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Forensic genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645082/local-populations-and-inaccuracies-determining-the-relevant-mitochondrial-haplotype-distributions-for-north-west-european-cats
#1
Monique Wesselink, Stijn Desmyter, Irene Kuiper
Typing of different portions of the feline mitochondrial control region has illustrated pronounced differences in haplotype distributions between cats from the Netherlands and other parts of the world. To gain a better understanding of the haplotype distribution of North West Continental Europe, 605bp of mitochondrial DNA was typed from randomly selected cats from the Netherlands (N=146), Belgium (N=64) and South West Germany (N=128). The genetic differences between these randomly sampled European populations correlate to the geographical distances, with the Dutch and the South West German populations furthest apart and the Belgian population as an intermediate (Fst values 0...
June 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631109/increasing-the-reach-of-forensic-genetics-with-massively-parallel-sequencing
#2
REVIEW
Bruce Budowle, Sarah E Schmedes, Frank R Wendt
The field of forensic genetics has made great strides in the analysis of biological evidence related to criminal and civil matters. More so, the discipline has set a standard of performance and quality in the forensic sciences. The advent of massively parallel sequencing will allow the field to expand its capabilities substantially. This review describes the salient features of massively parallel sequencing and how it can impact forensic genetics. The features of this technology offer increased number and types of genetic markers that can be analyzed, higher throughput of samples, and the capability of targeting different organisms, all by one unifying methodology...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613042/allele-frequencies-of-15-str-loci-in-bosnian-and-herzegovinian-population
#3
Amela Pilav, Naris Pojskić, Anesa Ahatović, Mirela Džehverović, Jasmina Čakar, Damir Marjanović
AIM: To determine newest the most accurate allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the Bosnian and Herzegovinian population, calculate statistical parameters, and compare them with the relevant data for seven neighboring populations. METHODS: Genomic DNA was obtained from buccal swabs of 1000 unrelated individuals from all regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Genotyping was performed using PowerPlex® 16 System to obtain allele frequencies for 15 polymorphic STR loci including D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, and FGA...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613037/results-of-a-collaborative-study-on-dna-identification-of-aged-bone-samples
#4
Daniel Vanek, Bruce Budowle, Jitka Dubska-Votrubova, Angie Ambers, Jan Frolik, Martin Pospisek, Ahmed Anwar Al Afeefi, Khalid Ismaeil Al Hosani, Marie Allen, Khudooma Saeed Al Naimi, Dina Al Salafi, Wafa Ali Rashid Al Tayyari, Wendy Arguetaa, Michel Bottinelli, Magdalena M Bus, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, Olivier Cepil, Greet De Cock, Stijn Desmyter, Hamid El Amri, Hicham El Ossmani, Ruth Galdies, Sebastian Grün, Francois Guidet, Anna Hoefges, Cristian Bogdan Iancu, Petra Lotz, Alessandro Maresca, Marion Nagy, Jindrich Novotny, Hajar Rachid, Jessica Rothe, Marguerethe Stenersen, Mishel Stephenson, Alain Stevanovitch, Juliane Strien, Denilce R Sumita, Joanna Vella, Judith Zander
AIM: A collaborative exercise with several institutes was organized by the Forensic DNA Service (FDNAS) and the Institute of the Legal Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, with the aim to test performance of different laboratories carrying out DNA analysis of relatively old bone samples. METHODS: Eighteen laboratories participating in the collaborative exercise were asked to perform DNA typing of two samples of bone powder...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601979/young-people-s-awareness-on-biobanking-and-dna-profiling-results-of-a-questionnaire-administered-to-italian-university-students
#5
Pamela Tozzo, Antonio Fassina, Luciana Caenazzo
Current policy approaches to social and ethical issues surrounding biobanks manifest lack of public information given by researchers and government, despite the evidence that Italian citizens are well informed about technical and other public perspectives of biotechnologies. For this reason, the focus of our survey was to interview our University's students on these aspects. The sample consisted of Padua University students (N = 959), who were administered a questionnaire comprising eight questions covering their knowledge about biobanks, their perception of the related benefits and risks, their willingness to donate samples to a biobank for research purposes, their attitude to having their own DNA profile included in a forensic DNA database, and the reasons behind their answers...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600869/follow-up-on-the-characterization-of-peptidic-markers-in-hair-and-fur-for-the-identification-of-common-north-american-species
#6
Caroline Solazzo
RATIONALE: Species identification of hair is routinely done by microscopic analysis. Following previous studies that used protein analysis to characterize species markers in hair and wool, the present work aims at covering a larger number of species and to ultimately offer a method for rapid hair identification in forensics and archaeology. METHODS: Hair is mostly made of alpha-keratins; these proteins have only been sequenced in a handful of species and most animal families are under-represented...
