Read by QxMD icon Read

Forensic genetics

Margaret E Hunter, Robert M Dorazio, John S S Butterfield, Gaia Meigs-Friend, Leo G Nico, Jason A Ferrante
A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species' presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Josip Crnjac, Petar Ozretić, Siniša Merkaš, Martina Ratko, Mateja Lozančić, Marina Korolija, Maja Popović, Gordan Mršić
X chromosome STR typing has emerged recently as a powerful tool, complementary to autosomal STR typing, in solving complex forensic and missing person cases. Investigator® Argus X-12 is a commercial product that allows co-amplification of 12 X chromosomal markers belonging to four linkage groups (LGs). In this study, we analyzed by capillary electrophoresis blood samples from 100 females and 102 males from a population of northern Croatia. Statistical analysis included calculation of allele and haplotype frequencies, as well as forensic parameters...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Angie D Ambers, Jennifer D Churchill, Jonathan L King, Monika Stoljarova, Harrell Gill-King, Mourad Assidi, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Bruce Budowle
BACKGROUND: Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
V A Fetisov, A A Gusarov, Eksp Smirenin
The results of analysis of forensic medical expertises carried out by different state institutions of forensic medical expertise of this country are presented. It was shown that the practice of standardized expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger compartment of the car remains to be established. The comprehensive approach to the solution of the problem of the circumstances of the road traffic accident and the positions of its participants in the passenger compartment of the car is possible based only on the multi-faceted investigation...
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Diana W Williams, Greg Gibson
A potential application of microbial genetics in forensic science is detection of transfer of the pubic hair microbiome between individuals during sexual intercourse using high-throughput sequencing. In addition to the primary need to show whether the pubic hair microbiome is individualizing, one aspect that must be addressed before using the microbiome in criminal casework involves the impact of storage on the microbiome of samples recovered for forensic testing. To test the effects of short-term storage, pubic hair samples were collected from volunteers and stored at room temperature (∼20°C), refrigerated (4°C), and frozen (-20°C) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks along with a baseline sample...
October 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Humberto Ossa, Juliana Aquino, Rui Pereira, Adriana Ibarra, Rafael H Ossa, Luz Adriana Pérez, Juan David Granda, Maria Claudia Lattig, Helena Groot, Elizeu Fagundes de Carvalho, Leonor Gusmão
The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population...
2016: PloS One
Andrzej Ossowski, Marta Diepenbroek, Tomasz Kupiec, Milena Bykowska-Witowska, Grażyna Zielińska, Teresa Dembińska, Andrzej Ciechanowicz
As the result of the communist terror in Poland, during years 1944-1956 more than 50,000 people died. Their bodies were buried secretly, and most places are still unknown. The research presents the results of identification of people buried in one of many mass graves, which were found at the cemetery Powązki Military in Warsaw, Poland. Exhumation revealed the remains of eight people, among which seven were identified genetically. Well-preserved molars were used for the study. Reference material was collected from the closest living relatives...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Danielle Flores, Amy L Miller, Angelique Showman, Caitlyn Tobita, Lori M N Shimoda, Carl Sung, Alexander J Stokes, Jeffrey K Tomberlin, David O Carter, Helen Turner
Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
U R Pagel, R S Reis, V P Carvalho, E V W Santos, E Zandonade, I D Louro, F Paula
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are commonly used as genetic markers. The detection and analysis of STRs can be used to gather information on polymorphisms of interest to forensic geneticists. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is an affordable method for the detection of minor sequence changes in DNA, while capillary electrophoresis (CE) is the gold standard for genotyping analysis. This appears to be the first study to directly compare data obtained using the two electrophoretic techniques. We analyzed genomic DNA from 209 individuals to compare genotyping results from seven Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) STR markers obtained by both techniques...
September 9, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Nicole M M Novroski, Jonathan L King, Jennifer D Churchill, Lay Hong Seah, Bruce Budowle
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can identify sequence variation within short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their nominal allele lengths that traditionally have been obtained by capillary electrophoresis. Using the MiSeq FGx Forensic Genomics System (Illumina), STRait Razor, and in-house excel workbooks, genetic variation was characterized within STR repeat and flanking regions of 27 autosomal, 7 X chromosome and 24 Y-chromosome STR markers in 777 unrelated individuals from four population groups...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jiří Drábek, Michaela Smolíková, Ruslan Kalendar, Fernando A Lopes Pinto, Pavel Pavloušek, Karel Klepárník, Ivo Frébort
Although the analysis of length polymorphism at short tandem repeat (STR) loci has become a method of choice for grape cultivar identification, the standardization of methods for this purpose lags behind that of methods for DNA profiling in human and animal forensic genetics. The aim of this study was thus to design and validate a grapevine STR protocol with a practically useful level of multiplexing. Using free bioinformatics tools, published primer sequences, and nucleotide databases, we constructed and optimized a primer set for the simultaneous analysis of six STR loci (VVIi51, scu08vv, scu05vv, VVMD17, VrZAG47, and VrZAG83) by multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence, and tested it on 90 grape cultivars...
