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Khurrum Shahzad, Fabian Bock, Moh'd Mohanad Al-Dabet, Ihsan Gadi, Sumra Nazir, Hongjie Wang, Shrey Kohli, Satish Ranjan, Peter R Mertens, Peter P Nawroth, Berend Isermann
While a plethora of studies support a therapeutic benefit of Nrf2 activation and ROS inhibition in diabetic nephropathy (dNP), the Nrf2 activator bardoxolone failed in clinical studies in type 2 diabetic patients due to cardiovascular side effects. Hence, alternative approaches to target Nrf2 are required. Intriguingly, the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline, which has been in clinical use for decades, has been shown to convey anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic patients and nephroprotection in rodent models of dNP...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Keita Yamauchi, Yusuke Nakano, Takahiko Imai, Toshinori Takagi, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Toru Iwama, Hideaki Hara
Recanalization of occluded vessels leads to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), with oxidative stress as one of the main causes of injury, despite the fact that recanalization therapy is the most effective treatment for ischemic stroke. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is one of the transcription factors which has an essential role in protection against oxidative stress. RS9 is a novel Nrf2 activator obtained from bardoxolone methyl (BARD), an Nrf2 activator that has already been tested in a clinical trial, using a biotransformation technique...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Danielle Camer, Yinghua Yu, Alexander Szabo, Hongqin Wang, Chi H L Dinh, Xu-Feng Huang
High-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is associated with hypothalamic leptin resistance and low grade chronic inflammation, which largely impairs the neuroregulation of negative energy balance. Neuroregulation of negative energy balance is largely controlled by the mediobasal and paraventricular nuclei regions of the hypothalamus via leptin signal transduction. Recently, a derivative of oleanolic acid, bardoxolone methyl (BM), has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. We tested the hypothesis that BM would prevent HF diet-induced obesity, hypothalamic leptin resistance, and inflammation in mice fed a HF diet...
August 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yasuhiro Nakagami, Kayoko Masuda
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that regulates many antioxidants, and we have recently succeeded in obtaining a novel Nrf2 activator, RS9, from microbial transformation. RS9 is categorized as a triterpenoid, and well-known triterpenoids such as RTA 402 (bardoxolone methyl) and RTA 408 have been tested in clinical trials. RTA 408 lotion is currently being tested in patients at risk for radiation dermatitis. This prompted us to study the profiles of RS9 in the skin...
May 29, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Chi H L Dinh, Yinghua Yu, Alexander Szabo, Qingsheng Zhang, Peng Zhang, Xu-Feng Huang
Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt...
April 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Michael H L Wong, Holly K Bryan, Ian M Copple, Rosalind E Jenkins, Pak Him Chiu, Jaclyn Bibby, Neil G Berry, Neil R Kitteringham, Christopher E Goldring, Paul M O'Neill, B Kevin Park
Semisynthetic triterpenoids such as bardoxolone methyl (methyl-2-cyano 3,12-dioxooleano-1,9-dien-28-oate; CDDO-Me) (4) are potent inducers of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways, including those regulated by the transcription factor Nrf2. However, the reversible nature of the interaction between triterpenoids and thiols has hindered attempts to identify pharmacologically relevant targets and characterize the sites of interaction. Here, we report a shortened synthesis and SAR profiling of 4, enabling the design of analogues that react irreversibly with model thiols, as well as the model protein glutathione S-transferase P1, in vitro...
March 24, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Takahiko Imai, Toshinori Takagi, Akira Kitashoji, Keita Yamauchi, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has been reported to be a main cause of neuronal cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important factor involved in anti-oxidative responses. We previously reported that bardoxolone methyl (BARD), an Nrf2 activator, prevented damage induced by IRI. In this study, we investigated the effect of BARD on hemorrhagic transformation in the context of blood brain barrier (BBB) protection...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Evangelia Dounousi, Anila Duni, Konstantinos Leivaditis, Vasilios Vaios, Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Vassilios Liakopoulos
The burden of diabetes mellitus is relentlessly increasing. Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The current standard therapy of diabetic nephropathy involves intensive treatment of hyperglycemia and strict blood pressure control, mainly via blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Attention has been drawn to additional beneficial effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs and fibrates on other aspects of diabetic nephropathy...
April 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Chi H L Dinh, Alexander Szabo, Yinghua Yu, Danielle Camer, Hongqin Wang, Xu-Feng Huang
Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins...
2015: TheScientificWorldJournal
Danielle Camer, Yinghua Yu, Alexander Szabo, Hongqin Wang, Chi H L Dinh, Xu-Feng Huang
Obesity caused by the consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet is a major risk factor for the development of associated complications, such as heart and kidney failure. A semi-synthetic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl (BM) was administrated to mice fed a HF diet for 21 weeks to determine if it would prevent the development of obesity-associated cardiac and renal pathophysiologies. Twelve week old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a lab chow (LC), HF (40% fat), or a HF diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day BM in drinking water...
