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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336985/the-blacklegged-tick-ixodes-scapularis-an-increasing-public-health-concern
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca J Eisen, Lars Eisen
In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis. In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. scapularis-borne disease cases, have increased. Despite knowledge of when and where humans are most at risk of exposure to infected ticks, control of I...
January 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284563/a-novel-ehrlichia-species-in-blood-and-ixodes-ornithorhynchi-ticks-from-platypuses-ornithorhynchus-anatinus-in-queensland-and-tasmania-australia
#2
Alexander W Gofton, Siew-May Loh, Amanda D Barbosa, Andrea Paparini, Amber Gillett, James Macgregor, Charlotte L Oskam, Una M Ryan, Peter J Irwin
Worldwide, Ehrlichia spp. are emerging infectious organisms of domestic animals and people, however, most Ehrlichia spp. naturally infect wildlife reservoirs causing mainly asymptomatic infections. Australian ecosystems have been under-explored for these potentially pathogenic organisms, and recent studies have identified a range of novel Ehrlichia, and their sister genera, Anaplasma and 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia' species, from native Australian ticks. We used bacterial 16S rRNA (16S) next-generation sequencing and genus-specific PCR to profile the bacterial communities in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) blood samples and platypus ticks (Ixodes ornithorhynchi), and identified a high prevalence of Ehrlichia sequences...
December 24, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279085/tick-borne-infections-in-dogs-and-horses-in-the-state-of-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-southeast-brazil
#3
Fernanda de Toledo Vieira, Igor Cunha Lima Acosta, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Jonas Moraes Filho, Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Amália Regina Mar Barbieri, Leandro Egert, Danieli Rankel Fernandes, Fabio Ribeiro Braga, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Reynaldo Dietze
This work aims to identify and quantify the percentage of Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. positive pet dogs, and to identify ticks collected on these animals in the state of Espírito Santo, in the Southeast region of Brazil. The study included 378 dogs, 226 females and 152 males, of various breeds and ages (mean age of 4.1 years). All animals were examined for ticks, and whole blood was collected and processed by conventional PCR protocols for Babesia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Hepatozoon spp...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243242/cross-sectional-survey-of-health-management-and-prevalence-of-vector-borne-diseases-endoparasites-and-ectoparasites-in-samoan-dogs
#4
R J Carslake, K E Hill, K Sjölander, S F Hii, D Prattley, E Acke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs. METHODS: This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Management data were obtained for 242 dogs by interview with their owners...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238699/ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-of-the-caribbean-current-understanding-and-future-directions-for-more-comprehensive-surveillance
#5
REVIEW
Mathilde Gondard, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Roxanne A Charles, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Emmanuel Albina, Sara Moutailler
Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods of significant importance to human and veterinary medicine. They transmit a vast array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Most epidemiological data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in the West Indies are limited to common livestock pathogens such as Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia spp. (i.e., B. bovis and B. bigemina), and Anaplasma marginale, and less information is available on companion animal pathogens. Of note, human tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain almost completely uncharacterized in the West Indies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202206/ehrlichia-and-anaplasma-infections-serological-evidence-and-tick-surveillance-in-peninsular-malaysia
#6
Fui Xian Koh, Kai Ling Kho, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Li Ping Wong, Awang Bulgiba, Poai Ean Tan, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Chandrawathani Panchadcharam, Sun Tee Tay
Little information is available on human anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in Southeast Asia despite increasing reports of the detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in the ticks. We report herein the serological findings against the tick-borne pathogens in a group of animal farm workers (n = 87) and indigenous people (n = 102) in Peninsular Malaysia. IgG antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis were detected from 29.9% and 34.3% of farm workers and indigenous people, respectively, using commercial indirect immunofluorescence assays...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197186/bartonella-seroepidemiology-in-dogs-from-north-america-2008-2014
#7
E Lashnits, M Correa, B C Hegarty, A Birkenheuer, E B Breitschwerdt
