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Forensic genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313099/genetic-variation-and-forensic-characterization-of-highland-tibetan-ethnicity-reveled-by-autosomal-str-markers
#1
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Understanding the origin and genetic background of Chinese high-altitude Tibetans play a pivotal role in medical genetics, archeology, anthropology, and forensics. In this study, to investigate the forensic characterization and genetic diversity of Chinese Tibetan, allele frequencies and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STRs included in the AmpFℓSTR® Sinofiler™ kit were obtained from 1220 Tibetan individuals residing in Lhasa country, Tibet Autonomous Region. We identified 191 alleles with corresponding allele frequencies varied from 0...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305242/allelic-and-haplotype-diversity-of-12-x-strs-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#2
Mohamed A Almarri, Reem A Lootah
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are used to complement autosomal and Y-STRs in complex kinship testing, and can be of potential value when determining trace female DNA in male background. We analyzed extracted and directly-amplified samples of 501 males from the United Arab Emirates and report the forensic statistical parameters of 12 X-STRs and haplotypes of the four previously defined linkage groups using the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit. Combined PDM, PDF, MEC Desmarais Trio and MEC Desmarais Duo based on allele (and haplotype) frequencies were 0...
December 29, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304396/forensic-parameters-of-the-x-str-decaplex-system-in-mexican-populations
#3
C Mariscal Ramos, G Martínez-Cortes, B Ramos-González, H Rangel-Villalobos
We studied the X-STR decaplex system in 529 DNA female samples of Mexican populations from five geographic regions. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated in each region and in the pooled Mexican population. Genotype distribution by locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in each Mexican population sample. Similarly, linkage equilibrium was demonstrated between pair of loci. Pairwise comparisons and genetic distances between Mexican, Iberoamerican and one African populations were estimated and graphically represented...
December 29, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301114/neither-femur-nor-tooth-petrous-bone-for-identifying-archaeological-bone-samples-via-forensic-approach
#4
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298306/dna-recovery-from-wild-chimpanzee-tools
#5
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborn, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Michael Haslam
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286383/visual-detection-of-multiple-nucleic-acids-in-a-capillary-array
#6
Jianwei Chen, Ning Shao, Jiaying Hu, Rong Li, Yuanshou Zhu, Dabing Zhang, Shujuan Guo, Junhou Hui, Peng Liu, Litao Yang, Sheng-Ce Tao
Multi-target, short time, and resource-affordable methodologies for the detection of multiple nucleic acids in a single, easy to operate test are urgently needed in disease diagnosis, microbial monitoring, genetically modified organism (GMO) detection, and forensic analysis. We have previously described the platform called CALM (Capillary Array-based Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for Multiplex visual detection of nucleic acids). Herein, we describe improved fabrication and performance processes for this platform...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279961/assessment-of-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-detected-on-commercial-panel-using-mps-system-with-artificial-mixture-samples
#7
Sohee Cho, Moon Young Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Soong Deok Lee
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is a potential genetic marker for forensic mtDNA analysis as well as phylogenic studies. Frequency of mtDNA heteroplasmy has been investigated in different populations through massively parallel sequencing (MPS) analysis, revealing various levels of frequency based on different MPS systems. For accurate heteroplasmy identification, it is essential to explore reliable detection threshold on various MPS systems. In addition, software solutions and pipelines need to be evaluated to analyze data effectively...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278682/weight-of-the-evidence-of-genetic-investigations-of-ancestry-informative-markers
#8
Torben Tvedebrink, Poul Svante Eriksen, Helle Smidt Mogensen, Niels Morling
Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) are markers that give information about the ancestry of individuals. They are used in forensic genetics for predicting the geographic origin of the investigated individual in crime and identification cases. In the exploration of the genogeographic origin of an AIMs profile, the likelihoods of the AIMs profile in various populations may be calculated. However, there may not be an appropriate reference population in the database. The fact that the likelihood ratio (LR) of one population compared to that of another population is large does not imply that any of the populations is relevant...
