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Forensic genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134366/genetic-characteristics-of-19-strs-in-chinese-uzbek-ethnic-and-its-phylogenetic-relationships-with-other-24-populations
#1
Xiaoye Jin, Wei Cui, Yuanyuan Wei, Yuling Mu, Qian Dong, Chong Chen, Yuxin Guo, Tingting Kong, Bofeng Zhu, Jiangang Chen
Allelic frequencies and genetic polymorphisms of 19 short tandem repeats loci were investigated so as to provide more genetic data for forensic applications in Chinese Uzbek group; besides, we evaluated phylogenetic relationships of Uzbek group with other populations. All loci were observed to conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni's correction. Two hundred and nine alleles were identified in 212 unrelated healthy Uzbek individuals and their allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0024 to 0.5259. The cumulative discrimination power and cumulative probability of exclusion were 0...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127892/estimation-of-the-late-postmortem-interval-using-ftir-spectroscopy-and-chemometrics-in-human-skeletal-remains
#2
Qi Wang, Yinming Zhang, Hancheng Lin, Shuai Zha, Ruoxi Fang, Xin Wei, Shuanliang Fan, Zhenyuan Wang
Due to a lack of reliable and accurate methods, determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains is one of the most important and challenging tasks in forensic medicine. In this paper, we studied the changes to bone chemistry with increasing PMI in two different experimental conditions using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics methods Paired bone samples collected from 56 human corpses were buried (placed in soil) and unburied (exposed to the air) for intervals between 76 and 552 days...
November 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125104/polymorphisms-of-23-y-chromosome-str-loci-in-a-han-population-in-jiangsu-province
#3
Jun Ma, Ai-Hua Zhu, Jin-Wei Shi, Ming Jin, Hua-Jie Ba, Zhi-Guang Ping
Objective To investigate the polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci in a Han population in Jiangsu province. Methods Blood samples were collected from 4821 unrelated healthy Han males in Jiangsu province. DNA templates were amplified by PowerPlex Y23 kit,and the amplification products were detected by 3500xL genetic analyzer. Then,we calculated the allele frequencies and gene diversities respectively,as well as the haplotype frequencies and haplotype diversities. Results The gene diversity of these 23 Y-STR loci ranged 0...
October 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121165/perf-an-exhaustive-algorithm-for-ultra-fast-and-efficient-identification-of-microsatellites-from-large-dna-sequences
#4
Akshay Kumar Avvaru, Divya Tej Sowpati, Rakesh Kumar Mishra
Motivation: Microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are short tandem repeats of DNA motifs present in all genomes. They have long been used for a variety of purposes in the areas of population genetics, genotyping, marker-assisted selection, and forensics. Numerous studies have highlighted their functional roles in genome organization and gene regulation. Though several tools are currently available to identify SSRs from genomic sequences, they have significant limitations. Results: We present a novel algorithm called PERF for extremely fast and comprehensive identification of microsatellites from DNA sequences of any size...
November 7, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111271/forensic-characteristics-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-two-han-populations-from-the-southern-coastal-regions-of-china-using-27-y-str-loci
#5
Mengge Wang, Zheng Wang, Yaqing Zhang, Guanglin He, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Currently, the largest national database within the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD, https://yhrd.org, release 55) is China, which has a very large Y-STR haplotype profiles. However, no haplotype data was available for Hainan province, the smallest and southernmost province of China. Herein, 280 unrelated male Chinese Han individuals residing in Hainan province were recruited and genotyped with 27 Y-STR loci. Moreover, 136 Han individuals from Shenzhen, the largest migrant city in China, also investigated...
October 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103098/population-data-of-21-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-hausa-igbo-and-yoruba-people-of-nigeria
#6
Victoria O Okolie, Selena Cisana, Moses S Schanfield, Khalid O Adekoya, Olufemi A Oyedeji, Daniele Podini
The three major ethnic groups of Nigerian population namely the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba make up 29, 21 and 18% of the total population, respectively. To provide genetic information necessary for forensic analysis, this study was carried out to determine STR allele frequencies in 102 Hausa, 128 Igbo and 134 Yoruba individuals in Nigeria using 21 STR loci including the 20 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) loci plus SE33.