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of Bartonella species seroepidemiology in dogs may aid clinical decision making and enhance current understanding of naturally occurring arthropod vector transmission of this pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic groups in which Bartonella exposure may be more likely, describe spatiotemporal variations in Bartonella seroreactivity, and examine co-exposures to other canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD). ANIMALS: A total of 15,451 serology specimens from dogs in North America were submitted to the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197122/efficacy-of-minocycline-in-naturally-occurring-nonacute-ehrlichia-canis-infection-in-dogs
#8
S Jenkins, J K Ketzis, J Dundas, D Scorpio
BACKGROUND: Minocycline has been used in the treatment of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs as an alternative to doxycycline, the recommended treatment. However, efficacy of this alternative therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of minocycline in the treatment of natural occurring E. canis infection in dogs. ANIMALS: Ten privately owned dogs of mixed breed positive for E. canis by blood PCR. METHODS: Prospective, randomized clinical study...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186493/a-molecular-survey-of-rickettsias-in-shelter-dogs-and-distribution-of-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-acari-ixodidae-sensu-lato-in-southeast-turkey
#9
Sezayi Ozubek, Duygu Neval Sayin Ipek, Munir Aktas
Canine tick-borne pathogens are the source of emerging diseases and have important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play a major role in the transmission of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens, as reservoirs and/or sentinels. To simultaneously detect Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species, a reverse line blot assay was conducted on 219 blood samples collected from autochthonous asymptomatic shelter dogs. One hundred and three (47.0%, CI 40.3-53.9) dogs were positive for one or both rickettsial pathogens. Seventy-one (32...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178908/tick-borne-pathogens-in-ticks-collected-from-birds-in-taiwan
#10
Chi-Chien Kuo, Yi-Fu Lin, Cheng-Te Yao, Han-Chun Shih, Lo-Hsuan Chung, Hsien-Chun Liao, Yu-Cheng Hsu, Hsi-Chieh Wang
BACKGROUND: A variety of human diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors, including ticks, are emerging around the globe. Birds are known to be hosts of ticks and can disperse exotic ticks and tick-borne pathogens. In Taiwan, previous studies have focused predominantly on mammals, leaving the role of birds in the maintenance of ticks and dissemination of tick-borne pathogens undetermined. METHODS: Ticks were collected opportunistically when birds were studied from 1995 to 2013...
November 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178391/peptidoglycan-in-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#11
REVIEW
Christian Otten, Matteo Brilli, Waldemar Vollmer, Patrick H Viollier, Jeanne Salje
Peptidoglycan is the predominant stress-bearing structure in the cell envelope of most bacteria, and also a potent stimulator of the eukaryotic immune system. Obligate intracellular bacteria replicate exclusively within the interior of living cells, an osmotically protected niche. Under these conditions peptidoglycan is not necessarily needed to maintain the integrity of the bacterial cell. Moreover, the presence of peptidoglycan puts bacteria at risk of detection and destruction by host peptidoglycan recognition factors and downstream effectors...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177387/-prevalence-of-antibodies-to-rickettsias-and-ehrlichias-in-four-border-departments-of-peru
#12
Elizabeth Anaya-Ramírez, Rosa Palacios-Salvatierra, Patricia Mosquera, Carlos Álvarez, Carlos Peralta, Rommell Gonzales, Silvia Sakuray
To determine the prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia and Ehrlichia, related to recent and past contact, in the border towns of the departments Loreto, Madre de Dios, Tumbes and Tacna, during the years 2010 and 2011, surveys for serological evaluation were carried out using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF), in order to detect immunoglobulins G (IgG) and Total immunoglobulins (IgA + IgM + IgG) in 1634 persons. A recent contact prevalence was found for Ehrlichia of 3.7% (CI 95%: 3.0-4.4) and for Rickettsia of 10...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173543/canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-follow-up-a-new-anti-igg-serological-test-more-sensitive-than-its-1-conventional-pcr
#13
Angélica Rosa Faria, Simone da Fonseca Pires, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Wendel Coura-Vital, Júlia Angélica Gonçalves da Silveira, Gabriela Matos de Sousa, Melissa Luíza Couto Bueno, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Hélida Monteiro de Andrade
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease with dogs serving as reservoirs for one of its etiological agents, Leishmania infantum. In Brazil, VL control involves culling of seropositive dogs, among other actions. However, the most employed serological tests lack accuracy, and are not able to detect canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) during the early stages of infection. Early detection of CVL is highly desirable in order to shorten the contact time between the infected reservoirs and the vectors...
