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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937599/mediterranean-diet-and-multi-ingredient-based-interventions-for-the-management-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Manuel Suárez, Noemí Boqué, Josep M Del Bas, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Lluís Arola, Antoni Caimari
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a wide spectrum of hepatic disorders, from simple steatosis to hepatic necro-inflammation leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although the prevalence of these multifactorial pathologies is continuously increasing in the population, there is still not an established methodology for their treatment other than weight loss and a change in lifestyle habits, such as a hypocaloric diet and physical exercise. In this framework, there is increasing evidence that several food bioactives and dietary patterns are effective for reversing and preventing the onset of these pathologies...
September 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936403/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-lean-subjects-characteristics-and-implications
#2
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar, Shantam Mohan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in obese subjects; however, it is not rare among lean individuals. Given the absence of traditional risk factors, it tends to remain under-recognised. The metabolic profiles of lean NAFLD patients are frequently comparable to those of obese NAFLD patients. Though results from several studies have been mixed, it has been generally revealed that lean subjects with NAFLD have minor insulin resistance compared to that in obese NAFLD. Several genetic variants are associated with NAFLD without insulin resistance...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935287/past-present-and-future-of-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#3
David Benaiges, Juan Pedro-Botet, Juana A Flores-Le Roux, Elisenda Climent, Albert Goday
Conventional treatment for obesity with diet, exercise and bariatric surgery has limitations; thus, it is necessary to have pharmacological tools. In the past, different drugs were marketed that were withdrawn due to safety problems. There are currently 3 drugs approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity therapy (orlistat, combination of bupropion and delayed-release naltrexone and liraglutide) and two more only authorized by FDA (lorcaserin and the combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate)...
September 18, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935198/obesity-in-america
#4
Raul J Rosenthal, John Morton, Stacy Brethauer, Samer Mattar, Eric De Maria, Jennifer K Benz, Jennifer Titus, David Sterrett
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in America continues to grow significantly. Awareness and understanding of the disease of obesity and treatment options for it appear to be lacking among the general US population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify misperceptions in diagnosis and treatment of obesity, struggles Americans face in obtaining treatment, consequences of obesity, and perceived barriers to weight loss. SETTING: University hospital, United States...
August 12, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934819/the-role-of-gut-hormones-in-diet-induced-weight-change-a-systematic-review
#5
Xue Zhao, Qing Han, Xiaokun Gang, You Lv, Yujia Liu, Chenglin Sun, Guixia Wang
Gut hormones are known to play an important role in long-term weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. However, the interplay between gut hormones and diet-induced weight changes remains unclear. Our aims were to evaluate the alterations of gut hormones in diet-induced weight loss, weight maintenance, and weight regain periods. Available studies were searched on MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, and Web of science from inception to October 2016. After selection, 16 studies with 656 participants were included...
September 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934081/longitudinal-analysis-of-nut-inclusive-diets-and-body-mass-index-among-overweight-and-obese-african-american-women-living-in-rural-alabama-and-mississippi-2011-2013
#6
Samara R Sterling, Brenda Bertrand, Suzanne Judd, Tiffany L Carson, Paula Chandler-Laney, Monica L Baskin
INTRODUCTION: Nuts, when eaten alongside other nutritionally rich foods, may decrease obesity and related chronic disease risks, which are high among African American women in the rural South. We monitored changes in nut intake, other obesity-related foods (fruits, vegetables, red or processed meats, added sugars), and body mass index (BMI) over a 2-year weight loss intervention among 383 overweight and obese African American women in rural Alabama and Mississippi. METHODS: Two dietary recalls were administered at 4 points over 24 months...
September 21, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933748/dietary-composition-independent-of-weight-loss-in-the-management-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Tannaz Eslamparast, Puneeta Tandon, Maitreyi Raman
Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933032/the-effect-of-dumping-on-weight-loss-in-conversion-of-failed-restrictive-surgery-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#8
Ruth Van Looveren, Yannick Mandeville, Pieter Logghe, Katrien Vandendriessche, Xander Verbeke, Patrick Vuylsteke, Paul Pattyn, Bart Smet
PURPOSE: Dumping is currently seen as a negative side effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, it may help patients to comply with their prescribed diet. In this study, we assess the role of dumping on weight loss in patients who have undergone conversion of failed restrictive surgery into RYGB. METHODS: An analysis was performed of 100 consecutive patients who underwent revisional RYGB (rRYGB) between 2006 and 2011 due to inadequate weight loss or band intolerance after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
September 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931850/effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-gut-permeability-inflammation-markers-and-fecal-microbiota-in-obese-women
#9
Beate Ott, Thomas Skurk, Ljiljana Hastreiter, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Sandra Fischer, Janine Büttner, Teresa Kellerer, Thomas Clavel, Michael Rychlik, Dirk Haller, Hans Hauner
Recent findings suggest an association between obesity, loss of gut barrier function and changes in microbiota profiles. Our primary objective was to examine the effect of caloric restriction and subsequent weight reduction on gut permeability in obese women. The impact on inflammatory markers and fecal microbiota was also investigated. The 4-week very-low calorie diet (VLCD, 800 kcal/day) induced a mean weight loss of 6.9 ± 1.9 kg accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), fasting plasma glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, and leptin gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931532/genetic-variation-of-habitual-coffee-consumption-and-glycemic-changes-in-response-to-weight-loss-diet-intervention-the-preventing-overweight-using-novel-dietary-strategies-pounds-lost-trial
#10
Liyuan Han, Wenjie Ma, Dianjianyi Sun, Yoriko Heianza, Tiange Wang, Yan Zheng, Tao Huang, Donghui Duan, J George A Bray, Catherine M Champagne, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention.Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930190/oligonol-a-low-molecular-weight-polyphenol-derived-from-lychee-alleviates-muscle-loss-in-diabetes-by-suppressing-atrogin-1-and-murf1