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101892/performance-evaluation-of-a-mitogenome-capture-and-illumina-sequencing-protocol-using-non-probative-case-type-skeletal-samples-implications-for-the-use-of-a-positive-control-in-a-next-generation-sequencing-procedure
#7
Charla Marshall, Kimberly Sturk-Andreaggi, Jennifer Daniels-Higginbotham, Robert Sean Oliver, Suzanne Barritt-Ross, Timothy P McMahon
Next-generation ancient DNA technologies have the potential to assist in the analysis of degraded DNA extracted from forensic specimens. Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing, specifically, may be of benefit to samples that fail to yield forensically relevant genetic information using conventional PCR-based techniques. This report summarizes the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System's Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory's (AFMES-AFDIL) performance evaluation of a Next-Generation Sequencing protocol for degraded and chemically treated past accounting samples...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100084/profiling-of-short-tandem-repeat-disease-alleles-in-12-632-human-whole-genomes
#8
Haibao Tang, Ewen F Kirkness, Christoph Lippert, William H Biggs, Martin Fabani, Ernesto Guzman, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Victor Lavrenko, Boyko Kakaradov, Claire Hou, Barry Hicks, David Heckerman, Franz J Och, C Thomas Caskey, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are hyper-mutable sequences in the human genome. They are often used in forensics and population genetics and are also the underlying cause of many genetic diseases. There are challenges associated with accurately determining the length polymorphism of STR loci in the genome by next-generation sequencing (NGS). In particular, accurate detection of pathological STR expansion is limited by the sequence read length during whole-genome analysis. We developed TREDPARSE, a software package that incorporates various cues from read alignment and paired-end distance distribution, as well as a sequence stutter model, in a probabilistic framework to infer repeat sizes for genetic loci, and we used this software to infer repeat sizes for 30 known disease loci...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099847/a-glimpse-at-the-intricate-mosaic-of-ethnicities-from-mesopotamia-paternal-lineages-of-the-northern-iraqi-arabs-kurds-syriacs-turkmens-and-yazidis
#9
Serkan Dogan, Cemal Gurkan, Mustafa Dogan, Hasan Emin Balkaya, Ramazan Tunc, Damla Kanliada Demirdov, Nihad Ahmed Ameen, Damir Marjanovic
Widely considered as one of the cradles of human civilization, Mesopotamia is largely situated in the Republic of Iraq, which is also the birthplace of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. These lands were subsequently ruled by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongolians, Ottomans and finally British prior to the independence. As a direct consequence of this rich history, the contemporary Iraqi population comprises a true mosaic of different ethnicities, which includes Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, and Yazidis among others...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089250/defining-y-snp-variation-among-the-flemish-population-western-europe-by-full-genome-sequencing
#10
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Gilles P P L Otten, Ronny Decorte, Philip Van Damme, Matthieu Moisse
Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) represent a powerful tool in forensic research and casework, especially for inferring paternal ancestry of unknown perpetrators and unidentified bodies. However, the wealth of recently discovered Y-SNPs, the 'jungle' of different evolutionary lineage trees and nomenclatures, and the lack of population-wide data of many phylogenetically mapped Y-SNPs, limits the use of Y-SNPs in routine forensic approaches. Recently, a concise reference phylogeny of the human Y chromosome, the 'Minimal Reference Y-tree', was introduced aiming to provide a stable phylogeny with optimal global discrimination capacity by including the most resolving Y-SNPs...
