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Forensic genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778045/massively-parallel-sequencing-of-124-snps-included-in-the-precision-id-identity-panel-in-three-east-asian-minority-ethnicities
#1
Jing Liu, Zheng Wang, Guanglin He, Xueying Zhao, Mengge Wang, Tao Luo, Chengtao Li, Yiping Hou
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies can sequence many targeted regions of multiple samples simultaneously and are gaining great interest in the forensic community. The Precision ID Identity Panel contains 90 autosomal SNPs and 34 upper Y-Clade SNPs, which was designed with small amplicons and optimized for forensic degraded or challenging samples. Here, 184 unrelated individuals from three East Asian minority ethnicities (Tibetan, Uygur and Hui) were analyzed using the Precision ID Identity Panel and the Ion PGM System...
May 15, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775859/facilitating-complex-dna-mixture-interpretation-by-sequencing-highly-polymorphic-haplotypes
#2
Lev Voskoboinik, Uzi Motro, Ariel Darvasi
Interpretation of complex DNA mixtures is an ongoing challenge in the field of forensic genetics. Commonly used STR markers are quite polymorphic, enabling very high statistical association between a single source DNA profile from a crime scene and a matching suspect. STR typing of low order mixtures with two and three contributors also commonly produces high statistical association for a contributor, using current interpretation software. However higher order mixtures, with four contributors or more, are more challenging...
May 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772597/development-of-a-massively-parallel-sequencing-assay-for-investigating-sequence-polymorphisms-of-15-strs-in-a-chinese-northern-han-population
#3
Qing-Xia Zhang, Meng Yang, Ya-Jiao Pan, Jing Zhao, Bao-Wang Qu, Feng Cheng, Ya-Ran Yang, Zhang-Ping Jiao, Li Liu, Jiang-Wei Yan
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has been used in forensic genetics in recent years owing to several advantages, such as MPS can provide precise descriptions of the repeat allele structure and variation in the repeat-flanking regions, increasing the discriminating power among loci and individuals. However, it cannot be fully utilized unless sufficient population data is available for all loci. Thus, there is a pressing need to perform population studies providing a basis for the introduction of MPS into forensic practice...
May 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772013/rapid-differentiation-of-epithelial-cell-types-in-aged-biological-samples-using-autofluorescence-and-morphological-signatures
#4
Emily R Brocato, M Katherine Philpott, Catherine C Connon, Christopher J Ehrhardt
Establishing the tissue source of epithelial cells within a biological sample is an important capability for forensic laboratories. In this study we used Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) to analyze individual cells recovered from buccal, epidermal, and vaginal samples that had been dried between 24 hours and more than eight weeks. Measurements capturing the size, shape, and fluorescent properties of cells were collected in an automated manner and then used to build a multivariate statistical framework for differentiating cells based on tissue type...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770559/ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-forensic-molecular-phenotyping-in-south-africa
#5
Nandi Slabbert, Laura Jane Heathfield
Conventional forensic DNA analysis involves a matching principle, which compares DNA profiles from evidential samples to those from reference samples of known origin. In casework, however, the accessibility to a reference sample is not guaranteed which limits the use of DNA as an investigative tool. This has led to the development of phenotype prediction, which uses SNP analysis to estimate the physical appearance of the sample donor. Physical traits, such as eye, hair and skin colour, have been associated with certain alleles within specific genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways...
May 17, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762744/forensically-relevant-blow-flies-in-lebanon-survey-and-identification-using-molecular-markers-diptera-calliphoridae
#6
Salman Shayya, Régis Debruyne, André Nel, Dany Azar
Calliphoridae are among the first insects associated to decomposing animal remains. We have collected 1,841 specimens of three calliphorid genera: Calliphora, Lucilia, and Chrysomya, from different Lebanese localities as a first step in implementing a database of insects of forensic relevance for the country. Blow-flies are crucial for the estimation of the postmortem interval. DNA-based identification is a rapid and accurate method, often used for morphologically similar species, especially for immatures or incomplete specimens...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754257/fatal-unexpected-death-due-to-familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-type-3
#7
Jiao Mu, Chunting Jin, Zhenglian Chen, Jianfeng Li, Bin Lv, Hongmei Dong
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation associated with uncontrolled activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages. Herein, we report a case of a 14-month-old Chinese boy who presented with fever, abdominal distension and thrombopenia, and died within 3 days of admission to the hospital. Postmortem examination revealed pleuroperitoneal fluid, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes and hepatosplenomegaly. Histopathological examination showed interstitial pneumonia, hepatonecrosis and hemophagocytosis...