#11
Hung-Wen Liu, Yen-Ju Chen, Yun-Ching Chang, Sue-Joan Chang
Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1-is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement for attenuating muscle loss. Dietary (10 weeks) oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg diet) on the skeletal muscle loss was investigated in diabetic db/db mice...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929907/management-of-obesity-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#12
M H Shojaei, S M Alaviniaa, B C Craven
CONTEXT: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. METHODS: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929278/effect-and-mechanisms-of-diabetes-resolution-according-to-the-range-of-gastric-resection-and-the-length-of-anastomosis-in-animal-models-implication-for-gastric-cancer-surgery-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Yeon-Ju Huh, Young-Gil Son, Tae-Han Kim, Ji-Ho Park, Tae-Jung Oh, Boram Choi, Jimin Min, Young Min Cho, Han-Kwang Yang, Hyuk-Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect and mechanism of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the improvement of diabetes according to the length of anastomosis and the gastric pouch volume in an animal model. METHODS: Glucose intolerance was induced with a high-fat diet for 3 months in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were subjected to conventional RYGB (cRYGB; 5% gastric pouch with 15-cm Roux limb, 40-cm biliopancreatic limb; n = 9), short-limb RYGB (sRYGB; 5%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), fundus-sparing RYGB (fRYGB; 30%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), or sham operation (n = 9)...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928249/refractory-coeliac-disease-or-is-it
#14
Chidi Amadi, Simon Anderson
A previously healthy 33-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of nausea, anorexia and weight loss. Coeliac disease was diagnosed at another hospital with positive serology and D2 biopsies and he was started on a gluten-free diet. The details of these tests were not available to us. Despite good adherence to a gluten-free diet, he continued to lose weight and became anaemic. A repeat gastroscopy showed D2 ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infection was excluded, coeliac serology remained negative but D2 biopsies showed partial duodenal villous flattening with intraepithelial lymphocytosis...
September 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928093/effect-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-on-weight-loss-is-partly-mediated-by-liver-brain-adipose-neurocircuitry
#15
Yoshikazu Sawada, Yoshihiko Izumida, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Nobuhiro Wada, EnXu Li, Yuki Murayama, Xiaoying Piao, Akito Shikama, Yukari Masuda, Makiko Nishi-Tatsumi, Midori Kubota, Motohiro Sekiya, Takashi Matsuzaka, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Yoko Sugano, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Hiroaki Yagyu, Yasushi Kawakami, Takashi Kadowaki, Hitoshi Shimano, Naoya Yahagi
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-obesity effect remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that the glycogen depletion signal triggers lipolysis in adipose tissue via liver-brain-adipose neurocircuitry. In this study, therefore, we investigated whether the anti-obesity mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor is mediated by this mechanism. Diet-induced obese mice were subjected to hepatic vagotomy (HVx) or sham operation and loaded with high fat diet containing 0...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921894/macrophage-area-content-and-phenotype-in-hepatic-and-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-obesity-undergoing-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#16
Marianne D Kristensen, Michael T Lund, Merethe Hansen, Steen S Poulsen, Thorkil Ploug, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge, Clara Prats
OBJECTIVE: To investigate hepatic and adipose tissue macrophage content in subjects with obesity and the role of adipose tissue macrophages in weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity (IS). METHODS: A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study were combined to investigate the role of macrophages in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue and the liver in obesity-induced impaired IS and improvements with weight loss. Macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, and CD206) in SAT, VAT, and the liver from patients with obesity were investigated...
September 18, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921422/high-incidence-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-bariatric-patients-comparing-different-procedures
#17
Jih-Hua Wei, Wei-Jei Lee, Keong Chong, Yi-Chih Lee, Shu-Chun Chen, Po-Hsun Huang, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective therapy for morbid obesity but may reduce calcium absorption and significantly decrease the bone mineral density. This study examined the prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in obese subjects during follow-up after different bariatric surgeries. We investigated predictors of SHPT. METHODS: We enrolled 1470 obese subjects undergoing bariatric/metabolic surgery with at least 1-year follow-up, including 322 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 695 undergoing single anastomosis (mini-) gastric bypass (SAGB), 93 undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and 360 undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG)...
September 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920089/cooking-methods-affect-phytochemical-composition-and-anti-obesity-potential-of-soybean-glycine-max-seeds-in-wistar-rats
#18
Cerile Ypolyte Woumbo, Dieudonné Kuate, Hilaire Macaire Womeni
This work aimed at investigating the effects of three domestic cooking methods (roasting, sprouting and boiling) on phytochemical contents (phenolic content, flavonoid, fibre), and anti-obesity (weight loss, hypoglycemic effect, serum lipids) potential of soybean seeds in obese male rats. Ten different forms were implemented, combining hulled/unhulled and raw/cooked soybean seeds using a basal and a hypercaloric diet as controls. Unhulled Roasted Soybean (URS) exhibited the highest phenolic content and a greater antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay than BHT at certain concentrations...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#19
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919065/metabolically-healthy-obesity-the-low-hanging-fruit-in-obesity-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Matthias B Schulze
Obesity increases the risk of several other chronic diseases and, because of its epidemic proportions, has become a major public health problem worldwide. Alarmingly, a lower proportion of adults have tried to lose weight during the past decade than during the mid-1980s to 1990s. The first-line treatment option for obesity is lifestyle intervention. Although this approach can decrease fat mass in the short term, these beneficial effects typically do not persist. If a large amount of weight loss is not an easily achievable goal, other goals that might motivate people with obesity to adopt a healthy lifestyle should be considered...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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