June 10, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600257/search-for-more-effective-microsatellite-markers-for-forensics-with-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Bowen Tan, Zicheng Zhao, Zhe Zhang, Shengbin Li, Shuai Cheng Li
Published by the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1997, the 13 core short tandem repeat (STR) loci are widely adopted as genetic markers in forensic applications, e.g., identity testing and paternity testing. However, these loci may be biased and suffer from reduced sensitivities towards specific population groups. In addition, the rapid growth of entries in forensic databases raises the chance of random hits, which can cause false recognitions of criminal suspects...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589897/phylogenic-analysis-and-forensic-genetic-characterization-of-chinese-uyghur-group-via-autosomal-multi-str-markers
#8
Xiaoye Jin, Yuanyuan Wei, Jiangang Chen, Tingting Kong, Yuling Mu, Yuxin Guo, Qian Dong, Tong Xie, Haotian Meng, Meng Zhang, Jianfei Li, Xiaopeng Li, Bofeng Zhu
We investigated the allelic frequencies and forensic descriptive parameters of 23 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in a randomly selected sample of 1218 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals residing in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China. A total of 281 alleles at these loci were identified and their corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0004 to 0.5390. The combined match probability and combined probability of exclusion of all loci were 5.192 × 10-29 and 0.9999999996594, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589260/allele-frequencies-of-17-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-va-ethnic-minority-from-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#9
Fei Guo
Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 17 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were investigated from 1542 individuals of Va ethnic minority in Yunnan Province in the southwest of China. Also, genetic distances between Va and 13 published populations were compared, and a neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree was developed and visualized using averaged F ST matrix. Results demonstrate that these loci are highly polymorphic in the Va population and can be applied in forensic, population genetic, and linguistic fields...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587639/unravelling-mummies-cryptic-diversity-host-specificity-trophic-and-coevolutionary-interactions-in-psyllid-parasitoid-food-webs
#10
Aidan A G Hall, Martin J Steinbauer, Gary S Taylor, Scott N Johnson, James M Cook, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Parasitoids are hyperdiverse and can contain morphologically and functionally cryptic species, making them challenging to study. Parasitoid speciation can arise from specialisation on niches or diverging hosts. However, which process dominates is unclear because cospeciation across multiple parasitoid and host species has rarely been tested. Host specificity and trophic interactions of the parasitoids of psyllids (Hemiptera) remain mostly unknown, but these factors are fundamentally important for understanding of species diversity, and have important applied implications for biological control...
June 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584729/mitosuite-a-graphical-tool-for-human-mitochondrial-genome-profiling-in-massive-parallel-sequencing
#11
Koji Ishiya, Shintaroh Ueda
Recent rapid advances in high-throughput, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have promoted mitochondrial genome studies in the fields of human evolution, medical genetics, and forensic casework. However, scientists unfamiliar with computer programming often find it difficult to handle the massive volumes of data that are generated by NGS. To address this limitation, we developed MitoSuite, a user-friendly graphical tool for analysis of data from high-throughput sequencing of the human mitochondrial genome...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577456/dna-decontamination-of-fingerprint-brushes
#12
Bianca Szkuta, Roland A H van Oorschot, Kaye N Ballantyne
Genetic profiling of DNA collected from fingerprints that have been exposed to various enhancement techniques is routine in many forensic laboratories. As a result of direct contact with fingermark residues during treatment, there is concern around the DNA contamination risk of dusting fingermarks with fingerprint brushes. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for cross-contamination between evidentiary items through various mechanisms, highlighting the risk of using the same fingerprint brush to powder multiple surfaces within and between crime-scenes...
May 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574035/-vascular-pathology-in-the-aspect-of-sudden-death-in-young-adults-and-connective-tissue-dysplasia-anatomical-physiological-and-morphological-parallels
#13
Iu I Pigolkin, M A Shilova, I V Globa
Vascular pathology in young adults has during the last 10 years been diagnosed more often during forensic medical examination of sudden death. Major morphological alterations are revealed in cerebral vessels, coronary vessels, and at the level of the ascending portion of the aorta. Generally, in the young age there is no stenosing atherosclerosis inducing vascular lesions and the development of complications. It was determined that connective tissue dysplasia is pathology wherein weakness of the vascular wall is genetically preconditioned, thus promoting formation of vascular aneurysms and rupture of the latter under conditions of provoking factors such as going in for sports, physical loads, and psychoemotional stress...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562361/autosomal-indel-polymorphisms-for-population-genetic-structure-and-differentiation-analysis-of-chinese-kazak-ethnic-group
#14
Tingting Kong, Yahao Chen, Yuxin Guo, Yuanyuan Wei, Xiaoye Jin, Tong Xie, Yuling Mu, Qian Dong, Shaoqing Wen, Boyan Zhou, Li Zhang, Chunmei Shen, Bofeng Zhu
In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversities of the Chinese Kazak ethnic group on the basis of 30 well-chosen autosomal insertion and deletion loci and explored the genetic relationships between Kazak and 23 reference groups. We detected the level of the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.3605 at HLD39 locus to 0.5000 at HLD136 locus and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.3548 at HLD39 locus to 0.5283 at HLD136 locus. The combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion for all 30 loci in the studied Kazak group were 0...