October 28, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078160/a-review-of-the-optimisation-of-the-use-of-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue-for-molecular-analysis-in-a-forensic-post-mortem-setting
#11
REVIEW
Kate Megan Reid, Sairita Maistry, Raj Ramesar, Laura Jane Heathfield
Molecular analyses in a post-mortem setting are becoming increasingly common, particularly in cases of sudden unexplained death, with the aim of identifying genetic mutations which may be responsible for causing death. In retrospective investigations, the access to suitable autopsy biological samples may be limited, and often formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue is the only sample available. The preservation of tissue in formalin is known to damage DNA through crosslinking activity. This results in the extraction of severely fragmented DNA of variable yields, which subsequently reduces the ability to perform downstream molecular analyses...
October 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065388/targeted-sequencing-of-clade-specific-markers-from-skin-microbiomes-for-forensic-human-identification
#12
Sarah E Schmedes, August E Woerner, Nicole M M Novroski, Frank R Wendt, Jonathan L King, Kathryn M Stephens, Bruce Budowle
The human skin microbiome is comprised of diverse communities of bacterial, eukaryotic, and viral taxa and contributes millions of additional genes to the repertoire of human genes, affecting human metabolism and immune response. Numerous genetic and environmental factors influence the microbiome composition and as such contribute to individual-specific microbial signatures which may be exploited for forensic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential to associate skin microbial profiles collected from touched items to their individual owner, mainly using unsupervised methods from samples collected over short time intervals...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061987/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-differentiation-of-southwestern-chinese-han-a-comprehensive-and-comparative-analysis-on-21-non-codis-strs
#13
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Mengge Wang, Yiping Hou
Short tandem repeats (STRs), with high polymorphism and complex evolution information, play a significant role in genetic association studies like population genetics, molecular anthropology and human forensics. However, human genetic diversity has only been partially sampled and available for Southwest Chinese Han population, as well as the genetic architecture of this population remains uncharacterized. In this work, 368 unrelated Han individuals from Sichuan province were firstly genotyped with 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs, and phylogenetic relationships along administrative (Han Chinese from different regions) and ethnic divisions (minority ethnic groups) were subsequently investigated...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059581/direct-pcr-amplification-of-forensic-touch-and-other-challenging-dna-samples-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Sarah E Cavanaugh, Abigail S Bathrick
DNA evidence sample processing typically involves DNA extraction, quantification, and STR amplification; however, DNA loss can occur at both the DNA extraction and quantification steps, which is not ideal for forensic evidence containing low levels of DNA. Direct PCR amplification of forensic unknown samples has been suggested as a means to circumvent extraction and quantification, thereby retaining the DNA typically lost during those procedures. Direct PCR amplification is a method in which a sample is added directly to an amplification reaction without being subjected to prior DNA extraction, purification, or quantification...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059547/forensic-dna-typing-from-teeth-using-demineralized-root-tips
#15
Heitor Simões Dutra Corrêa, Fabio Luis Miranda Pedro, Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato, Thiago Machado Pereira, Gilberto Siebert Filho, Álvaro Henrique Borges
Teeth are widely used samples in forensic human genetic identification due to their persistence and practical sampling and processing. Their processing, however, has changed very little in the last 20 years, usually including powdering or pulverization of the tooth. The objective of this study was to present demineralized root tips as DNA sources while, at the same time, not involving powdering the samples or expensive equipment for teeth processing. One to five teeth from each of 20 unidentified human bodies recovered from midwest Brazil were analyzed...