December 23, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275559/-forensic-investigation-in-han-population-by-sifa%C3%A2-23-plex-kit-%C3%AF-beta-version%C3%AF
#9
W H Gong, S H Xue, Y Zhang, R X Zhu, Z M Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of SiFa™ 23 Plex Kit (beta version) and its population genetics of STR loci in Han population. METHODS: Genotyping was performed for 1 000 unrelated healthy Han individuals by the kit. The efficiency of the kit was tested, and the frequency data and population genetics parameter information of STR loci were analysed statistically. RESULTS: The minimum amplification system could be 6.25 μL. In 25 μL standard reaction system, a satisfied genotyping profiles could be obtained with the DNA content as low as 125 pg...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275090/lessons-from-a-study-of-dna-contaminations-from-police-services-and-forensic-laboratories-in-switzerland
#10
Patrick Basset, Vincent Castella
In Switzerland, the DNA profiles of police officers collecting crime scene traces as well as forensic genetic laboratories employees are stored in the staff index of the national DNA database to detect potential contaminations. Our study aimed at making a national inventory of contaminations to better understand their origin and to make recommendations in order to decrease their occurrence. For this purpose, a retrospective questionnaire was sent to both police services and forensic genetic laboratories for each case where there was a contamination...
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275088/genetic-analysis-of-southern-brazil-subjects-using-the-powerseq%C3%A2-auto-y-system-for-short-tandem-repeat-sequencing
#11
Deborah S B S Silva, Fernanda R Sawitzki, Melissa K R Scheible, Sarah F Bailey, Clarice S Alho, Seth A Faith
With the advent of Next-Generation Sequencing technology, sequencing of short tandem repeats (STRs) allows for a more detailed analysis when compared to size-based fragment methods (capillary electrophoresis-CE). The implementation of high-throughput sequencing can help uncover deeper genetic diversities of different populations. Subjects from the South region of Brazil present a particular and more homogeneous ancestry background when compared to other regions of the country. Both autosomal and Y- STRs have been analyzed in these individuals; however, all analyses published to date encompass data from CE-based fragment analysis...
December 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273514/erratum-to-population-and-performance-analyses-of-four-major-populations-with-illumina-s-fgx-forensic-genomics-system-forensic-sci-int-genet-30-2017-81-92
#12
Jennifer D Churchill, Nicole M M Novroski, Jonathan L King, Lay Hong Seah, Bruce Budowle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245019/genetic-polymorphism-of-21-non-codis-str-loci-in-chengdu-han-population-and-its-interpopulation-analysis-between-25-populations-in-china
#13
Ye Li, Hepei Li, Guanglin He, Weibo Liang, Haibo Luo, Miao Liao, Ji Zhang, Jing Yan, Yingbi Li, Yiping Hou, Jin Wu
AGCU 21+1 STR kit contains 21 non-combined DNA index system (non-CODIS) short tandem repeats (STR) loci and a sex-determining locus amelogenin. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and forensically relevant population statistics of 21 non-CODIS loci in 210 Chinese Han individuals from Chengdu city, Sichuan province, Southwest China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed within the 21 non-CODIS STR loci. The combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined power of exclusion (CPE) were 0...
December 9, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237482/extraction-of-amplifiable-dna-from-embalmed-human-cadaver-tissue
#14
Lindsay Gielda, Stefanie Rigg
OBJECTIVE: The expansion of molecular techniques in medical diagnosis, forensics, and education requires the development of improved techniques of DNA extraction from fixed tissues. Cadaver tissues are not commonly used for genetic analysis due to DNA degradation resulting from the embalming fixation. Modification of existing techniques of tissue disruption combined with phenol-chloroform treatment was done to produce an efficient method of extracting amplifiable DNA of high quality and quantity from non-paraffin embedded embalmed cadaver tissue...