October 2, 2016: Electrophoresis
António Amorim, Manuel Crespillo, Juan A Luque, Lourdes Prieto, Oscar Garcia, Leonor Gusmão, Mercedes Aler, Pedro A Barrio, Victor G Saragoni, Nadia Pinto
Communicating and interpreting genetic evidence in the administration of justice is currently a matter of great concern, due to the theoretical and technical complexity of the evaluative reporting and large difference in expertise between forensic experts and law professionals. A large number of initiatives have been taken trying to bridge this gap, contributing to the education of both parties. Results however have not been very encouraging, as most of these initiatives try to cope globally with the problem, addressing simultaneously theoretical and technical approaches which are in a quite heterogeneous state of development and validation...
September 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jason W Sahl, Talima Pearson, Richard Okinaka, James M Schupp, John D Gillece, Hannah Heaton, Dawn Birdsell, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Ramón Noseda, Antonio Fasanella, Alex Hoffmaster, David M Wagner, Paul Keim
: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that occurs naturally in wild and domestic animals but has been used by both state-sponsored programs and terrorists as a biological weapon. A Soviet industrial production facility in Sverdlovsk, USSR, proved deficient in 1979 when a plume of spores was accidentally released and resulted in one of the largest known human anthrax outbreaks. In order to understand this outbreak and others, we generated a Bacillus anthracis population genetic database based upon whole-genome analysis to identify all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a reference genome...
2016: MBio
Jing Chen, Bingbing Xie, Yaran Yang, Meng Yang, Chao Liu, Yuexin Lv, Chuguang Chen, Xiu Liu, Xiangdong Fang, Huijuan Wu, Jiangwei Yan
BACKGROUND: Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite loci in various populations is an essential prerequisite in forensic application. AIM: In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 39 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci from Chinese Li ethnic group and estimated the genetic relationships between Li and other reference populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine STR loci, which include D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, D2S441, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, FGA, D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D7S3048, D17S1290 and D5S2500, were amplified two multiplex DNA-STR fluorescence detection systems for 189 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Li ethnic group...
September 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
R Wojtkiewicz, B Markiewicz, M Jędrzejczyk, R Jacewicz
In this study Polish population data as well as efficiency parameters of 12 STR loci included in the Investigator HDplex set were presented. This set contains 9 systems not available in any other commercial multiplexes, ie.: D2S1360, D3S1744, D4S2366, D5S2500, D6S474, D7S1517, D8S1132, D10S2325 and D21S2055. The evaluation was preformed based on DNA samples derived from 303 unrelated individuals living in Lodz region, central part of Poland. The obtained distribution of the genotypes is consistent with the assumptions of the Hardy and Weinberg equilibrium (HWE)...
2016: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Sofie Lindgren Christiansen, Christin Løth Hertz, Laura Ferrero-Miliani, Morten Dahl, Peter Ejvin Weeke, LuCamp, Gyda Lolk Ottesen, Rune Frank-Hansen, Henning Bundgaard, Niels Morling
In forensic medicine, one-third of the sudden deaths remain unexplained after medico-legal autopsy. A major proportion of these sudden unexplained deaths (SUD) are considered to be caused by inherited cardiac diseases. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be the first manifestation of these diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the yield of next-generation sequencing of genes associated with SCD in a cohort of SUD victims. We investigated 100 genes associated with cardiac diseases in 61 young (1-50 years) SUD cases...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
M D Coble, J Buckleton, J M Butler, T Egeland, R Fimmers, P Gill, L Gusmão, B Guttman, M Krawczak, N Morling, W Parson, N Pinto, P M Schneider, S T Sherry, S Willuweit, M Prinz
The use of biostatistical software programs to assist in data interpretation and calculate likelihood ratios is essential to forensic geneticists and part of the daily case work flow for both kinship and DNA identification laboratories. Previous recommendations issued by the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) covered the application of bio-statistical evaluations for STR typing results in identification and kinship cases, and this is now being expanded to provide best practices regarding validation and verification of the software required for these calculations...
September 4, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Danuta Piniewska, Marek Sanak, Marta Wojtas, Nina Polanska
Advances in forensic identification using molecular genetics are helpful in resolving some historical mysteries. The aim of this study was to confirm the authenticity of shrunken-head artifacts exhibited by two Polish museums. Shrunken heads, known as tsantsas, were headhunting trophies of South American Indians (Jivaroan). A special preparation preserved their hair and facial appearance. However, it was quite common to offer counterfeit shrunken heads of sloths or monkeys to collectors of curiosities. We sampled small skin specimens of four shrunken-head skin from the museum collection from Warsaw and Krakow, Poland...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Marie-Louise Kampmann, Anders Buchard, Claus Børsting, Niels Morling
Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory...
2016: BioTechniques
Qiu-Ling Liu, Ye-Fei Chen, Xiao-Ling Huang, Kai-Yan Liu, Hu Zhao, De-Jian Lu
Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is a primary tool in forensic casework. Population data and mutation rates of STRs are very important for paternity testing and forensic genetics. However, the population data and mutation rates of STRs in Han nationality based on large samples have still not been fully described in China. In this study, the allelic frequencies, forensic parameters, and mutation rate of 19 STR loci (D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSFIPO, PentaD, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, and FGA) based on the Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A in Southern China Han nationality among seven provinces were investigated...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"