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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793213/end-stage-renal-disease-models-in-the-americas-optimizing-resources-to-achieve-better-health-outcomes
#1
Ramiro E Gilardino, Eduardo González-Pier, Claudia Brabata
End-stage renal disease, the last and most severe stage of chronic kidney disease, represents a major and rising concern for countries in Latin America, driven in large part by aging populations and the near-epidemic rises in diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. This places a great clinical, economic, and social burden on the region's health systems. During the ISPOR 6th Latin America Conference held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in September 2017, an educational forum debated on value-based decision making in the treatment of end-stage renal disease in Latin America...
May 21, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793189/effects-of-exposure-to-anti-vaping-public-service-announcements-among-current-smokers-and-dual-users-of-cigarettes-and-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems
#2
Andy S L Tan, Vaughan W Rees, Justin Rodgers, Emeka Agudile, Natasha A Sokol, Kyeungyeun Yie, Ashley Sanders-Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Anti-vaping public service announcements (PSAs) are intended to discourage vaping or use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). However, vaping portrayals in PSAs may have unintended effects if they increase smoking or vaping urges. This study examined benefits and unintended effects of anti-vaping PSAs with vapor portrayals on smoking and vaping-related outcomes. METHODS: Young adult smokers (N = 171) and dual users (N = 122) aged 21-30 years were randomly assigned to view: 1) anti-vaping PSAs with vapor; 2) anti-vaping PSAs without vapor; 3) physical activity PSAs; or 4) anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues...
May 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793172/on-the-autonomous-motion-of-active-drops-or-bubbles
#3
Yuri S Ryazantsev, Manuel G Velarde, Eduardo Guzman, Ramón G Rubio, Francisco Ortega, Juan-Jose Montoya
Thermo-capillary stresses on the surface of a drop can be the result of a non-isothermal surface chemical conversion of a reactant dissolved in the host fluid. The strength of heat production (with e.g. absorption) on the surface is ruled by the diffusion of the reactant and depends on the state of motion of the drop. Such thermo-capillary stresses can provoke the motion of the drop or its motionless state in the presence of an external body force. If in the balance of forces, including indeed viscous drag, the net resultant force vanishes there is the possibility of autonomous motion with constant velocity of the drop...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793167/improvement-of-neuronal-differentiation-by-carbon-monoxide-role-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#4
Ana S Almeida, Nuno L Soares, Catarina O Sequeira, Sofia A Pereira, Ursula Sonnewald, Helena L A Vieira
Over the last decades, the silent-killer carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to also be an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and modulate mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal metabolism is mostly oxidative and neurons also use glucose for maintaining their anti-oxidant status by generation of reduced glutathione (GSH) via the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP). It is established that neuronal differentiation depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and signalling, however there is a lack of information about modulation of the PPP during adult neurogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793097/quantitative-assessment-of-placental-perfusion-by-three-dimensional-power-doppler-ultrasound-for-twins-with-selective-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-one-twin
#5
Wei Sun, Jingyi Liu, Ying Zhang, Ailu Cai, Zeyu Yang, Yili Zhao, Yu Wang, Zhe Cao, Qiuju Wei
OBJECTIVE: We quantitatively assessed placental perfusion using three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound for twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) in one twin. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed for 104 normal monochorionic diamniotic twins and 30 twins with sIUGR. Twins with sIUGR were divided into two groups: in group I (19 twins), both fetuses had continuous forward end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery; in group II (11 twins), the smaller fetus had a loss or a reverse end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery, but the larger fetus had continuous forward end-diastolic blood flow...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793096/segmentation-of-histological-images-and-fibrosis-identification-with-a-convolutional-neural-network
#6
Xiaohang Fu, Tong Liu, Zhaohan Xiong, Bruce H Smaill, Martin K Stiles, Jichao Zhao
Segmentation of histological images is one of the most crucial tasks for many biomedical analyses involving quantification of certain tissue types, such as fibrosis via Masson's trichrome staining. However, challenges are posed by the high variability and complexity of structural features in such images, in addition to imaging artifacts. Further, the conventional approach of manual thresholding is labor-intensive, and highly sensitive to inter- and intra-image intensity variations. An accurate and robust automated segmentation method is of high interest...