October 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046953/snp-typing-using-the-hid-ion-ampliseq%C3%A2-identity-panel-in-a-southern-chinese-population
#16
Ran Li, Chuchu Zhang, Haiyan Li, Riga Wu, Haixia Li, Zhenya Tang, Chenhao Zhen, Jianye Ge, Dan Peng, Ying Wang, Hongying Chen, Hongyu Sun
In the present study, 90 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 34 Y chromosomal SNPs were sequenced simultaneously using HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel on the Ion PGM™ platform for 125 samples in a southern Chinese population. Raw data were analyzed and forensic parameters were calculated. Haplogrouping concordance was also assessed using alternative methods based on Y-SNP haplotypes and Y-STR haplotypes. The results showed that allelic imbalance occurred more frequently with low coverage while several SNPs with high coverage were also observed with poor allelic balance, including rs214955, rs430046, rs7520386, rs876724, rs9171188, rs16981290, and rs2032631...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037167/ancestry-inference-using-principal-component-analysis-and-spatial-analysis-a-distance-based-analysis-to-account-for-population-substructure
#17
Jinyoung Byun, Younghun Han, Ivan P Gorlov, Jonathan A Busam, Michael F Seldin, Christopher I Amos
BACKGROUND: Accurate inference of genetic ancestry is of fundamental interest to many biomedical, forensic, and anthropological research areas. Genetic ancestry memberships may relate to genetic disease risks. In a genome association study, failing to account for differences in genetic ancestry between cases and controls may also lead to false-positive results. Although a number of strategies for inferring and taking into account the confounding effects of genetic ancestry are available, applying them to large studies (tens thousands samples) is challenging...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033635/evaluation-of-5-httlpr-gene-polymorphism-and-resilience-components-on-the-development-of-psychopathology-in-adolescent-sexual-abuse-cases
#18
Gresa Çarkaxhiu Bulut, Ayşe Rodopman Arman, İlter Güney, Pınar Gültepe
INTRODUCTION: More than one-fourth adolescents are exposed to unexpected frightening experiences and traumas until adulthood. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism regarding resilience factors in the symptom variability of individuals exposed to sexual abuse. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-17 years, who were admitted to the Marmara University Child Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic Forensic division with sexual abuse experience history, were informed about the research, and volunteers were included in the study...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024923/a-ghep-isfg-collaborative-study-on-the-genetic-variation-of-38-autosomal-indels-for-human-identification-in-different-continental-populations
#19
R Pereira, C Alves, M Aler, A Amorim, C Arévalo, E Betancor, D Braganholi, M L Bravo, P Brito, J J Builes, G Burgos, E F Carvalho, A Castillo, C I Catanesi, R M B Cicarelli, P Coufalova, P Dario, M E D'Amato, S Davison, J Ferragut, M Fondevila, S Furfuro, O García, A Gaviria, I Gomes, E González, A Gonzalez-Liñan, T E Gross, A Hernández, Q Huang, S Jiménez, L F Jobim, A M López-Parra, M Marino, S Marques, G Martínez-Cortés, V Masciovecchio, D Parra, G Penacino, M F Pinheiro, M J Porto, Y Posada, C Restrepo, T Ribeiro, L Rubio, A Sala, A Santurtún, L S Solís, L Souto, E Streitemberger, A Torres, C Vilela-Lamego, J J Yunis, I Yurrebaso, L Gusmão
A collaborative effort was carried out by the Spanish and Portuguese Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) to promote knowledge exchange between associate laboratories interested in the implementation of indel-based methodologies and build allele frequency databases of 38 indels for forensic applications. These databases include populations from different countries that are relevant for identification and kinship investigations undertaken by the participating laboratories...
September 22, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020788/-complete-molar-pregancy-with-development-of-non-metastatic-persistent-trophoblastic-diseasea-case-report-reflection-of-rules-of-care-and-decision-making-processes-forensic-responsibility-and-the-position-of-doctor-in-the-general-gynecologic-and-obstetric-outpatient
#20
S Zeman, P Trávník, K Dvořáková, J Zemanová
OBJECTIVE: To define the forensic responsibility and the position of doctor in the general gynecologic and obstetric outpatient practice in care of the complete molar pregancy. DESIGN: Case report and review article. SETTING: General gynecologic and obstetric outpatient practice Velké Meziříčí; Sanatorium REPROMEDA, Centre of reproductive medicine and preimplantation genetics, Brno; Histopatology department of Hospital Jihlava. CASE REPORT: The changing clinical presentation of complete molar pregnancy with development of non-metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease: management...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
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