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Leptin puberty

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303010/the-usefulness-of-circulating-levels-of-leptin-kisspeptin-and-neurokinin-b-in-obese-girls-with-precocious-puberty
#1
Min Jae Kang, Yeon Joung Oh, Young Suk Shim, Joon Woo Baek, Seung Yang, Il Tae Hwang
This study investigated the relationships of circulating leptin, kisspeptin, and neurokinin B (NKB) levels with precocious puberty (PP) in overweight/obese girls and evaluated the usefulness of these markers in the initiation of puberty. One hundred and twenty-eight girls aged 7.0-8.9 years with PP (group A, normal-weight; group B, overweight/obese) and 30 age-matched normal controls (NC) were enrolled. Serum levels of leptin, kisspeptin, and NKB were measured by commercial kits. Serum leptin levels were higher in group A (4...
January 5, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237763/bisphenol-a-phthalate-metabolites-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-healthy-normal-weight-children
#2
Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen, Anders Juul
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of The COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry, and fasting blood samples...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212950/pi3k%C3%AE-inactivation-in-leptin-receptor-cells-increases-leptin-sensitivity-but-disrupts-growth-and-reproduction
#3
David Garcia-Galiano, Beatriz C Borges, Jose Donato, Susan J Allen, Nicole Bellefontaine, Mengjie Wang, Jean J Zhao, Kenneth M Kozloff, Jennifer W Hill, Carol F Elias
The role of PI3K in leptin physiology has been difficult to determine due to its actions downstream of several metabolic cues, including insulin. Here, we used a series of mouse models to dissociate the roles of specific PI3K catalytic subunits and of insulin receptor (InsR) downstream of leptin signaling. We show that disruption of p110α and p110β subunits in leptin receptor cells (LRΔα+β) produces a lean phenotype associated with increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and thermogenesis. LRΔα+β mice have deficient growth and delayed puberty...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#4
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145926/corrigendum-to-increased-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-but-decreased-total-adiponectin-and-kisspeptin-in-central-precocious-puberty-compared-with-aged-matched-prepubertal-girls
#5
Chantacha Sitticharoon, Maynart Sukharomana, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Malika Churintaraphan, Pailin Maikaew
The aim of the present study was to compare serum leptin, kisspeptin, total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels between girls with central precocious puberty (CPP; n=26, 7-9.5 years old) and age-matched controls (n=29) including or excluding obese girls. Leptin and NPY levels were comparable between CPP and control girls. Kisspeptin levels were lower in the CPP than control group, and were positively correlated with oestrogen in the control group and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the CPP group...
November 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137471/serum-levels-of-spexin-and-kisspeptin-negatively-correlate-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-women
#6
P A Kołodziejskii, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, E Korek, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, P Kaczmarek, L Nogowski, P Maćkowiak, K W Nowak, H Krauss, M Z Strowski
Spexin (SPX) and kisspeptin (KISS) are novel peptides relevant in the context of regulation of metabolism, food intake, puberty and reproduction. Here, we studied changes of serum SPX and KISS levels in female non-obese volunteers (BMI<25 kg/m2) and obese patients (BMI>35 kg/m2). Correlations between SPX or KISS with BMI, McAuley index, QUICKI, HOMA IR, serum levels of insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, obestatin, ghrelin and GLP-1 were assessed. Obese patients had lower SPX and KISS levels as compared to non-obese volunteers (SPX: 4...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093685/bipolar-spectrum-disorders-in-male-youth-the-interplay-between-symptom-severity-inflammation-steroid-secretion-and-body-composition
#7
REVIEW
Andreas Walther, Marlene Penz, Daniela Ijacic, Timothy R Rice
The morbidity and societal burden of youth bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD) are high. These disorders are multisystemic in that adult populations there are clear interactions with inflammatory processes and steroidal physiological systems. There are much less data concerning these areas of study in youth populations with BSD. This is surprising given the association of youth-onset BSD with puberty and its associated physiological changes. In this mini-review, we overview the theoretical role of inflammatory processes and steroidal physiological systems in youth BSD, describe the greater literature in adult populations, detail the literature in youth populations when available, and overview current proposed molecular mechanistic pathways and interaction effects based on the available data...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056108/a-combination-of-nutrition-and-genetics-is-able-to-reduce-age-at-puberty-in-nelore-heifers-to-below-18-months
#8
M V C Ferraz, A V Pires, M H Santos, R G Silva, G B Oliveira, D M Polizel, M V Biehl, R Sartori, G P Nogueira
Nelore heifers usually begin their reproductive life at ⩾24 months of age mainly due to suboptimal nutritional conditions and genetics. This study aimed to determine the effect of expected progeny difference (EPD) for age at first calving and average daily gain (ADG) on puberty in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) heifers. A total of 58 weaned heifers (initial BW=174±6 kg; age=9±1 months) were allocated into 28 feedlot pens. Heifers were born from four sires, of which two had low EPD for age at first calving (L; n=33) and two had high EPD for age at first calving (H; n=25)...