January 5, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Rhéure A Lopes, Karla B Neves, Rita C Tostes, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
Oxidative stress is implicated in vascular dysfunction in hypertension. Although mechanisms regulating vascular pro-oxidants are emerging, there is a paucity of information on antioxidant systems, particularly nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidants enzymes. We evaluated the vascular regulatory role of Nrf2 in hypertension and examined molecular mechanisms, whereby Nrf2 influences redox signaling in small arteries and vascular smooth muscle cells from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)...
December 2015: Hypertension
Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Ana Belen Sanz, Catalina Martín-Cleary, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Jesus Egido, Juan F Navarro-González, Alberto Ortiz, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez
Diabetic kidney disease is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. This implies failure of current therapeutic approaches based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. Recent phase 3 clinical trials of paricalcitol in early diabetic kidney disease and bardoxolone methyl in advanced diabetic kidney disease failed to meet the primary endpoint or terminated on safety concerns, respectively. However, various novel strategies are undergoing phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials targeting inflammation, fibrosis and signaling pathways...
2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Yan-Yang Wang, Cui-Ying Zhang, Ya-Qiong Ma, Zhi-Xu He, Hong Zhe, Shu-Feng Zhou
The C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me), one of the synthetic triterpenoids, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. However, its usefulness in mitigating radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, has not been tested. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of CDDO-Me on RILI in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Herein, we found that administration of CDDO-Me improved the histopathological score, reduced the number of inflammatory cells and concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suppressed secretion and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-6, elevated expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and downregulated the mRNA level of profibrotic genes, including for fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Chi H L Dinh, Alexander Szabo, Yinghua Yu, Danielle Camer, Qingsheng Zhang, Hongqin Wang, Xu-Feng Huang
Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks...
June 2015: Nutrients
Jian Hu, Qinzi Xu, Charles McTiernan, Yen-Chun Lai, David Osei-Hwedieh, Mark Gladwin
Biomedical advances over the last decade have identified the central role of proliferative pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Furthermore, promoters of proliferation and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs and endothelial cells, such as aberrant signal pathways involving growth factors, G protein-coupled receptors, kinases, and microRNAs, have also been described. As a result of these discoveries, PH is currently divided into subgroups based on the underlying pathology, which allows focused and targeted treatment of the condition...
August 2015: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Danielle Camer, Yinghua Yu, Alexander Szabo, Chi H L Dinh, Hongqin Wang, Licai Cheng, Xu-Feng Huang
High-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. We examined the hypothesis that bardoxolone methyl (BM) would prevent the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a HF diet. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a lab chow (LC), HF (40% fat), or HF diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day BM orally for 21 weeks. Glucose metabolism was assessed using a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Signalling molecules involved in insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid metabolism were examined in liver tissue via western blotting and RT-PCR...
September 5, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Borja Quiroga, David Arroyo, Gabriel de Arriba
Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Albuminuria is recognized as the most important prognostic factor for chronic kidney disease progression. For this reason, blockade of renin-angiotensin system remains the main recommended strategy, with either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. However, other antiproteinuric treatments have begun to be studied, such as direct renin inhibitors or aldosterone blockers. Beyond antiproteinuric treatments, other drugs such as pentoxifylline or bardoxolone have yielded conflicting results...
2015: Journal of Diabetes Research
Nosratola D Vaziri, Shuman Liu, Seyed H Farzaneh, Sohrab Nazertehrani, Mahyar Khazaeli, Ying-Yong Zhao
Oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the progression and complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are, in part, due to impairment of the Nrf2 system, which regulates the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying molecules. Natural Nrf2-inducing phytochemicals have been shown to ameliorate kidney disease in experimental animals. However, owing to adverse outcomes a clinical trial of a synthetic Nrf2 activator, bardoxolone methyl (BARD), in CKD patients was terminated. BARD activates Nrf2 via covalent modification of reactive cysteine residues in the Nrf2 repressor molecule, Keap1...
September 2015: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yan-Yang Wang, Yin-Xue Yang, Ren Zhao, Shu-Ting Pan, Hong Zhe, Zhi-Xu He, Wei Duan, Xueji Zhang, Tianxin Yang, Jia-Xuan Qiu, Shu-Feng Zhou
Natural and synthetic triterpenoids have been shown to kill cancer cells via multiple mechanisms. The therapeutic effect and underlying mechanism of the synthetic triterpenoid bardoxolone methyl (C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid; CDDO-Me) on esophageal cancer are unclear. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms of CDDO-Me in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Our study showed that CDDO-Me suppressed the proliferation and arrested cells in G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis in human ESCC Ec109 and KYSE70 cells...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Chi H L Dinh, Alexander Szabo, Danielle Camer, Yinghua Yu, Hongqin Wang, Xu-Feng Huang
Key features of diet-induced obesity are visceral fat deposition, macrophage infiltration and inflammation that can lead to metabolic disorders. This study examined the effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) in preventing obesity and inflammation in the visceral fat of mice fed high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a low-fat diet (LFD, i.e., lab chow diet) or a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD) for 21weeks. BARD at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight was administered orally in drinking water...
March 5, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
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