May 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753263/the-hirisplex-s-system-for-eye-hair-and-skin-colour-prediction-from-dna-introduction-and-forensic-developmental-validation
#8
Lakshmi Chaitanya, Krystal Breslin, Sofia Zuñiga, Laura Wirken, Ewelina Pośpiech, Magdalena Kukla-Bartoszek, Titia Sijen, Peter de Knijff, Fan Liu, Wojciech Branicki, Manfred Kayser, Susan Walsh
Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), i.e. the prediction of human externally visible traits from DNA, has become a fast growing subfield within forensic genetics due to the intelligence information it can provide from DNA traces. FDP outcomes can help focus police investigations in search of unknown perpetrators, who are generally unidentifiable with standard DNA profiling. Therefore, we previously developed and forensically validated the IrisPlex DNA test system for eye colour prediction and the HIrisPlex system for combined eye and hair colour prediction from DNA traces...
April 12, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750373/current-state-of-art-of-str-sequencing-in-forensic-genetics
#9
REVIEW
Antonio Alonso, Pedro A Barrio, Petra Müller, Steffi Köcher, Burkhard Berger, Pablo Martin, Martin Bodner, Sascha Willuweit, Walther Parson, Lutz Roewer, Bruce Budowle
The current state of validation and implementation strategies of MPS technology for the analysis of STR markers for forensic genetics use is described, covering the topics of the current catalogue of commercial MPS-STR panels, leading MPS-platforms, and MPS-STR data analysis tools. In addition, the developmental and internal validation studies carried out to date to evaluate reliability, sensitivity, mixture analysis, concordance, and the ability to analyze challenged samples are summarized. The results of various MPS-STR population studies that showed a large number of new STR sequence variants that increase the power of discrimination in several forensically-relevant loci are also presented...
May 11, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739989/haplotypic-polymorphisms-and-mutation-rate-estimates-of-22-y-chromosome-strs-in-the-northern-chinese-han-father-son-pairs
#10
Yaran Yang, Weini Wang, Feng Cheng, Man Chen, Tong Chen, Jing Zhao, Chong Chen, Yan Shi, Chen Li, Chuguang Chen, Yacheng Liu, Jiangwei Yan
Y chromosome Short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) analysis has been widely used in forensic identification, kinship testing, and population evolution. An accurate understanding of haplotype and mutation rate will benefit these applications. In this work, we analyzed 1123 male samples from Northern Chinese Han population which including 578 DNA-confirmed father-son pairs at 22 Y-STRs loci. A total of 537 haplotypes were observed and the overall haplotype diversity was calculated as 1.0000 ± 0.0001. Except that only two haplotypes were observed twice, all the rest of the 535 were unique...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738994/protein-based-forensic-identification-using-genetically-variant-peptides-in-human-bone
#11
Katelyn Elizabeth Mason, Deon Anex, Todd Grey, Bradley Hart, Glendon Parker
Bone tissue contains organic material that is useful for forensic investigations and may contain preserved endogenous protein that can persist in the environment for extended periods of time over a range of conditions. Single amino acid polymorphisms in these proteins reflect genetic information since they result from non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA. Detection of genetically variant peptides (GVPs) - those peptides that contain amino acid polymorphisms - in digests of bone proteins allows for the corresponding SNP alleles to be inferred...
April 22, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737420/genetic-polymorphisms-of-32-y-str-loci-in-meizhou-hakka-population
#12
Weian Du, Weibin Wu, Zihao Wu, Longjun Guo, Bangchao Wang, Ling Chen
Using AGCU Y24 Plus PCR Amplification Kit, 32 Y short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in 355 unrelated male participants of Meizhou city in Guangdong Province of China. By analyzing 341 different haplotypes, it was found that haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) were 0.9995 and 0.9605, respectively. Population relationships were analyzed by comparing Hakka population with ten other populations. The results indicate that Meizhou Hakka population was closely related to Guangdong Han population...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728767/the-forensic-value-of-x-linked-markers-in-mixed-male-dna-analysis
#13
HaiJun He, Lagabaiyila Zha, JinHong Cai, Jian Huang
Autosomal genetic markers and Y chromosome markers have been widely applied in analysis of mixed stains at crime scenes by forensic scientists. However, true genotype combinations are often difficult to distinguish using autosomal markers when similar amounts of DNA are contributed by multiple donors. In addition, specific individuals cannot be determined by Y chromosomal markers because male relatives share the same Y chromosome. X-linked markers, possessing characteristics somewhere intermediate between autosomes and the Y chromosome, are less universally applied in criminal casework...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721270/increased-dna-typing-success-for-feces-and-feathers-of-capercaillie-tetrao-urogallus-and-black-grouse-tetrao-tetrix
#14
Stephanie Vallant, Harald Niederstätter, Burkhard Berger, Reinhard Lentner, Walther Parson
Noninvasive sampling, for example, of droppings or feathers, is a promising approach for molecular genetic studies on endangered and elusive animal species. Yet, such specimens are known for containing only minute amounts of DNA, resulting in lower typing success rates relative to analyses on fresh tissues such as muscle or blood. Furthermore, artefactual signals as well as contamination are more likely to occur when DNA is limited. To increase the reliability of DNA typing from noninvasive samples, optimized DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction protocols were developed, taking advantage of developments in the forensic field aiming at successful molecular genetic analysis of DNA templates being low in quality and quantity...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698658/a-novel-use-of-infra-red-spectroscopy-nirs-and-atr-ftir-coupled-with-variable-selection-algorithms-for-the-identification-of-insect-species-diptera-sarcophagidae-of-medico-legal-relevance
#15
Taciano M Barbosa, Leomir A S de Lima, Marfran C D Dos Santos, Simão D Vasconcelos, Renata A Gama, Kássio M G Lima
Unequivocal identification of fly specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. Herein, a simple, non-destructive and rapid method based on two vibrational spectroscopy techniques [Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy] coupled with variable selection techniques such as genetic algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) and successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) were applied for identifying and discriminating six species of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) native to Neotropical regions...
