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Forensic genetics

Mindy Elizabeth Hair, Adrianna I Mathis, Erica K Brunelle, Lenka Halámková, Jan Halámek
Sweat is a biological fluid present on the skin surface of every individual and is known to contain amino acids as well as other low molecular weight compounds. Each individual is inherently different from one another based on certain factors including, but not limited to, his/her genetic make-up, environment, and lifestyle. As such, the biochemical composition of each person greatly differs. The concentrations of the biochemical content within an individual's sweat are largely controlled by metabolic processes within the body that fluctuate regularly based on attributes such as age, gender, and activity levels...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Chunmei Feng, Xin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Hao Yu, Guohua Zhang
AIM: We investigated the frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci in the Kazak population of the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture with the aim of expanding the available population information in human genetic databases and for forensic DNA analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analysed in 456 individuals of the Kazak population from Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, northwestern China. RESULTS: A total of 173 alleles at 15 autosomal STR loci were found; the allele frequencies ranged from 0...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Haoliang Fan, Xiao Wang, Zheng Ren, Guanglin He, Ren Long, Anwen Liang, Tao Song, Jianqiang Deng
In the present study, population data of 19 autosomal STR loci included in the Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A in 653 Li individuals was obtained and population genetic relationships among 13 populations were investigated. MDS and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Hainan Li population kept a close genetic relationship with the Chinese Han populations, especially for Southern Han populations (Guangdong Han, Sichuan Han, and Hunan Han). Our results indicated that the 19 autosomal STRs are highly discriminative and polymorphic in the Hainan Li population suitable for personal forensic identification and paternity testing...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Nathan Scudder, Dennis McNevin, Sally F Kelty, Simon J Walsh, James Robertson
Forensic scientists around the world are adopting new technology platforms capable of efficiently analysing a larger proportion of the human genome. Undertaking this analysis could provide significant operational benefits, particularly in giving investigators more information about the donor of genetic material, a particularly useful investigative lead. Such information could include predicting externally visible characteristics such as eye and hair colour, as well as biogeographical ancestry. This article looks at the adoption of this new technology from a privacy perspective, using this to inform and critique the application of a Privacy Impact Assessment to this emerging technology...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Xiaoni Zhan, Atif Adnan, Yuzhang Zhou, Amjad Khan, Kadirya Kasim, Dennis McNevin
The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China (XUARC) harbors 47 ethnic groups including the Manchu (MCH: 0.11%), Mongols (MGL: 0.81%), Kyrgyz (KGZ: 0.86%) and Uzbek (UZK: 0.066%). To establish DNA databases for these populations, allele frequency distributions for 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR amplification kit. There was no evidence of departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in any of the four populations and minimal departure from linkage equilibrium (LE) for a very small number of pairwise combinations of loci...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alberto Zanatta, Luca Bezzi, Nicola Carrara, Cicero Moraes, Gaetano Thiene, Fabio Zampieri
Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Nazli Bozman, Cemal Gurkan, Huseyin Sevay, Damla Kanliada Demirdov, Filiz Ozbas-Gerceker
BACKGROUND: Southeastern Anatolia is the smallest, yet the most densely populated region among the seven major geographic constituents of Turkey. Situated in the Upper Mesopotamia, Southeastern Anatolia was also the northernmost extension of the Fertile Crescent, which is often considered as the earliest cradle of civilisation. AIM: To investigate the autosomal STR polymorphisms associated with a truly representative population sample pool from Southeastern Anatolia...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Nathan Scudder, Dennis McNevin, Sally F Kelty, Simon J Walsh, James Robertson
Use of DNA in forensic science will be significantly influenced by new technology in coming years. Massively parallel sequencing and forensic genomics will hasten the broadening of forensic DNA analysis beyond short tandem repeats for identity towards a wider array of genetic markers, in applications as diverse as predictive phenotyping, ancestry assignment, and full mitochondrial genome analysis. With these new applications come a range of legal and policy implications, as forensic science touches on areas as diverse as 'big data', privacy and protected health information...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
María Saiz, Maria Jesus Álvarez-Cubero, Luis Javier Martinez-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Álvarez, José Antonio Lorente
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Nikhil Bose, Katie Carlberg, George Sensabaugh, Henry Erlich, Cassandra Calloway
DNA from biological forensic samples can be highly fragmented and present in limited quantity. When DNA is highly fragmented, conventional PCR based Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis may fail as primer binding sites may not be present on a single template molecule. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) can serve as an alternative type of genetic marker for analysis of degraded samples because the targeted variation is a single base. However, conventional PCR based SNP analysis methods still require intact primer binding sites for target amplification...
