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Nikos Ulrich, Petra Gastmeier, Ralf-Peter Vonberg
Background: Identifying the source of an outbreak is the most crucial aspect of any outbreak investigation. In this review, we address the frequently discussed question of whether (rectal) screening of health care workers (HCWs) should be carried out when dealing with outbreaks caused by gram negative bacteria (GNB).A systematic search of the medical literature was performed, including the Worldwide Outbreak Database and PubMed. Outbreaks got included if a HCW was the source of the outbreak and the causative pathogen was an Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp ...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Andreas Domröse, Robin Weihmann, Stephan Thies, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Thomas Drepper, Anita Loeschcke
Microbial secondary metabolites represent a rich source of valuable compounds with a variety of applications in medicine or agriculture. Effective exploitation of this wealth of chemicals requires the functional expression of the respective biosynthetic genes in amenable heterologous hosts. We have previously established the TREX system which facilitates the transfer, integration and expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in various bacterial hosts. Here, we describe the yTREX system, a new tool adapted for one-step yeast recombinational cloning of gene clusters...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Juliana S Novais, Caroline S Moreira, Ana Carolina J A Silva, Raquel S Loureiro, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Vitor F Ferreira, Helena C Castro, David R da Rocha
The aims of this study were the planning, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, searching for potential lead compounds against bacterial biofilm formation. A series of 12 new analogs of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones were synthesized by adding a thiol and different substituents to a ο-quinone methide using microwave irradiation. The compounds were tested against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mark R H Hurst, Amy Beattie, Sandra A Jones, Aurelie Laugraud, Chikako van Koten, Lincoln Harper
A highly virulent Serratia proteamaculans strain, AGR96X, exhibiting specific pathogenicity against larvae of the New Zealand grass grub ( Costelytra giveni ; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the New Zealand manuka beetle ( Pyronota festiva and P. setosa ; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), was isolated from a diseased grass grub larva. A 12-day median lethal dose of 4.89 ± 0.92 × 103 cells per grass grub larva was defined for AGR96X, and death occurred within 5--12 days following ingestion of a high bacterial dose...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Christian Greunke, Elke Regina Duell, Paul Michael D'Agostino, Anna Glöckle, Katharina Lamm, Tobias Alexander Marius Gulder
Specialized metabolites from bacteria are an important source of inspiration for drug development. The genes required for the biosynthesis of such metabolites in bacteria are usually organized in so-called biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Using modern bioinformatic tools, the wealth of genomic data can be scanned for such BGCs and the expected products can often structurally be predicted in silico. This facilitates the directed discovery of putatively novel bacterial metabolites. However, the production of these molecules often requires genetic manipulation of the BGC for activation or the expression of the pathway in a heterologous host...
March 13, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Pınar Sağıroğlu, Ufuk Hasdemir, Gülşen Altınkanat Gelmez, Burak Aksu, Onur Karatuna, Güner Söyletir
In this study, the performance of the "RESIST-3 O.K.N. K-SeT" (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium) immunochromatographic assay was evaluated in 132 Klebsiella pneumoniae comprising 102 carbapenem resistant and 30 carbapenem susceptible isolates. Genotypically known isolates of Gram negative bacteria (n=22) including various species were also tested by the assay as controls. The isolates tested by the immunochromatographic assay and also were run PCR for blaKPC , blaIMP , blaVIM , blaNDM , and blaOXA-48 ...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ana Huđek, Lucija Škara, Barbara Smolkovič, Snježana Kazazić, Sanda Ravlić, Lucia Nanić, Martina Matovinović Osvatić, Jozo Jelčić, Ivica Rubelj, Višnja Bačun-Družina
Obesity is composed of multifunctional interactions of eating habits, behaviors, microbiota, genetics, and other unknown factors. We hypothesize that correlations occur between the fat mass and obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (FTO SNPs), the composition of microorganisms in the saliva, and life habits in obese women from Zagreb County. Our results of the analysis of 3 FTO SNPs showed a statistically significant positive correlation among the frequencies of the high-risk genotypes AA rs9939609 (P = ...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, Hongjun Na, Jihwan Chun, Robin B Guevarra, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Bellflower root ( Platycodon grandiflorum ), which belongs to the Campanulaceae family, is a perennial grass that grows naturally in Korea, northeastern China, and Japan. Bellflower is widely consumed as both food and medicine due to its high nutritional value and potential therapeutic effects. Since foodborne disease outbreaks often come from vegetables, understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is pivotal to predict and prevent foodborne disease outbreaks.We investigated the microbial communities on the bellflower root (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Annisa Shui Lam Mak, Tommy Hing Cheung Tang, Kwok Wai Lam, Angie Lok Ming Kwok, Wah Cheuk, Tak Chiu Wu, Kwok Yin Leung
Termination of pregnancy is indicated for Serratia marcescens bacteremia, a major cause of mortality. Our present case was highly challenging because the patient wished to continue with her pregnancy, and the ultrasonography showed features of a placental abscess. Although the outcomes were good after prolonged antibiotic treatment, this was an exceptional case.
