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Forensic genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738663/statistical-approach-for-atr-ftir-screening-of-semen-in-sexual-evidence
#1
Inês Gregório, Félix Zapata, Mercedes Torre, Carmen García-Ruiz
Genetic identification has revolutionized the Forensic Sciences, especially in sexual aggression cases. For the successful extraction of the genetic information of a criminal, a crucial step is the prior detection of bodily fluids on evidence. In this article, a method for non-destructive screening of semen samples is reported. Using chemometric tools, bodily fluids can be detected and differentiated without damaging the sample, by correlating the infrared spectra of sexual evidence with previously recorded spectra from undamaged stains of individual bodily fluids...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728057/integrating-the-microbiome-as-a-resource-in-the-forensics-toolkit
#2
Thomas H Clarke, Andres Gomez, Harinder Singh, Karen E Nelson, Lauren M Brinkac
The introduction of DNA fingerprinting to forensic science rapidly expanded the available evidence that could be garnered from a crime scene and used in court cases. Next generation sequencing technologies increased available genetic data that could be used as evidence by orders of magnitude, and as such, significant additional genetic information is now available for use in forensic science. This includes DNA from the bacteria that live in and on humans, known as the human microbiome. Next generation sequencing of the human microbiome demonstrates that its bacterial DNA can be used to uniquely identify an individual, provide information about their life and behavioral patterns, determine the body site where a sample came from, and estimate postmortem intervals...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728056/sequence-based-diversity-of-23-autosomal-str-loci-in-koreans-investigated-using-an-in-house-massively-parallel-sequencing-panel
#3
Eun Hye Kim, Hwan Young Lee, So Yeun Kwon, Eun Young Lee, Woo Ick Yang, Kyoung-Jin Shin
As DNA databases continue to grow and international cooperation increases, forensic STR loci have expanded to increase the discriminatory power and inter-database compatibility. Current capillary electrophoresis (CE) and/or massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based commercial STR analysis systems reflect such changing trends of expanding STR loci. Due to the general gains of larger multiplexing and the detection of sequence variation, the application of MPS technology to STR analysis has further improved discrimination and is expected to aid in mixture interpretation by increasing the effective number of alleles...
July 9, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717960/population-genetic-analysis-of-the-globalfiler-str-loci-in-3032-individuals-from-the-altay-han-population-of-xinjiang-in-northwest-china
#4
XueBo Li, Liangliang Li, Qingshan Wang, Jianzhong Zhang, Wendong Ge, Rufeng Bai, Xiaojun Yu, Meisen Shi
The genetic polymorphisms of 21 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit were evaluated in 3032 unrelated individuals Altay Han of Xinjiang, northwest China. All of the loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. SE33 showed the greatest power of discrimination in Altay Han population, whereas TPOX showed the lowest. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 21 autosomal STR loci were 0...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704439/inner-and-inter-population-structure-construction-of-chinese-jiangsu-han-population-based-on-y23-str-system
#5
Huipin Wang, Huajie Ba, Chun Yang, Jianqiu Zhang, Yunchun Tai
In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci from PowerPlex® Y23 system in 916 unrelated healthy male individuals from Chinese Jiangsu Han, and observed 912 different haplotypes including 908 unique haplotypes and 4 duplicate haplotypes. The haplotype diversity reached 0.99999 and the discrimination capacity and match probability were 0.9956 and 0.0011, respectively. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.3942 at DYS438 to 0.9607 at DYS385a/b. Population differentiation within 10 Jiangsu Han subpopulations were evaluated by RST values and visualized in Neighbor-Joining trees and Multi-Dimensional Scaling plots as well as population relationships between the Jiangsu Han population and other 18 Eastern Asian populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704380/molecular-investigation-by-whole-exome-sequencing-revealed-a-high-proportion-of-pathogenic-variants-among-thai-victims-of-sudden-unexpected-death-syndrome
#6
Bhoom Suktitipat, Sakda Sathirareuangchai, Ekkapong Roothumnong, Wanna Thongnoppakhun, Purin Wangkiratikant, Nutchavadee Vorasan, Rungroj Krittayaphong, Manop Pithukpakorn, Warangkna Boonyapisit
INTRODUCTION: Sudden unexpected death syndrome (SUDS) is an important cause of death in young healthy adults with a high incident rate in Southeast Asia; however, there are no molecular autopsy reports about these victims. We performed a combination of both a detailed autopsy and a molecular autopsy by whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the cause of SUDS in Thai sudden death victims. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed forensic autopsy was performed to identify the cause of death, followed by a molecular autopsy, in 42 sudden death victims who died between January 2015 and August 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700963/application-of-dip-strs-to-sexual-physical-assault-investigations-eight-case-reports