May 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793081/geochemical-anomalies-of-trace-elements-in-unremediated-soils-of-mt-karcz%C3%A3-wka-a-historic-lead-mining-area-in-the-city-of-kielce-poland
#7
Agnieszka Gałuszka, Zdzisław M Migaszewski, Sabina Dołęgowska, Artur Michalik
Concentrations of selected trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and rare earth elements were determined in 61 samples of surface soils collected from Mt. Karczówka, a historic Pb ore mining area located in the city of Kielce, south-central Poland. Some of these samples were subjected to XRD analyses and Pb stable isotope measurements. The mineral and chemical composition of rock samples were also examined. Mining activity in the study area was conducted mostly during 15th-17th centuries using technologically primitive methods, and was finally ceased in the first half of the 19th century...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793079/shifts-in-wind-energy-potential-following-land-use-driven-vegetation-dynamics-in-complex-terrain
#8
Jiannong Fang, Alexander Peringer, Mihai-Sorin Stupariu, Ileana Pǎtru-Stupariu, Alexandre Buttler, Francois Golay, Fernando Porté-Agel
Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793070/intradialytic-blood-pressure-pattern-recognition-based-on-density-peak-clustering
#9
Feng Wang, Jing-Yi Zhou, Yu Tian, Yu Wang, Ping Zhang, Jiang-Hua Chen, Jing-Song Li
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and requires hemodialysis (HD) for survival. Intradialytic blood pressure (IBP) measurements are necessary to ensure patient safety during HD treatments and have critical clinical and prognostic significance. Studies on IBP measurements, especially IBP patterns, are limited. All related studies have been based on a priori knowledge and artificially classified IBP patterns. Therefore, the results were influenced by subjective concepts...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793063/progressive-right-ventricular-enlargement-due-to-pulmonary-regurgitation-clinical-characteristics-of-a-low-risk-group
#10
Majd A El-Harasis, Heidi M Connolly, William R Miranda, Muhammad Y Qureshi, Nandini Sharma, Mohamad Al-Otaibi, Christopher V DeSimone, Alexander Egbe
BACKGROUND: The optimal interval between serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) scans for monitoring right ventricular (RV) enlargement in the setting of severe pulmonic valve regurgitation (PR) is unknown. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the annual change in RV volume on serial CMRI scans and (2) identify the risk factors for rapid progression of RV enlargement. METHODS: A retrospective study of adults with postintervention native valve PR and ≥2 CMRI scans at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 2000 to 2015 was conducted...
April 26, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793054/bacillus-clausii-inhibits-bone-loss-by-skewing-treg-th17-cell-equilibrium-in-postmenopausal-osteoporotic-mice-model
#11
Hamid Y Dar, Subhashis Pal, Prashant Shukla, Pradyumna K Mishra, Geetanjali B Tomar, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Rupesh K Srivastava
OBJECTIVES: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of most commonly occurring skeletal diseases leading to bone loss and fragility. Probiotics have been associated with various immunomodulatory properties and thus can be exploited to enhance bone health. In the present study, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, that oral administration of Bacillus clausii (BC) in postmenopausal osteoporotic (OVX) mice model enhances bone health. METHODS: BC was selected as probiotic of choice due to its established immunomodulatory properties...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793042/aminergic-neuromodulation-of-associative-visual-learning-in-harnessed-honey-bees
#12
Nino Mancini, Martin Giurfa, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Aurore Avarguès-Weber
The honey bee Apis mellifera is a major insect model for studying visual cognition. Free-flying honey bees learn to associate different visual cues with a sucrose reward and may deploy sophisticated cognitive strategies to this end. Yet, the neural bases of these capacities cannot be studied in flying insects. Conversely, immobilized bees are accessible to neurobiological investigation but training them to respond appetitively to visual stimuli paired with sucrose reward is difficult. Here we succeeded in coupling visual conditioning in harnessed bees with pharmacological analyses on the role of octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in visual learning...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793010/restoration-of-autologous-arteriovenous-fistula-by-removal-of-the-occluded-short-venous-part-and-venovenous-end-to-end-anastomosis-in-a-hemodialysis-patient
#13
Tsuyoshi Takashima, Keiichiro Matsumoto, Chihiro Takeshita, Eriko Nonaka, Sae Matsushita, Makoto Fukuda, Motoaki Miyazono, Yuji Ikeda
Standard salvage procedures for occuluded autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a hemodialysis patient are endovascular and/or surgical therapy. When endovascular therapy and thrombectomy prove unsuccessful, it is most likely that creating a new AVF or arteriovenous graft will be considered. However, if the occuluded venous part is short, we have adopted an operative technique for repair of AVF by removal of the occluded short venous part and venovenous end-to-end anastomosis. To our knowledge, the efficacy and clinical course of restoration of AVF by the technique have not been reported to date...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792983/impact-of-genetic-influence-on-serum-total-and-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-in-humans
#14
Balázs Szili, Boglárka Szabó, Péter Horváth, Bence Bakos, Györgyi Kirschner, János P Kósa, Erzsébet Toldy, Zsuzsanna Putz, Péter Lakatos, Ádám Tabák, István Takács