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Omnia A Shaker, Howayda E Gomaa, Shereen A ElMasry, Rania M Abdel Halim, Amany H Abdelrahman, Jackline S Kamal
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MDI and temocillin disk (30 μg) for detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in comparison to real-time PCR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty specimens submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory of Ain Shams University Hospitals and showed resistance to carbapenem drugs through routine culture and susceptibility testing, were assessed by both temocillin disk (30 μg) and MDI set to detect carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae ...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Ramanjeet Kaur, Santosh Kumar Tiwari
Bacteriocin LB44 was purified from cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Pediococcus pentosaceus LB44 using activity-guided chromatography techniques. It was stable up to 121 °C, pH 2.0-6.0, sensitive to proteinase K, papain and trypsin, and retained complete activity in the presence of organic solvents tested. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was ∼6 kDa and initial ten amino acid residues (GECGMCXECG) suggested a new compound. The loss in viable cell count and K+ ion efflux of target cells of Micrococcus luteus suggested bactericidal activity...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Fenghao Zhang, Mingzheng Zhang, Yuqing Wang, Chengjie Li, Tingtao Chen
Evidence has indicated that gut bacteria may serve an important role in cancer development and therapy, while little work has been done to explore the microbial diversity inside tumours. In the present study, high‑throughput sequencing was first used to identify and compare the microbial diversity in human and mouse tumours. Principal component analysis (PCA) and β-diversity indicated a low microbial similarity among mouse artificial tumours (M.AT group), mouse spontaneous tumours (M.T group) and human tumours (H...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiaoguang Liu, Xiaoli Yu, Yang Yang, Stephan Heeb, Shao Gao, Kok Gan Chan, Miguel Cámara, Kexiang Gao
The antibiotic pyrrolnitrin (PRN) is a tryptophan-derived secondary metabolite that plays an important role in the biocontrol of plant diseases due to its broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activities. The PRN biosynthetic gene cluster remains to be characterised in Serratia plymuthica, though it is highly conserved in PRN-producing bacteria. To better understand PRN biosynthesis and its regulation in Serratia, the prnABCD operon from S. plymuthica G3 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α...
March 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chloe Grace Meyer, Thomas Paul Vacek, Amit Bansal, Ravi Gurujal, Analkumar Parikh
This report illustrates a case of a 42-year-old male with a history of intravenous drug abuse who presented with septic shock. Diagnostic studies, including a transthoracic echocardiogram, chest computed tomography angiography, transesophageal echocardiogram, and blood cultures ultimately revealed Serratia marcescens pulmonic valve infective endocarditis that was treated with intravenous antibiotics. In addition to the rare form of endocarditis and bacterium involved, this case brings into awareness the dynamic nature of the hospital course that requires vigilance in responding to hypotensive episodes for consideration of pulmonary embolism...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Torunn Pedersen, John Osei Sekyere, Usha Govinden, Krishnee Moodley, Audun Sivertsen, Ørjan Samuelsen, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Arnfinn Sundsfjord
Whole-genome sequence analyses revealed the presence of bla NDM-1 ( n =31), bla GES-5 ( n =8), bla OXA-232 ( n =1), or bla NDM-5 ( n =1) in extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from in-patients in 10 private hospitals (2012-2013) in Durban, South Africa. Two novel NDM-1 encoding plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae were closed by PacBio sequencing. In p19-10_01 (IncFIB(K), 223.434 bp) bla NDM-1 was part of a Tn 1548 -like structure (16.276 bp) delineated by IS 26 The multireplicon plasmid p18-43_01 (IncR_1/IncFIB(pB171)/IncFII(Yp); 212...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sana Zouari, Monia Kamel Ben Halima, Mariana Reyes-Prieto, Amparo Latorre, Rosario Gil
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) can harbor two types of bacterial symbionts. In addition to the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola Munson, Baumann and Kinsey 1991 (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), several facultative symbiotic bacteria, called secondary (S) symbionts, have been identified among many important pest aphid species. To determine interpopulational diversity of S-symbionts, we carried out a survey in a total of 18 populations of six aphid species collected from six localities in Tunisia, by performing a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction analysis of partial 16S-23S rRNA operon sequences...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Gulnaz Vafina, Elmira Zainutdinova, Emil Bulatov, Maria N Filimonova
One of the approaches to effective airway cleansing is the degradation of DNA into smaller fragments. For this purpose Pulmozyme® is used with high efficacy because it contains recombinant DNase I as its active component. The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze DNase activity of Pulmozyme® and the nuclease from gram-negative bacteria Serratia marcescens , because at optimal conditions the catalytic efficiency of the nuclease is much higher than the efficiency of DNase I. Highly polymerized DNA and purulent-mucous sputum were used as substrates...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Norelle L Sherry, Sarah L Baines, Benjamin P Howden
Avibactam is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor active against classes A, C and some class D β-lactamases. In combination with ceftazidime, it may be useful for the treatment of infections due to carbapenemase-producing Gram negative (CPGN) bacteria from these classes; however, susceptibility data for some of the less-common carbapenemases are limited. To assess the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA), we tested a panel of fifty diverse CPGN collected from clinical isolates in Victoria, Australia, containing KPC, GES, SME, OXA-23 and OXA-48-like carbapenemases for CZA susceptibility using broth microdilution (BMD), E-tests and disc diffusion...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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