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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812451/nonmedical-use-of-over-the-counter-medications-is-significantly-associated-with-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-among-university-students
#1
Vi T Le, Abigail Norris Turner, Anne McDaniel, Kenneth M Hale, Christina Athas, Nicole C Kwiek
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between nonmedical use of over-the-counter medications (NMUOTC) and nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). PARTICIPANTS: University students surveyed on NMUOTC and NMUPD between August and December 2011 (N = 939). METHODS: Cross-sectional data analysis of online survey. RESULTS: The majority of respondents were female, undergraduate, Caucasian, and not affiliated with Greek life...
August 16, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812385/increased-acetaminophen-related-calls-to-finnish-pic-better-reflect-acetaminophen-sales-than-serious-poisonings
#2
Mikko J Parry, Helena Isoniemi, Anna-Maria Koivusalo, Kalle Hoppu
OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen (APAP) or paracetamol is a commonly encountered medicine in poisonings. We studied the changes in APAP related calls to the Finnish poison information centre (FPIC), and serious intoxications, involving hepatotoxicity or death in 2001-2014. These data were compared with paracetamol sales in Finland. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the FPIC database calls, national cause of death registry, registries of liver transplantations and molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS)-treated patients from Helsinki University Hospital together with the National Institute of Health and Welfare registry of patients hospitalized...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805984/self-medication-misuse-in-the-middle-east-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Malak M Khalifeh, Nicholas D Moore, Pascale R Salameh
Regulations usually distinguish between prescription-only (POM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The former requires medical prescription; the latter are available for SM of common minor or easily treated ailments. However, in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, theoretical prescription medicines can easily be purchased without a prescription, as self-medication (SM) resulting in potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. The magnitude of this activity is uncertain. The aim of this article, therefore, is to undertake a comprehensive review to identify the different types of medicines that can easily be purchased as SM in Middle East and recognized as misused...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805147/a-comparison-of-transdermal-over-the-counter-lidocaine-3-6-menthol-1-25-rx-lidocaine-5-and-placebo-for-back-pain-and-arthritis
#4
Eric Castro, David Dent
AIM: Transdermal lidocaine therapy has become a gold standard as part of a treatment regimen for patients who suffer from localized pain. We compared transdermal patches: over-the-counter (OTC) lidocaine 3.6% combined with menthol 1.25%, prescription lidocaine 5% (Rx) and placebo. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients were randomized to: OTC, Rx or placebo. RESULTS: OTC met primary end points of noninferiority compared with Rx for efficacy, side effects and quality of life...
August 14, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804652/use-of-over-the-counter-medication-among-pregnant-women-in-sharjah-united-arab-emirates
#5
Abduelmula R Abduelkarem, Hafsa Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter medications are widely available in pharmacies Their safety profile, however, does not extend to pregnant women. Accordingly, there should be educational programs developed for pregnant women to protect them from the harms of the side effects. AIM: This study was planned and designed with the aim of exploring the awareness and assessing the usage of OTC medications among pregnant women in Sharjah, UAE. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802245/hyphospheric-impacts-of-earthworms-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-on-soil-bacterial-community-to-promote-oxytetracycline-degradation
#6
Jia Cao, Chong Wang, Zhengxia Dou, Mengli Liu, Dingge Ji
A two-compartment microcosm was used to investigate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) hyphae and earthworm in altering soil microbial community and OTC degradation. Treatments comprised OTC-contaminated hyphal compartments with or without AMF hyphae and with or without earthworms. Results indicated both AMF hyphae and earthworms accelerated OTC degradation; two degradation products were identified as 4-epi-oxytetracycline (EOTC) and 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline (ADOTC). Q-PCR results indicated that both earthworms and AMF hyphae increased 16s rDNA gene, enhancing OTC degradation consequently...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795285/polypharmacy-and-potential-drug-drug-interactions-in-emergency-department-patients-in-the-caribbean