April 23, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677577/dna-typing-of-birch-development-of-a-forensic-str-system-for-betula-pendula-and-betula-pubescens
#16
Monique Wesselink, Aleksandar Dragutinović, Jeroen W Noordhoek, Leonie Bergwerff, Irene Kuiper
Although botanical trace evidence is often encountered in case investigations, the utilization of such traces in forensic investigations is still limited. Development of a forensic STR system for the two species of Betula (birch) indigenous to and abundant in North West Europe is a step in enhancing the applicability of traces from these species. We describe six microsatellite markers developed for birch species in detail, including repeat structure, and we propose a nomenclature for the encountered alleles...
April 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677481/mutation-analysis-of-short-tandem-repeats-in-a-population-sample-from-upper-silesia-southern-poland
#17
Kornelia Droździok, Jadwiga Kabiesz, Marcin Tomsia, Rafał Skowronek, Krzysztof Rębała
In paternity testing, DNA polymorphism analysis not only settles explicitly disputed paternity issue but also provides information on mutation frequencies in STR loci. In this study, insertion or deletion of one repetitive unit was observed in 38 of 32,391 meiotic transfers analysed in 953 paternity testing cases. Parentage samples from Upper Silesia (southern Poland) were examined in 2008-2014 with the use of three commercially available amplification kits: AmpFlSTR Identifiler (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex 16 HS (Promega) and PowerPlex ESX 17 (Promega)...
April 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667633/-the-molecular-genetic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-dna-from-the-burnt-bones-the-limits-of-the-possible-problem-revisited
#18
E Yu Zemskova, M M Bordyukov, A V Kovalev, P L Ivanov
The authors report the results of the demonstrative study continuing the cycle of interactive discussions pertinent to the possibility of obtaining reliable genetic information from the analysis of burnt bone fragments. Special emphasis is placed on the worthiness of these materials for genotyping of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with the use of the standard analytical methods employed for the purpose of forensic medical expertise to investigate into the length polymorphism of the amplified mtDNA fragments (PAF) by means of sequencing with fluorescent detection...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666998/male-dna-under-female-fingernails-after-scratching-transfer-and-persistence-evaluation-by-rt-pcr-analysis-and-y-str-typing
#19
Alessandra Iuvaro, Carla Bini, Silvia Dilloo, Stefania Sarno, Susi Pelotti
The collection of biological debris beneath fingernails can be useful in forensic casework when a struggle between the victim and the offender is suspected. In the present study, we set up a controlled scratching experiment in which female volunteers scratched the male volunteers' forearms, simulating a defensive action during an assault. A total of 160 fingernail samples were collected: 80 "control samples" before the scratching, 40 samples immediately after the scratching (t = 0 h), and 40 samples 5 h after the scratching (t = 5 h)...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658064/allele-frequencies-and-forensic-genetic-parameters-of-10-supplementary-and-two-codis-loci-in-a-japanese-population-genotyped-using-an-investigator-hdplex-kit
#20
Shota Inokuchi, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Kazuma Nishimura, Kazuyuki Saito
A total of 344 unrelated Japanese adults were genotyped to determine allele frequencies and evaluate forensic parameters for 10 autosomal supplementary non-CODIS loci and 2 autosomal CODIS loci using an Investigator® HDplex Kit for complex relationship testing.
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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