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Ehrlichia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162709/ehrlichia-chaffeensis-and-its-invasin-etpe-block-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-by-macrophages-in-a-dnase-x-dependent-manner
#1
Omid Teymournejad, Mingqun Lin, Yasuko Rikihisa
The obligatory intracellular pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis lacks most genes that confer resistance to oxidative stress but can block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by host monocytes-macrophages. Bacterial and host molecules responsible for this inhibition have not been identified. To infect host cells, Ehrlichia uses the C terminus of its surface invasin, entry-triggering protein of Ehrlichia (EtpE; EtpE-C), which directly binds the mammalian cell surface receptor glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein DNase X...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160357/co-infection-with-arthropod-borne-pathogens-in-domestic-cats
#2
Marcos Rogério André, Kilder Dantas Filgueira, Ana Cláudia Calchi, Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Vitor Brasil Medeiros, Poliana Araújo Ximenes, Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha Lelis, Maria Vanuza Nunes de Meireles, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
The role of several feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP) as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. In fact, with the exception of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas, FVBP in cats has not been clearly determined in Brazil yet. The present study aimed at identifying, by using molecular methods, the presence of FVBP in three cats showing non-specific clinical signs and inclusions suggestive of hemoparasites in blood smears. Cytauxzoon felis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', Ehrlichia sp...
November 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155863/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-cattle-from-southwestern-ethiopia
#3
Zerihun Hailemariam, Jürgen Krücken, Maximilian Baumann, Jabbar S Ahmed, Peter-Henning Clausen, Ard M Nijhof
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155280/molecular-analysis-of-tick-borne-protozoan-and-rickettsial-pathogens-in-small-ruminants-from-two-south-african-provinces
#4
Aaron Edmond Ringo, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Moeti Taioe, Charoonluk Jirapattharasate, Mingming Liu, Guanbo Wang, Yang Gao, Huanping Guo, Seung-Hun Lee, Weiqing Zheng, Artemis Efstratiou, Jixu Li, Noboru Inoue, Hiroshi Suzuki, Oriel Thekisoe, Xuenan Xuan
Tick-borne protozoan and rickettsial diseases are a major threat to livestock in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of Theileria spp., Babesia ovis, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia ruminantium and SFG Rickettsia in sheep and goats from Free State and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. A total of 91 blood samples were screened in this study, 61 from goats and 30 from sheep. PCR assay was conducted using primers based on Theileria spp...
November 15, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150636/a-genetic-system-for-targeted-mutations-to-disrupt-and-restore-genes-in-the-obligate-bacterium-ehrlichia-chaffeensis
#5
Ying Wang, Lanjing Wei, Huitao Liu, Chuanmin Cheng, Roman R Ganta
Obligate intracellular bacteria (obligates) belonging to Rickettsiales and Chlamydiales cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people worldwide and in many animal species. Lack of an efficient system for targeted mutagenesis in obligates remains a major impediment in understanding microbial pathogenesis. Challenges in creating targeted mutations may be attributed to essential nature of majority of the genes and intracellular replication dependence. Despite success in generating random mutations, a method that works well in creating mutations in specific genes of interest followed by complementation remains problematic for obligates and is a highly sought-after goal...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132402/efficient-high-throughput-molecular-method-to-detect-ehrlichia-ruminantium-in-ticks
#6
Nídia Cangi, Valérie Pinarello, Laure Bournez, Thierry Lefrançois, Emmanuel Albina, Luís Neves, Nathalie Vachiéry
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal tropical disease affecting ruminants with important economic impacts. This bacterium is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks and is present in sub-Saharan Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean, where it represents a threat to the American mainland. METHODS: An automated DNA extraction method was adapted for Amblyomma ticks and a new qPCR targeting the pCS20 region was developed to improve E...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132371/survey-of-vector-borne-agents-in-feral-cats-and-first-report-of-babesia-gibsoni-in-cats-on-st-kitts-west-indies
#7
Patrick John Kelly, Liza Köster, Jing Li, Jilei Zhang, Ke Huang, Gillian Carmichael Branford, Silvia Marchi, Michel Vandenplas, Chengming Wang
BACKGROUND: As there is little data on vector-borne diseases of cats in the Caribbean region and even around the world, we tested feral cats from St Kitts by PCR to detect infections with Babesia, Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and surveyed them for antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii and Ehrlichia canis. RESULTS: Whole blood was collected from apparently healthy feral cats during spay/ neuter campaigns on St Kitts in 2011 (N = 68) and 2014 (N = 52)...