October 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961976/disentangling-puberty-novel-neuroendocrine-pathways-and-mechanisms-for-the-control-of-mammalian-puberty
#9
M S Avendaño, M J Vazquez, M Tena-Sempere
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a complex developmental event, controlled by sophisticated regulatory networks that integrate peripheral and internal cues and impinge at the brain centers driving the reproductive axis. The tempo of puberty is genetically determined but is also sensitive to numerous modifiers, from metabolic and sex steroid signals to environmental factors. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the onset of puberty is advancing in humans, through as yet unknown mechanisms...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938405/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-leptin-activation-of-cart-neurons-and-advances-puberty-in-female-mice
#10
Jade Cabestre Venancio, Lisandra Oliveira Margatho, Rodrigo Rorato, Roberta Ribeiro Costa Rosales, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Ricardo Coletti, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Carol F Elias, Lucila Leico K Elias
Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898241/alterations-in-the-programming-of-energy-metabolism-in-adolescents-with-background-exposure-to-dioxins-dl-pcbs-and-pbdes
#11
Marike M Leijs, Janna G Koppe, Thomas Vulsma, Kees Olie, Wim M C van Aalderen, Pim de Voogt, Juliette Legler, Gavin W Ten Tusscher
OBJECTIVES: Dioxins and PCBs are highly toxic and persistent environmental pollutants that are measurable in humans worldwide. These persistent organic pollutants are associated with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus. We hypothesise that perinatal (background) exposure to industrial pollutants like dioxins also influences body mass development and energy metabolism in later life. STUDY DESIGN: In The Netherlands, the perinatal exposure (prenatal exposure and postnatal lactational intake) to dioxins has been studied prospectively since 1987...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825971/maternal-viral-mimetic-administration-at-the-beginning-of-fetal-hypothalamic-nuclei-development-accelerates-puberty-in-female-rat-offspring
#12
Pınar Cakan, Sedat Yildiz, Tuba Ozgocer, Azibe Yildiz, Nigar Vardi
This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal viral infection during a critical time window of fetal hypothalamic development on timing of puberty in the female offspring. For that purpose, a viral mimetic (i.e. synthetic double strand RNA, namely, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, Poly (I:C)) or saline was injected (i.p.) to the pregnant rats during the beginning (day 12 of pregnancy, n=5 for each group) or at the end of this time window (day 14 of pregnancy, n=5 for each group). Four study groups were formed from the female pups (n=9 or 10 pups/group)...