May 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555659/human-y-chromosome-variation-in-the-genome-sequencing-era
#15
REVIEW
Mark A Jobling, Chris Tyler-Smith
The properties of the human Y chromosome - namely, male specificity, haploidy and escape from crossing over - make it an unusual component of the genome, and have led to its genetic variation becoming a key part of studies of human evolution, population history, genealogy, forensics and male medical genetics. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have driven recent progress in these areas. In particular, NGS has yielded direct estimates of mutation rates, and an unbiased and calibrated molecular phylogeny that has unprecedented detail...
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555242/y-chromosomal-deletion-pattern-in-koreans-inhabiting-jeju-island
#16
Ji Hyun Lee, Hong Xuan Jin, Sohee Cho, Han Na Kim, Hee Jin Seo, Kyoung-Jin Shin, Dong Hoon Shin, Soong Deok Lee
Mutations occur in Y chromosome genes similar to autosomal genes. However, unlike autosomal genes, Y chromosome genes do not undergo recombination, which produce distinctive characteristics and distribution patterns in different geographic regions. Therefore, detailed analysis of mutations of Y chromosome genes might provide information for personal identification or analysis of phylogenetic history. In Y-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis tests on 668 habitants of Jeju Island, the largest island in the Korean peninsula located apart from the mainland, a deletion at DYS448 was found in 10 samples...
May 30, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550018/a-unified-characterization-of-population-structure-and-relatedness
#17
Bruce S Weir, Jérôme Goudet
Many population genetic activities, ranging from evolutionary studies to association mapping to forensic identification, rely on appropriate estimates of population structure or relatedness. All applications require recognition that quantities with an underlying meaning of allelic dependence are not defined in an absolute sense, but instead are made "relative to" some set of alleles other than the target set. The 1984 Weir and Cockerham FST estimate made explicit that the reference set of alleles was across populations, whereas standard kinship estimates do not make the reference explicit...
May 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549553/genetic-polymorphisms-of-12-x-str-loci-in-shaanxi-han-population-from-china
#18
Mao Sun, YunTao Zhang, XiaoNan Zhang, ShanMin Fu, YuanMing Wu
Allele frequencies for 12 X STR loci (DXS8378, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS981, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA165B12, GATA31E08 and DXS7423) were obtained from a sample of 518 unrelated individuals from Shaanxi, China. We observed a total of 108 alleles in the group with the allelic frequency values ranging from less than 0.0014 to 0.6768. Our statistic analysis indicates that the 12 X STR conform to the Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Heterozygosity among the studied 12 X STR loci showed a distribution of 42...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549550/forensic-efficiency-parameters-of-the-investigator-argus-x-12-kit-in-women-from-two-mestizo-and-seven-amerindian-populations-from-mexico
#19
I Cortés-Trujillo, B Ramos-González, O Salas-Salas, F Zuñiga-Chiquette, A Zetina Hernández, G Martínez-Cortés, M Ruiz-Hernández, A González-Martín, J F Ferragut, H Rangel-Villalobos
Allele frequency distribution and statistical parameters of forensic efficiency concerning the Investigator Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were determined in a total sample of 641 unrelated Mexican females, including two Mestizo-admixed- populations (n=309) and seven Amerindian groups (n=332) from the main regions of the country. Most of the 12 X-STRs were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all nine Mexican populations. The power of discrimination in females (PD) and Median exclusion chance for trios (MECT) and duos (MECD) of this genetic system based on X-STRs were >99...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549545/developmental-and-internal-validation-of-a-novel-13-loci-str-multiplex-method-for-cannabis-sativa-dna-profiling
#20
Rachel Houston, Matthew Birck, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant cultivated and trafficked worldwide as a source of fiber (hemp), medicine, and intoxicant. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats (STRs) could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. For this purpose, a 13 loci STR multiplex method was developed, optimized, and validated according to relevant ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
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