November 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127991/arthropod-borne-agents-in-wild-orinoco-geese-neochen-jubata-in-brazil
#8
Karin Werther, Mayara de Cássia Luzzi, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Juliana Paula de Oliveira, José Roberto Ferreira Alves Junior, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Although Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) is an anatid species widely distributed in South America, scarce are the reports on the occurrence of arthropod-borne pathogens in this avian species. The present work aimed to verify, by serological and molecular methods, the occurrence of haemosporida piroplasmids and Anaplasmataceae agents in wild Orinoco geese captured in Brazil. Between 2010 and 2014, 62 blood samples were collected from free-living geese captured in the Araguaia River, Goiás State, Brazil. Six geese (10%) were seropositive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, showing titers ranging from 40 and 80...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119682/molecular-identification-of-tick-borne-pathogens-infecting-cattle-in-mymensingh-district-of-bangladesh-reveals-emerging-species-of-anaplasma-and-babesia
#9
B C Roy, J Krücken, J S Ahmed, S Majumder, M P Baumann, P-H Clausen, A M Nijhof
Tick-borne diseases are considered a major hindrance to the health and productive performance of cattle in Bangladesh. To elucidate the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in local cattle, a cross-sectional study was performed in the 12 subdistricts (Upazilas) of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 384 clinically healthy cattle kept by 135 farmers from 96 randomly selected villages. DNA extracted from the blood samples was subsequently screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay using an in-house prepared chemiluminescence solution for the presence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Babesia and Theileria spp...
November 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103397/anaplasmataceae-agents-among-wild-mammals-and-ectoparasites-in-brazil
#10
K C M DE Sousa, A C Calchi, H M Herrera, J S Dumler, D M Barros-Battesti, R Z Machado, M R André
Anaplasmataceae agents comprise obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause disease in humans and animals. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua (coati), 78 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), seven Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. In addition, ectoparasites found parasitizing the animals were collected and identified. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae agents in wild mammals, domestic dogs and ectoparasites, by molecular and serological techniques...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056701/prevalence-of-selected-zoonotic-and-vector-borne-agents-in-dogs-and-cats-on-the-pine-ridge-reservation
#11
A Valeria Scorza, Michael R Lappin
The prevalence of intestinal parasites and vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota were determined. Fecal samples (84 dogs, 9 cats) were examined by centrifugal floatation and by immunofluorescence assay (FA) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR was performed on Giardia [beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase genes (gdh)] and Cryptosporidium [heat shock protein-70 gene (hsp)] FA positive samples. Cat sera (n = 32) were tested for antibodies against Bartonella spp...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049365/myd88-dependent-inflammasome-activation-and-autophagy-inhibition-contributes-to-ehrlichia-induced-liver-injury-and-toxic-shock
#12
Muhamuda Kader, Mounia Alaoui-El-Azher, Jennie Vorhauer, Bhushan B Kode, Jakob Z Wells, Donna Stolz, George Michalopoulos, Alan Wells, Melanie Scott, Nahed Ismail
Severe hepatic inflammation is a common cause of acute liver injury following systemic infection with Ehrlichia, obligate Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that lack lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have previously shown that type I IFN (IFN-I) and inflammasome activation are key host-pathogenic mediators that promote excessive inflammation and liver damage following fatal Ehrlichia infection. However, the underlying signals and mechanisms that regulate protective immunity and immunopathology during Ehrlichia infection are not well understood...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042303/changes-in-serum-proteins-in-dogs-with-ehrlichia-canis-infection
#13
Damián Escribano, Hüseyin Cihan, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Pinar Levent, Meric Kocaturk, Nilüfer Aytug, Jose Joaquin Cerón, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Zeki Yilmaz
The aim of this study was the identification of proteins differentially represented in the serum proteome of seropositive dogs with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) clinical-pathologic signs consistent with ehrlichiosis compared to healthy control dogs. Serum samples were collected from 20 dogs of various breeds with naturally occurring ehrlichiosis (10 dogs belonged to Group 1 and 10 to Group 2) and 10 healthy dogs. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of pooled serum for each of the group of dogs were run in triplicate...
October 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017825/transcriptomic-analysis-of-ehrlichia-ruminantium-during-the-developmental-stages-in-bovine-and-tick-cell-culture
#14
Mabotse A Tjale, Alri Pretorius, Antoinette Josemans, Mirinda Van Kleef, Junita Liebenberg
The use of bioinformatics tools to search for possible vaccine candidates has been successful in recent years. In an attempt to search for additional vaccine candidates or improve the current heartwater vaccine design, a genome-wide transcriptional profile of E. ruminantium (Welgevonden strain) replicating in bovine endothelial cells (BA886) and Ixodes scapularis embryonic tick cells (IDE8) was performed. The RNA was collected from the infective extracellular form, the elementary bodies (EBs) and vegetative intracellular form, reticulate bodies (RBs) and was used for transcriptome sequencing...