December 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173535/ticks-circulate-anaplasma-ehrlichia-babesia-and-theileria-parasites-in-north-of-iran
#14
Ahmad Jafar Bekloo, Hasan Bakhshi, Ayoub Soufizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Romina Jafar Bekloo, Maryam Roya Ramzgouyan, Asadollah Hosseini Chegeni, Faezeh Faghihi, Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy
Ticks serve as important vectors of some pathogens of medical importance all over the world and identification of their rate of infection plays an important role for further control of diseases. In the current study, we investigated on ticks collected from north of Iran where raising and caring livestock are the main task of the people in order to find evidences of infection of Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia microbial agents. Totally, 609 hard tick species from two genera Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus including; Hy...
December 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162709/ehrlichia-chaffeensis-and-its-invasin-etpe-block-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-by-macrophages-in-a-dnase-x-dependent-manner
#15
Omid Teymournejad, Mingqun Lin, Yasuko Rikihisa
The obligatory intracellular pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis lacks most genes that confer resistance to oxidative stress but can block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by host monocytes-macrophages. Bacterial and host molecules responsible for this inhibition have not been identified. To infect host cells, Ehrlichia uses the C terminus of its surface invasin, entry-triggering protein of Ehrlichia (EtpE; EtpE-C), which directly binds the mammalian cell surface receptor glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein DNase X...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160357/co-infection-with-arthropod-borne-pathogens-in-domestic-cats
#16
Marcos Rogério André, Kilder Dantas Filgueira, Ana Cláudia Calchi, Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Vitor Brasil Medeiros, Poliana Araújo Ximenes, Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha Lelis, Maria Vanuza Nunes de Meireles, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
The role of several feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP) as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. In fact, with the exception of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas, FVBP in cats has not been clearly determined in Brazil yet. The present study aimed at identifying, by using molecular methods, the presence of FVBP in three cats showing non-specific clinical signs and inclusions suggestive of hemoparasites in blood smears. Cytauxzoon felis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', Ehrlichia sp...
November 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155863/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-cattle-from-southwestern-ethiopia
#17
Zerihun Hailemariam, Jürgen Krücken, Maximilian Baumann, Jabbar S Ahmed, Peter-Henning Clausen, Ard M Nijhof
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155280/molecular-analysis-of-tick-borne-protozoan-and-rickettsial-pathogens-in-small-ruminants-from-two-south-african-provinces
#18
Aaron Edmond Ringo, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Moeti Taioe, Charoonluk Jirapattharasate, Mingming Liu, Guanbo Wang, Yang Gao, Huanping Guo, Seung-Hun Lee, Weiqing Zheng, Artemis Efstratiou, Jixu Li, Noboru Inoue, Hiroshi Suzuki, Oriel Thekisoe, Xuenan Xuan
Tick-borne protozoan and rickettsial diseases are a major threat to livestock in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of Theileria spp., Babesia ovis, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia ruminantium and SFG Rickettsia in sheep and goats from Free State and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. A total of 91 blood samples were screened in this study, 61 from goats and 30 from sheep. PCR assay was conducted using primers based on Theileria spp...
November 15, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150636/a-genetic-system-for-targeted-mutations-to-disrupt-and-restore-genes-in-the-obligate-bacterium-ehrlichia-chaffeensis
#19
Ying Wang, Lanjing Wei, Huitao Liu, Chuanmin Cheng, Roman R Ganta
Obligate intracellular bacteria (obligates) belonging to Rickettsiales and Chlamydiales cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people worldwide and in many animal species. Lack of an efficient system for targeted mutagenesis in obligates remains a major impediment in understanding microbial pathogenesis. Challenges in creating targeted mutations may be attributed to essential nature of majority of the genes and intracellular replication dependence. Despite success in generating random mutations, a method that works well in creating mutations in specific genes of interest followed by complementation remains problematic for obligates and is a highly sought-after goal...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132402/efficient-high-throughput-molecular-method-to-detect-ehrlichia-ruminantium-in-ticks
#20
Nídia Cangi, Valérie Pinarello, Laure Bournez, Thierry Lefrançois, Emmanuel Albina, Luís Neves, Nathalie Vachiéry
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal tropical disease affecting ruminants with important economic impacts. This bacterium is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks and is present in sub-Saharan Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean, where it represents a threat to the American mainland. METHODS: An automated DNA extraction method was adapted for Amblyomma ticks and a new qPCR targeting the pCS20 region was developed to improve E...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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