#7
Darren Dookeeram, Satesh Bidaisee, Joanne F Paul, Paula Nunes, Paula Robertson, Vidya Ramcharitar Maharaj, Ian Sammy
Background Potential Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) account for many emergency department visits. Polypharmacy, as well as herbal, over-the-counter (OTC) and combination medication may compound this, but these problems are not well researched in low-and-middle-income countries. Objective To compare the incidence of drug-drug interactions and polypharmacy in older and younger patients attending the Emergency Department (ED). Setting The adult ED of a tertiary teaching hospital in Trinidad. Methods A 4 month cross sectional study was conducted, comparing potential DDI in older and younger patients discharged from the ED, as defined using Micromedex 2...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794663/physician-perspectives-on-education-training-and-implementation-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine
#8
Sejal J Patel, Kathi J Kemper, Joseph P Kitzmiller
Over recent decades, the demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has continued to rise in the US. Like the practice of traditional Western medicine, CAM is associated with not only significant health benefits but also significant risks. Unlike traditional Western medicine, however, much of CAM use is less regulated and often occurs unbeknownst to a patient's medical doctor. The use of herbals, dietary supplements, and over-the-counter (OTC) medications can result in adverse effects, and many significant interactions can occur when their use is combined with allopathic medications...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783602/organotin-compounds-in-brachidontes-rodriguezii-mussels-from-the-bah%C3%A3-a-blanca-estuary-argentina
#9
Pamela Y Quintas, Andrés H Arias, Ana L Oliva, Claudia E Domini, Mónica B Alvarez, Mariano Garrido, Jorge E Marcovecchio
Levels of tributyltin and its breakdown compounds, including the first record of monobutyltin (MBT) in history for Latin America, were determined in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) by means of CG-MS, after extraction/derivatization assisted by ultrasound. The samples were collected in 2013 in Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) at 6 sites, which reflect different levels of maritime activities. Total butyltins (TBts = TBT+ DBT+ MBT) levels ranged from 19.64 to 180.57ng Sn g(-1) dry weight. According to the Oslo-Paris commission, the results indicated that 73...
August 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757091/advances-in-methods-for-characterization-of-hepatic-urea-cycle-enzymatic-activity-in-heparg-cells-using-uplc-ms-ms
#10
M F Moedas, A A A Adam, M A Farelo, L IJlst, R A F M Chamuleau, R Hoekstra, R J A Wanders, M F B Silva
Current methodologies for the assessment of urea cycle (UC) enzymatic activity are insufficient to accurately evaluate this pathway in biological specimens where lower UC is expected. Liver cell lines, including HepaRG, have been described to have limited nitrogen fixation through the UC, limiting their applicability as biocomponents for Bioartificial Livers (BAL). This work aims to develop novel and sensitive analytical solutions using Mass Spectrometry-based methodology to measure the activity of four UC enzymes in human liver and HepaRG cells...
July 27, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756580/assessment-of-patients-knowledge-and-practices-regarding-their-medication-use-and-risks-in-lebanon
#11
Elsy Ramia, Rony M Zeenny, Souheil Hallit, Pascale Salameh
Background Patients' knowledge of their medications play a pivotal role in their disease management. Objective Assess the knowledge and practices of Lebanese outpatients regarding their own medication use and risks. Setting Four hundred and sixty community pharmacies across Lebanon. Method It was a cross-sectional study performed from March through May 2016 among Lebanese outpatients, using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate all participants' responses. The association between categorical variables were evaluated using Pearson χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755296/improvement-of-oxytetracycline-production-mediated-via-cooperation-of-resistance-genes-in-streptomyces-rimosus
#12
Shouliang Yin, Xuefeng Wang, Mingxin Shi, Fang Yuan, Huizhuan Wang, Xiaole Jia, Fang Yuan, Jinliang Sun, Tiejun Liu, Keqian Yang, Yuxiu Zhang, Keqiang Fan, Zilong Li
Increasing the self-resistance levels of Streptomyces is an effective strategy to improve the production of antibiotics. To increase the oxytetracycline (OTC) production in Streptomyces rimosus, we investigated the cooperative effect of three co-overexpressing OTC resistance genes: one gene encodes a ribosomal protection protein (otrA) and the other two express efflux proteins (otrB and otrC). Results indicated that combinational overexpression of otrA, otrB, and otrC (MKABC) exerted a synergetic effect. OTC production increased by 179% in the recombinant strain compared with that of the wild-type strain M4018...