August 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792785/puberty-is-an-important-developmental-period-for-the-establishment-of-adipose-tissue-mass-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#13
Brandon Holtrup, Christopher D Church, Ryan Berry, Laura Colman, Elise Jeffery, Jeremy Bober, Matthew S Rodeheffer
Over the past 2 decades, the incidence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. This recent rise in childhood obesity is particularly concerning as adults who were obese during childhood develop type II diabetes that is intractable to current forms of treatment compared with individuals who develop obesity in adulthood. While the mechanisms responsible for the exacerbated diabetic phenotype associated with childhood obesity is not clear, it is well known that childhood is an important time period for the establishment of normal white adipose tissue in humans...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759403/metformin-for-obesity-in-prepubertal-and-pubertal-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Belén Pastor-Villaescusa, M Dolores Cañete, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, Raúl Hoyos, Miriam Latorre, Rocío Vázquez-Cobela, Julio Plaza-Díaz, José Maldonado, Gloria Bueno, Rosaura Leis, Ángel Gil, Ramón Cañete, Concepción M Aguilera
OBJECTIVES: Metformin has shown its effectiveness in treating obesity in adults. However, little research has been conducted in children, with a lack of attention on pubertal status. The objectives were to determine whether oral metformin treatment reduces BMI z score, cardiovascular risk, and inflammation biomarkers in children who are obese depending on pubertal stage and sex. METHODS: This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, stratified according to pubertal stage and sex, conducted at 4 Spanish clinical hospitals...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747890/longitudinal-associations-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-with-heart-rate-variability-in-children
#15
Roos Van De Wielle, Nathalie Michels
For early prevention of cardiovascular disease, early detection and risk factor insights are necessary. The autonomic balance reflects cardiovascular risk and can be measured by heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore, our purpose is to examine associations between HRV and the energy-related biomarkers leptin and adiponectin in children. Participants of this study were Belgian children recruited for the longitudinal ChiBS study (year 2010-2012). HRV was measured and fasting blood samples were taken in 249 children at baseline (4...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727020/interaction-of-dietary-energy-source-and-body-weight-gain-during-the-juvenile-period-on-metabolic-endocrine-status-and-age-at-puberty-in-beef-heifers
#16
C C Allen, L O Tedeschi, D H Keisler, R C Cardoso, B R C Alves, M Amstalden, G L Williams
Using a previously established model for nutritional acceleration of puberty, beef heifers ( = 48; 1/2 Angus × 1/4 Hereford × 1/4 Brahman) were used in a replicated 2 × 2 factorial design to examine the effects of diet type (high forage [HF] vs. high concentrate [HC]) and rate of BW gain (low gain [LG], 0.45 kg/d, vs. high gain [HG], 0.91 kg/d) on key metabolic hormones and age at puberty. After weaning at 14 ± 1 wk of age, heifers were assigned randomly to be fed HC-HG, HC-LG, HF-HG, or HF-LG ( = 12/group) beginning at 4 mo of age for 14 wk...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674441/a-high-salt-diet-inhibits-obesity-and-delays-puberty-in-the-female-rat
#17
D Pitynski-Miller, M Ross, M Schmill, R Schambow, T Fuller, F W Flynn, D C Skinner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Owing to the correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: (i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, (ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and (iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset...
November 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610651/increased-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-but-decreased-total-adiponectin-and-kisspeptin-in-central-precocious-puberty-compared-with-aged-matched-prepubertal-girls
#18
Chantacha Sitticharoon, Maynart Sukharomana, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Malika Churintaraphan, Pailin Maikaew
The aim of the present study was to compare serum leptin, kisspeptin, total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels between girls with central precocious puberty (CPP; n=26, 7-9.5 years old) and age-matched controls (n=29) including or excluding obese girls. Leptin and NPY levels were comparable between CPP and control girls. Kisspeptin levels were lower in the CPP than control group, and were positively correlated with oestrogen in the control group and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the CPP group...
June 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604756/anthropometry-dxa-and-leptin-reflect-subcutaneous-but-not-visceral-abdominal-adipose-tissue-on-mri-in-197-healthy-adolescents
#19
Jeanette Tinggaard, Casper P Hagen, Anders N Christensen, Annette Mouritsen, Mikkel G Mieritz, Christine Wohlfahrt-Veje, Jørn W Helge, Thomas N Beck, Eva Fallentin, Rasmus Larsen, Rikke B Jensen, Anders Juul, Katharina M Main
BackgroundAbdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10-15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed...
October 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593921/hyperandrogenism-in-adolescent-girls-relationship-with-the-somatotrophic-axis
#20
María Isabel Hernandez, Patricia López, Ximena Gaete, Claudio Villarroel, Gabriel Cavada, Alejandra Avila, German Iñiguez, Fernando Cassorla
BACKGROUND: During puberty there is a physiologic increase in adrenal and ovarian androgens. It has been suggested that the somatotrophic axis may be related to the development of hyperandrogenism and anovulation in non-obese adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to investigate whether ovarian androgen secretion in young postmenarchal girls is related to the function of their somatotropic axis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of adolescent girls...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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