-germinal-matrix-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-preterm-infants
#11
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Maria Grazia Calevo, Matteo Bruschettini
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is known to constitute the major risk factor for development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH). Head position may affect cerebral hemodynamics and thus may be involved indirectly in development of GM-IVH. Turning the head toward one side may functionally occlude jugular venous drainage on the ipsilateral side while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Thus, it has been suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the patient is in supine midline position with the bed tilted 30°...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727850/hybrid-cubature-kalman-filtering-for-identifying-nonlinear-models-from-sampled-recording-estimation-of-neuronal-dynamics
#12
Mahmoud K Madi, Fadi N Karameh
Kalman filtering methods have long been regarded as efficient adaptive Bayesian techniques for estimating hidden states in models of linear dynamical systems under Gaussian uncertainty. Recent advents of the Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) have extended this efficient estimation property to nonlinear systems, and also to hybrid nonlinear problems where by the processes are continuous and the observations are discrete (continuous-discrete CD-CKF). Employing CKF techniques, therefore, carries high promise for modeling many biological phenomena where the underlying processes exhibit inherently nonlinear, continuous, and noisy dynamics and the associated measurements are uncertain and time-sampled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727703/intrathecal-morphine-improves-hemodynamic-parameters-and-analgesia-in-patients-undergoing-aortic-valve-replacement-surgery-a-prospective-double-blind-randomized-trial
#13
Hamed Elgendy, Hatem A R Helmy
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal morphine (ITM) has been used in hopes of providing good postoperative analgesia in cardiac surgery. Little is known about its use in isolated aortic valve replacement surgery. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of 7 µ/kg ITM administration in aortic valve replacement in regards to hemodynamics, pain score, and postoperative complications when compared to general anesthesia alone. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind trial...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726984/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-alterations-in-uteroplacental-hemodynamics-during-melatonin-supplementation-in-sheep-and-cattle
#14
C O Lemley, K A Vonnahme
Compromised placental function can result in fetal growth restriction which is associated with greater risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Large increases in transplacental nutrient and waste exchange, which support the exponential increase in fetal growth during the last half of gestation, are dependent primarily on the rapid growth and vascularization of the uteroplacenta. The amplitude of melatonin secretion has been associated with improved oxidative status and altered cardiovascular function in several mammalian species; however, melatonin mediated alterations of uteroplacental capacity in sheep and cattle are lacking...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726649/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-as-a-marker-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaque-in-patients-with-internal-carotid-artery-stenosis
#15
P Štefanič, I Kopolovets, Z Hertelyová, Š Tóth, M Frankovičová
The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of inflammatory vascular markers and morphological structure of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with the stenosis of internal carotid artery (ICA). The research was carried out in 70 patients with hemodynamically significant stenosis of ICA out of which 40 (57%) were asymptomatic patients and 30 (43%) were symptomatic patients, of which 20 patients (66%) have had a stroke, or transient ischemic attack (TIA), 10 patients (33%)...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725564/post-partum-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-associated-with-necrotizing-fasciitis
#16
Wei Chuan Chua, Mohd Zulfakar Mazlan, Saedah Ali, Sanihah Che Omar, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, S Praveena Seevaunnantum, Rhendra Hardy Mohd Zaini, Mohd Hasyizan Hassan, Alwi Muhd Besari, Zaidah Abd Rahman, Zeti Norfidiyati Salmuna Ayub, Sabrina Abd Ghani, Normalinda Yaacob, Wan Rosilawati Wan Rosli
We report a fatal case of post-partum streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a patient who was previously healthy and had presented to the emergency department with an extensive blistering ecchymotic lesions over her right buttock and thigh associated with severe pain. The pregnancy had been uncomplicated, and the mode of delivery had been spontaneous vaginal delivery with an episiotomy. She was found to have septicemic shock requiring high inotropic support. Subsequently, she was treated for necrotizing fasciitis, complicated by septicemic shock and multiple organ failures...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725211/critical-evaluation-of-the-lund-concept-for-treatment-of-severe-traumatic-head-injury-25%C3%A2-years-after-its-introduction
#17
REVIEW
Per-Olof Grände
When introduced in 1992, the Lund concept (LC) was the first complete guideline for treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (s-TBI). It was a theoretical approach, based mainly on general physiological principles-i.e., of brain volume control and optimization of brain perfusion and oxygenation of the penumbra zone. The concept gave relatively strict outlines for cerebral perfusion pressure, fluid therapy, ventilation, sedation, nutrition, the use of vasopressors, and osmotherapy. The LC strives for treatment of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind symptoms rather than just treating the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725029/prominent-differences-in-left-ventricular-performance-and-myocardial-properties-between-right-ventricular-and-left-ventricular-based-pacing-modes-in-rats
#18
Wesam Mulla, Sharon Etzion, Sigal Elyagon, Roni Gillis, Michael Murninkas, Yuval Konstantino, Ingra Mannhardt, Thomas Eschenhagen, Noah Liel-Cohen, Yoram Etzion
Biventricular pacing is an important modality to improve left ventricular (LV) synchronization and long-term function. However, the biological effects of this treatment are far from being elucidated and existing animal models are limited and demanding. Recently, we introduced an implanted device for double-site epicardial pacing in rats and echocardiographically demonstrated favorable effects of LV and biventricular (LV-based) pacing modes typically observed in humans. Here, this new animal model was further characterized...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724881/effect-of-carotid-endarterectomy-on-retinal-function-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-hemodynamically-significant-carotid-artery-stenosis
#19
Anna Machalińska, Aleksandra Kowalska-Budek, Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Arkadiusz Kazimierczak, Krzysztof Safranow, Marta Kirkiewicz, Paweł Rynio, Grażyna Wilk, Wojciech Lubiński, Piotr Gutowski, Bogusław Machaliński
INTRODUCTION    The corrective effect of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on disturbed ophthalmic artery flow in patients with a significant internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) presenting with ocular ischemic syndrome (i.e., symptomatic patients) is well established. However, no clear evidence exists regarding the efficacy of CEA for improvement of neuro-retinal function in patients without symptoms of ocular ischemic syndrome. OBJECTIVES    We determined the effects of CEA on retinal function in asymptomatic patients with hemodynamically significant internal carotid artery stenosis...
July 19, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724611/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-kidney-function-and-hypertension
#20
Eamonn Mehaffey, Dewan Syed Abdul Majid
Hypertension is considered to be a low-grade inflammatory condition characterized by the presence of various pro-inflammatory cytokines. The inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a constituent of the pro-inflammatory environment that is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) and related renal injury. Elevated angiotensin II (AngII) and other factors such as oxidative stress conditions promote TNF-α formation. Many recent studies have provided evidence that TNF-α exerts a direct renal action by regulating hemodynamic and excretory function in the kidney...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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