July 26, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738205/developing-and-applying-a-site-specific-multimedia-fate-model-to-address-ecological-risk-of-oxytetracycline-discharged-with-aquaculture-effluent-in-coastal-waters-off-jangheung-korea
#13
Woojung Kim, Yunho Lee, Sang Don Kim
The overuse of oxytetracycline (OTC) in aquaculture has become a problem because of its chronic toxic effects on marine ecosystems. The present study assessed the ecological risk of OTC in the coastal waters near the Jangheung Flatfish Farm using a site-specific multimedia fate model to analyze exposure. Before the model was applied, its performance was validated by comparing it with field data. The coastal waters in the testbed were sampled and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE)...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733524/arginine-auxotrophic-gene-signature-in-paediatric-sarcomas-and-brain-tumours-provides-a-viable-target-for-arginine-depletion-therapies
#14
Ashley Vardon, Madhumita Dandapani, Daryl Cheng, Paul Cheng, Carmela De Santo, Francis Mussai
Paediatric sarcomas and brain tumours, remain cancers of significant unmet need, with a poor prognosis for patients with high risk disease or those who relapse, and significant morbidities from treatment for those that survive using standard treatment approaches. Novel treatment strategies, based on the underlying tumour biology, are needed to improve outcomes. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that is imported from the extracellular microenvironment or recycled from intracellular precursors through the combined expression of the enzymes ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) enzymes...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728199/-polypharmacy-solutions-for-enhanced-drug-safety
#15
Olaf Krause, Gesine Picksak, Ulrike Junius-Walker
Polypharmacy (≥ 5 drugs) is common among older people and may lead to falls, ADEs and delirium. Adherence is an important part in the medication management. Simple questions (i. e. for OTC, handling and omission of drugs) are effective. As most old people are treated by general practitioners (GP), they play a key role for drug safety and reducing polypharmacy. The involvement of pharmacists in analyzing one patient's drugs can enhance solutions for drug problems ("two-man rule"). An IT-based medication plan acts as an important communication tool for an enhanced team work between doctors, pharmacists and nursing care...
July 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705150/economic-burden-of-varicella-in-children-1-12%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-hungary-2011-2015
#16
Z Meszner, Z Molnar, E Rampakakis, H K Yang, B J Kuter, Lara J Wolfson
BACKGROUND: Although live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing varicella and real-word evidence shows routine childhood immunization programs are effective in dramatically reducing varicella associated morbidity and mortality, varicella vaccine is not included in the National Immunization Program (NIP) in Hungary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and economic burden associated with varicella in Hungary...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703305/use-of-multicriteria-decision-analysis-for-assessing-the-benefit-and-risk-of-over-the-counter-analgesics
#17
Andrew Moore, Anne Crossley, Bernard Ng, Lawrence Phillips, Özgür Sancak, K D Rainsford
OBJECTIVES: To test the ability of a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) model to incorporate disparate data sources of varying quality along with clinical judgement in a benefit-risk assessment of six well-known pain-relief drugs. METHODS: Six over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics were evaluated against three favourable effects and eight unfavourable effects by seven experts who specialise in the relief of pain, two in a 2-day facilitated workshop whose input data and judgements were later peer-reviewed by five additional experts...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702899/complex-antioxidants-in-a-randomized-single-blinded-study-of-memory-in-seniors
#18
William K Summers, Roy L Martin, Yimeng Liu, Bernice Peña, Gary M Marsh
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative injury to the brain and aging are theoretical co-causes of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Amyloid plaques and tangles are then secondary phenomenon. The preclinical state would then be 'normal' elderly. METHODS: A potent complex antioxidant (antiOx) was tested against a popular one-a-day multivitamin (mV) in a randomized single blind design in 'normal' senior subjects over 6 months. Memory testing was done at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to compare the change score of NLT100 and 20WR between two groups over time...
July 12, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686778/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-novel-botanical-acne-spot-treatment
#19
Deganit Barak-Shinar, Zoe Diana Draelos
<p>OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a new presented treatment for acne. The product is an OTC topical gel consisting of 2% SA, which is also enriched in botanicals that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.</p> <p>DESIGN: The study was designed as a single-site, randomized, investigator-blinded, split-face 10-day study.</p> <p>SETTING: Subjects enrolled with a minimum of 2 inflammatory papular acne lesions and 2 non-inflammatory open or closed comedones on both sides of the face in symmetrical locations, to the greatest degree possible...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683144/assessment-of-some-cultural-experimental-methods-to-study-the-effects-of-antibiotics-on-microbial-activities-in-a-soil-an-incubation-study
#20
Ali Molaei, Amir Lakzian, Gholamhosain Haghnia, Alireza Astaraei, MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani, Maria Teresa Ceccherini, Rahul Datta
Oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are two of most widely used antibiotics in livestock and poultry industry. After consumption of antibiotics, a major portion of these compounds is excreted through the feces and urine of animals. Land application of antibiotic-treated animal wastes has caused increasing concern about their adverse effects on ecosystem health. In this regard, inconsistent results have been reported regarding the effects of antibiotics on soil microbial activities. This study was conducted based on the completely randomized design to the measure microbial biomass carbon, cumulative respiration and iron (III) reduction bioassays...
2017: PloS One
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