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D /25OHD/ levels in humans are determined primarily by environmental factors such as UV-B radiation and diet, including vitamin D intake. Although some genetic determinants of 25OHD levels have been shown, the magnitude of this association has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates the genetic contribution to total- /t-25OHD/ and free-25OHD /f-25OHD/ in a representative sample of the Hungarian population (n = 462). The study was performed at the end of winter to minimize the effect of sunlight, which is a major determinant of serum vitamin D levels...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792980/language-used-by-health-care-professionals-to-describe-dying-at-an-acute-care-hospital
#15
Kirsten Wentlandt, Philippe Toupin, Natalia Novosedlik, Lisa W Le, Camilla Zimmermann, Ebru Kaya
PURPOSE: To understand the language used to describe the deterioration and death of patients in an acute academic tertiary care centre, and to identify whether patient diagnoses or palliative care(PC) involvement was associated with clearer descriptions of this process. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the final admission of 150 patients who died on an inpatient internal medicine unit. Conventional and summative content analysis was performed of the language used to describe, either directly or indirectly, that the patient's death was imminent...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792951/an-analysis-of-variability-in-genome-organisation-of-intracellular-calcium-release-channels-across-insect-orders
#16
Bartlomiej J Troczka, Ewan Richardson, Rafael Homem, T G Emyr Davies
Using publicly available genomic data, combined with RT-PCR validation, we explore structural genomic variation for two major ion channels across insect classes. We have manually curated Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R) ORFs and their corresponding genomic structures from 26 different insects covering major insect orders. We found that, despite high protein identity for both RyRs (>75%) and IP3 Rs (~67%), the overall complexity of the gene structure varies greatly between different insect orders with the simplest genes (fewest introns) found in Diptera and the most complex in Lepidoptera...
May 21, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792879/astragaloside-suppresses-apoptosis-of-the-podocytes-in-rats-with-diabetic-nephropathy-via-mir-378-traf5-signaling-pathway
#17
Xiao Lei, Bo-da Zhang, Ji-Gang Ren, Fang-Li Luo
AIMS: Apoptosis of podocytes plays a crucial role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development, and astragaloside (AS-IV) has a significant impact on podocyte apoptosis. This study aims to explore the effect of AS-IV on diabetic nephropathy progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diabetic nephropathy model was established in rats with streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The albuminuria was examined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of miR-378, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) mRNA and protein was analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792807/micelles-protect-intact-metallo-supramolecular-block-copolymer-complexes-from-solution-to-gas-phase-during-electrospray-ionization
#18
Kai Hung Huang, Tsung-Han Tu, Shi-Cheng Wang, Yi-Tsu Chan, Cheng-Chih Hsu
Supramolecular diblock copolymers using metal-ligand coordination can be synthesized under ambient conditions by delicate design of the end groups of the homopolymer chains. However, mass spectrometric analysis of such metallo-supramolecular copolymers is challenging. One of the reasons is the nonpolarity of the polymer chains, making it hard to disperse the complexes in electrospray ionization (ESI)-friendly environments. The other difficulty is the noncovalent nature of such copolymers, which is easily disrupted during the ionization...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792797/determination-of-a-focused-mini-kinase-panel-for-early-identification-of-selective-kinase-inhibitors
#19
Scott D Bembenek, Gavin Hirst, Taraneh Mirzadegan
We analyzed an extensive data set of 3000 Janssen kinase inhibitors (spanning some 40 therapeutic projects) profiled at 414 kinases in the DiscoverX KINOMEscan to better understand the necessity of using such a full kinase panel versus simply profiling one's compound at a much smaller number of kinases, or mini kinase panel (MKP), to assess its selectivity. To this end, we generated a series of MKPs over a range of sizes, and of varying kinase membership using Monte Carlo simulations. By defining the kinase hit index (KHI), we quantified a compound's selectivity based on the number of kinases it hits...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792768/thai-nursing-students-experiences-of-caring-for-patients-at-the-end-of-life-a-phenomenological-study
#20
Yaowarat Matchim, Parinya Raetong
AIM: To describe Thai nursing students' experiences of providing end-of-life care (EoLC). METHODS: Data were collected via in-depth interviews with 21 nursing students and were analysed using Van Manen's method. FINDINGS: Eight themes emerged based on Van Manen's four lived worlds: feeling excited and worried when receiving an assigned case; feeling disappointed with the health-care team's provision of psychosocial support for patients at the end-of-life and their families; being in a time of uncertainty; recognising that EoLC is a time for gaining merit; knowing that a peaceful place and privacy are needed for promoting a peaceful death; knowing that the real-life classroom is around the patient's bedside; feeling lonely and needing help and support; and creating relationships with patients and families as a nurse...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
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