#7
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Diana Hall
DIP-STRs are compound markers formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism linked to a microsatellite. They enable the deconvolution of unbalanced DNA mixtures from two individuals, up to 1000 fold excess of one contributor. In practice, this novel tool allows to test for the presence of a DNA of interest in traces appearing not useful because of the masking effect of the major DNA contributor. Thus far two sets of DIP-STRs have been published: the first set was described as proof-of-principle, while the second set was specifically developed for forensic applications...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698063/population-variation-in-skeletal-sexual-dimorphism
#8
Douglas H Ubelaker, Cassandra M DeGaglia
Research has documented considerable population variation in sexual dimorphism related to human growth and development. This variation represents both genetic and environmental factors which impact methodologies used to estimate sex from human skeletal remains. This article provides an overview of known variation in skeletal sexual dimorphism among populations through documented research on samples from around the world. Variation in juvenile growth patterns of populations and differences in adult skeletal size and characteristics are discussed...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697681/a-particularly-complex-case-of-matricide-by-means-of-plastic-bag-suffocation-case-report
#9
Arnaldo Stanislao Migliorini, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Andrea Piccinini, Riccardo Zoja
A rare case of homicide with plastic bag suffocation is presented in which forensic genetic investigations were carried out on the inner surface of a plastic bag placed over the head of an elderly woman, bedridden after a stroke. The results obtained suggested that she had been murdered and hinted at the perpetrator of the crime. In fact, it emerged that biological traces left by the victim matched those of her principal caregiver, her psychotic daughter, who later confessed to the crime. The old woman also had a son affected by a serious illness, whose genetic profile was found on the same bag...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697408/a-finding-in-genetic-polymorphism-analysis-study-a-case-of-non-mosaic-47-xxx-without-manifestations
#10
Xingyi Yang, Zilan Ye, Xiaofang Zhang, Huijun Wang, Chao Liu
Trisomy X (47, XXX) is a sex chromosome aneuploidy condition in which females have an extra X chromosome, compared to the 46, XX karyotype in typical females. There is considerable variation in the phenotype, with some individuals very mildly affected and others with more significant physical and psychological features. However, the trisomy X in this case, without any of these phenotype, is rarely reported. Here, we report a case found during DNA sample collection in a study of genetic polymorphism analysis of loci in Chinese ethnic group, of a female with neither laboratory or clinical signs of Triple X syndrome...
June 30, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691916/social-and-ethical-aspects-of-forensic-genetics-a-critical-review
#11
REVIEW
R Williams, M Wienroth
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690801/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-barcoding-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-i-sequences-for-discriminating-17-species-of-columbidae-by-decision-tree-algorithm
#12
Cheng-Hong Yang, Kuo-Chuan Wu, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Li-Yeh Chuang, Hsueh-Wei Chang
DNA barcodes are widely used in taxonomy, systematics, species identification, food safety, and forensic science. Most of the conventional DNA barcode sequences contain the whole information of a given barcoding gene. Most of the sequence information does not vary and is uninformative for a given group of taxa within a monophylum. We suggest here a method that reduces the amount of noninformative nucleotides in a given barcoding sequence of a major taxon, like the prokaryotes, or eukaryotic animals, plants, or fungi...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687792/maldi-tof-ms-as-a-novel-tool-for-the-estimation-of-postmortem-interval-in-liver-tissue-samples
#13
Chengzhi Li, Zhengdong Li, Ya Tuo, Dong Ma, Yan Shi, Qinghua Zhang, Xianyi Zhuo, Kaifei Deng, Yijiu Chen, Zhenyuan Wang, Ping Huang
Estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a complicated task in forensic medicine, especially during homicide and unwitnessed death investigations. Many biological, chemical, and physical indicators can be used to determine the postmortem interval, but most are not accurate. Here, we present a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method that can be used for the estimation of PMI using molecular images and multivariate analyses. In this study, we demonstrate that both rat and human liver tissues of various PMIs (0, 2, 4, and 6days) can be discriminated using MALDI imaging and principal component analysis (PCA)...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686631/a-new-approach-for-the-analysis-of-facial-growth-and-age-estimation-iris-ratio
#14
Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Marta Regina Pinheiro Flores, Laíse Nascimento Correia Lima, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Ademir Franco, Ana Cristina Barreto Bezerra, Martin Paul Evison, Marco Aurélio Guimarães
The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face-specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio)-for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680088/developmental-validation-of-a-6-dye-typing-system-with-27-loci-and-application-in-han-population-of-china
#15
Yaju Liu, Lihong Guo, Haiying Jin, Zheng Li, Rufeng Bai, Meisen Shi, Shuhua Ma
In this study, a novel 27-locus system (now known as the SureID PanGlobal system), including 24 autosomal STRs (D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D12S391, D6S1043, D2S1338, D1S1656, D2S441, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D19S433, CSF1PO, Penta D, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, FGA, D16S539, D22S1045, SE33, D10S1248), two Y-chromosome markers (DYS391 and Y-indel) and the sex determining marker, Amelogenin was developed with six fluorescent dyes labeling. The included STR loci belonged to the core loci in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and the European Standard Set (ESS) as well as some additional loci commonly used in commercial kits and national DNA databases...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677500/good-practices-in-forensic-toxicology
#16
Olaf H Drummer
This manuscript provides an overview for analysts, medical and scientific investigators, and laboratory administrators, the range of factors that should be considered to implement best practice forensic toxicology. These include laboratory influence over the collection of specimens, their proper transport and chain-of-custody before arrival in the laboratory. In addition, the laboratory needs to ensure properly trained staff use suitably validated and documented analytical procedures that meet the intended purpose and type of case in an accredited or suitably quality oriented management system...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673475/associations-of-multiple-trauma-types-and-maoa-with-severe-aggressive-behavior-and-maoa-effects-on-training-outcome
#17
Danique Smeijers, Erik Bulten, Barbara Franke, Jan Buitelaar, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Previous research showed that the disposition to react with disproportionate aggression in adults is influenced by an interaction between a variant in the X-chromosomal monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and early traumatic events. Such studies have often focused on a single type of trauma, whereas we know that experiencing multiple trauma types is associated with more detrimental consequences. The differential susceptibility hypothesis suggests that individuals who are most susceptible to adversity, are also most likely to benefit from supportive experiences in childhood...
July 1, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667863/a-phylogenetic-approach-for-haplotype-analysis-of-sequence-data-from-complex-mitochondrial-mixtures
#18
Samuel H Vohr, Rachel Gordon, Jordan M Eizenga, Henry A Erlich, Cassandra D Calloway, Richard E Green
Massively parallel (next-generation) sequencing provides a powerful method to analyze DNA from many different sources, including degraded and trace samples. A common challenge, however, is that many forensic samples are often known or suspected mixtures of DNA from multiple individuals. Haploid lineage markers, such as mitochondrial (mt) DNA, are useful for analysis of mixtures because, unlike nuclear genetic markers, each individual contributes a single sequence to the mixture. Deconvolution of these mixtures into the constituent mitochondrial haplotypes is challenging as typical sequence read lengths are too short to reconstruct the distinct haplotypes completely...
May 29, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663329/long-qt-syndrome-and-sudden-unexpected-infant-death
#19
EDITORIAL
Chantal Van Niekerk, Barbara Ströh Van Deventer, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inheritable primary electric disease of the heart characterised by abnormally long QT intervals and a propensity to develop atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. It is caused by an inherited channelopathy responsible for sudden cardiac death in individuals with structurally normal hearts. Long QT syndrome can present early in life, and some studies suggest that it may be associated with up to 20% of sudden unexplained infant death (SUID), particularly when associated with external stressors such as asphyxia, which is commonly seen in many infant death scenes...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662067/sharing-extended-summary-data-from-contemporary-genetics-studies-is-unlikely-to-threaten-subject-privacy
#20
Silviu-Alin Bacanu
BACKGROUND: Starting from a forensic problem, Homer et al. showed that it was possible to detect if an individual contributes only 0.5% of the DNA in a pool. The finding was extended to prove the possibility of detecting whether a subject participated in a small homogeneous GWAS. We denote this as the detection of a subject belonging to a certain cohort (SBCC). Subsequently, Visscher and Hill showed that the power to detect SBCC signal for an ethnically homogeneous cohort depends roughly on the ratio of the number of independent markers and total sample size...
2017: PloS One
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