December 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232650/internal-validation-of-two-new-retrotransposons-based-kits-innoquant%C3%A2-hy-and-innotyper%C3%A2-21-at-a-forensic-lab
#15
Cátia Martins, Paulo Miguel Ferreira, Raquel Carvalho, Sandra Cristina Costa, Carlos Farinha, Luísa Azevedo, António Amorim, Manuela Oliveira
Obtaining a genetic profile from pieces of evidence collected at a crime scene is the primary objective of forensic laboratories. New procedures, methods, kits, software or equipment must be carefully evaluated and validated before its implementation. The constant development of new methodologies for DNA testing leads to a steady process of validation, which consists of demonstrating that the technology is robust, reproducible, and reliable throughout a defined range of conditions. The present work aims to internally validate two new retrotransposon-based kits (InnoQuant® HY and InnoTyper® 21), under the working conditions of the Laboratório de Polícia Científica da Polícia Judiciária (LPC-PJ)...
November 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231017/-forensic-application-of-huaxiatm-platinum-kit
#16
Y L Wang, X Sheng, M Li, Y L Chen, Y Lin, L Q Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic polymorphism of 23 autosomal STR loci of Huaxia™ Platinum kit in Chinese Han population, and to evaluate the forensic efficiency of Huaxia™ Platinum kit. METHODS: A total of 500 unrelated healthy individuals from Han population were genotyped with Huaxia™ Platinum kit. The frequency distribution and the parameter of population genetics of STR loci were analysed statistically. Huaxia™ Platinum kit was compared with other 7 commercial STR kits commonly seen at home and abroad in the number of STR loci, interior label, fluorescent mark, total number of alleles in Ladder and system effectiveness...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231011/-research-progress-of-the-relationship-between-sunds-and-osahs
#17
REVIEW
Y D Wu, L Y Zhang, J D Cheng
Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) is always a difficulty in forensic medicine researches. Although the development of molecular genetics promotes the etiologic study of SUNDS, the pathogenesis of most such cases is still unclear. Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is one of the common forms of sleep disorders, and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common. In recent years, some domestic and international researches show that OSAHS is related to the development of cardiovascular disease, which may cause cardiac arrhythmia, even sudden death...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230998/-research-progress-on-the-detection-method-of-dna-methylation-and-its-application-in-forensic-science
#18
REVIEW
Y C Nie, L J Yu, H Guan, Y Zhao, H B Rong, B W Jiang, T Zhang
As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230993/-genetic-polymorphisms-of-30-indel-loci-in-ewenki-ethnic-group-from-inner-mongolia
#19
X Y Jin, Y Y Wei, Y F He, Y X Guo, T Mei, H T Meng, Y D Zhang, T T Kong, B F Zhu
OBJECTIVES: To study the genetic polymorphisms of 30 insertion/deletion (InDel) loci and evaluate their forensic application in Ewenki ethnic group from Inner Mongolia. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 87 unrelated healthy individuals in Ewenki ethnic group. Genomic DNA were extracted, and 30 InDel loci of the samples were multiplex amplified and genotyped. Hardy-Weinberg balance tests were preformed for all loci and genetic parameters were calculated by modified PowerStats v1...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230986/-sixty-six-biallelic-genetic-markers-on-y-chromosome-by-maldi-tof-ms
#20
Y T Song, L Li, L N Zhang, R X Zhu, Y Liu, Y Lin
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the genetic polymorphisms of 66 biallelic genetic markers on Y chromosome in Eastern Chinese Han population, and evaluate their values in forensic application. METHODS: Genotyping of 66 biallelic genetic markers on Y chromosome was studied in 205 unrelated males of Eastern Chinese Han population by multiplex PCR combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The allele frequencies on the loci to be tested were calculated by direct counting method, and the gene diversity (GD) and haplotype diversity (HD) were calculated by corresponding formulas...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
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