September 22, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993455/ehrlichia-activation-of-wnt-pi3k-mtor-signaling-inhibits-autolysosome-generation-and-autophagic-destruction-by-the-mononuclear-phagocyte
#15
Taslima T Lina, Tian Luo, Thangam-Sudha Velayutham, Seema Das, Jere W McBride
In multicellular organisms, autophagy is induced as an innate defense mechanism. Notably, the obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, resides in early endosome-like vacuoles and circumvents lysosomal fusion through an unknown mechanism, thereby avoiding destruction in the autophagolysosome. In this study, we reveal that Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in inhibition of lysosomal fusion and autolysosomal destruction of ehrlichiae. During early infection, autophagosomes fuse with ehrlichial vacuoles to form an amphisome indicated by presence of autophagy markers such as LC3, Beclin-1 and p62...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988038/innate-immune-transcriptomic-evaluation-of-pbmc-isolated-from-sheep-after-infection-with-e-ruminantium-welgevonden-strain
#16
T Nefefe, J Liebenberg, M van Kleef, H C Steyn, A Pretorius
Heartwater is a tick-borne non-infectious fatal disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium, transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. Although there is evidence that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) controls E. ruminantium growth and that cellular immune responses could be protective, an effective recombinant vaccine for this disease is lacking. An overall analysis of which immune pathways are up- or down-regulated in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells is expected to lead to a better understanding of the global immune response of sheep to E...
November 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981814/characterization-of-a-sodium-channel-mutation-in-permethrin-resistant-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-acari-ixodidae
#17
Nicholas S G Tucker, Phillip E Kaufman, Emma N I Weeks, Jessica Rowland, Jason Tidwell, Robert J Miller
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle) sensu lato, is an important ectoparasite of dogs and occasionally humans, capable of transmitting several pathogens, such as Rickettsia and Ehrlichia, which are of veterinary and medical importance. The brown dog tick is distributed worldwide and has an affinity for human habitations in much of its range. In some populations, lack of integrated pest management plans and overuse of pyrethroid pesticides and other sodium channel inhibitors has resulted in high levels of resistance to permethrin...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971797/epidemiological-survey-of-ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-in-pet-dogs-in-south-eastern-china
#18
Jianwei Zhang, Qingbiao Liu, Demou Wang, Wanmeng Li, Frédéric Beugnet, Jinlin Zhou
To understand the epidemiology of tick infestation and tick-borne diseases in pet dogs in south-eastern China and to develop a reference for their prevention and treatment, we collected 1550 ticks parasitizing 562 dogs in 122 veterinary clinics from 20 cities of south-eastern China. Dogs were tested for common tick-borne pathogens; collected ticks were identified and processed for the detection of tick-borne pathogens. The use of an in vitro ELISA diagnostic kit for antibody detection (SNAP®4Dx® Plus) on dog sera found the infection rates with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma spp...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958791/tick-borne-bacteria-and-protozoa-detected-in-ticks-collected-from-domestic-animals-and-wildlife-in-central-and-southern-portugal
#19
André Pereira, Ricardo Parreira, António José Cotão, Mónica Nunes, Maria Luísa Vieira, Fábia Azevedo, Lenea Campino, Carla Maia
Ticks are vectors of many human and animal pathogens. The aim of this study was to screen bacteria and protozoa from ticks infesting domestic animals and wildlife collected in central and southern Portugal. A total of 593 ticks, comprising 465 (78.4%) adults, 122 (20.6%) nymphs, and six (1.0%) larvae, were collected from 283 hosts of 25 different species (4 domestic and 21 wild). Overall, the analysis of DNA extracts prepared from ticks collected from hosts of 11 different species in the districts of Castelo Branco, Portalegre, Lisboa, Setúbal, Beja and Faro, revealed the presence of genomic sequences from Anaplasma sp...
September 20, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958704/natural-history-of-amblyomma-maculatum-in-virginia
#20
Robyn M Nadolny, Holly D Gaff
The Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum Koch is increasingly relevant to medical and veterinary communities as human infection rates of Rickettsia parkeri rise, the risk of introduction of Ehrlichia ruminantium increases, and the range of this tick expands into the densely populated Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. We report on the results of five years of field surveillance to better describe the ecology of A. maculatum in newly established populations in southeastern Virginia. We document habitat preferences, host preferences, and the phenology of the adult human-biting life stage...
September 5, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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