February 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ruiyang Tao, Jiashuo Zhang, Yingnan Bian, Rixia Dong, Xiling Liu, Chao Jin, Ruxin Zhu, Suhua Zhang, Chengtao Li
Due to the unique inheritance pattern, X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) have several advantages in complex kinship cases, such as deficiency cases or grandparent-grandchild and half-sisters testing. In our study, 541 unrelated individuals gathered from Mongolian and Eastern Chinese Han populations were successfully genotyped using the Investigator Argus X-12 kit. We calculated allele/haplotype frequencies and other forensic parameters of the two populations and further explored their genetic distance with already published Chinese populations and six global populations...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Raúl J Cano, Gary A Toranzos
Microbiome analysis of environmental samples may represent the next frontier in environmental microbial forensics. Next-generation sequencing technologies significantly increased the available genetic data that could be used as evidentiary material. It is not clear, however, whether the microbiome can scale across institutions using forensic-based evidence due to the data resource requirements and the associated costs of maintaining these databases. A successful microbiome study is impacted by the quality of the information gathered and the steps in sample processing and data analysis...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Jack Morrison, Giles Watts, Glyn Hobbs, Nick Dawnay
Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Shao-Kang Mo, Zi-Lin Ren, Ya-Ran Yang, Ya-Cheng Liu, Jing-Jing Zhang, Hui-Juan Wu, Zhen Li, Xiao-Chen Bo, Sheng-Qi Wang, Jiang-Wei Yan, Ming Ni
Kinship testing based on genetic markers, as forensic short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has valuable practical applications. Paternity and first-degree relationship can be accurately identified by current commonly-used forensic STRs and reported SNP markers. However, second-degree and more distant relationships remain challenging. Although ∼105 -106 SNPs can be used to estimate relatedness of higher degrees, genome-wide genotyping and analysis may be impractical for forensic use...
March 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Maja Sidstedt, Johannes Hedman, Erica L Romsos, Leticia Waitara, Lars Wadsö, Carolyn R Steffen, Peter M Vallone, Peter Rådström
Blood samples are widely used for PCR-based DNA analysis in fields such as diagnosis of infectious diseases, cancer diagnostics, and forensic genetics. In this study, the mechanisms behind blood-induced PCR inhibition were evaluated by use of whole blood as well as known PCR-inhibitory molecules in both digital PCR and real-time PCR. Also, electrophoretic mobility shift assay was applied to investigate interactions between inhibitory proteins and DNA, and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to directly measure effects on DNA polymerase activity...
March 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Atif Adnan, Xiaoni Zhan, Kadirya Kasim, Allah Rakha, Xing Jia Xin
Forensic statistical parameters based on allelic frequencies of commonly used short tandem repeats were estimated for the Han population of Jiangsu province from P.R. China. The 6-dye GlobalFiler™ PCR amplification kit incorporates 21 autosomal STRs, providing reliable DNA typing results with enhanced the power of discrimination. Here, we analyzed the GlobalFiler™ STR loci in 516 unrelated individuals from Jiangsu Han population. A total of 256 alleles were observed ranging between 5 and 35.2 repeat units, and SE33 showed the greatest power of discrimination (34 alleles) in Jiangsu Han population...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mitchell M Holland, Kateryna D Makova, Jennifer A McElhoe
Abstract : Distinguishing between maternal relatives through mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence analysis has been a longstanding desire of the forensic community. Using a deep-coverage, massively parallel sequencing (DCMPS) approach, we studied the pattern of mtDNA heteroplasmy across the mtgenomes of 39 mother-child pairs of European decent; haplogroups H, J, K, R, T, U, and X. Both shared and differentiating heteroplasmy were observed on a frequent basis in these closely related maternal relatives, with the minor variant often presented as 2-10% of the sequencing reads...
February 26, 2018: Genes
J A Aguilar-Velázquez, G Martínez-Cortés, A Inclán-Sánchez, A F Favela-Mendoza, J S Velarde-Félix, H Rangel-Villalobos
We analyzed Mestizo (admixed) population samples from different geographic regions of Mexico (n = 1283) with 20 autosomal STRs (PowerPlex® 21, Promega Corp.). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters from the Northwest, Northeast, West, Center, and Southeast regions are reported, as well as from the pooled Mexican population sample. The combined PD and PE for this 20 STR system were > 0.9999999999 and > 0.99999996593% in all five population samples, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of these Mexican population samples, plus Monterrey (Northeast) and Mexico (Center) Cities, showed low but significant differences among Mexican-Mestizos from the seven populations (Fst = 0...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
C Phillips, K Butler Gettings, J L King, D Ballard, M Bodner, L Borsuk, W Parson
The STR sequence template file published in 2016 as part of the considerations from the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics on minimal STR sequence nomenclature requirements, has been comprehensively revised and audited using the latest GRCh38 genome assembly. The list of forensic STRs characterized was expanded by including supplementary autosomal, X- and Y-chromosome microsatellites in less common use for routine DNA profiling, but some likely to be adopted in future massively parallel sequencing (MPS) STR panels...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Brenda M Murdoch, Timothy P L Smith, James D Murdoch, Michael P Heaton, Stephanie D McKay
Background : Moose ( Alces alces ) colonized the North American continent from Asia less than 15,000 years ago, and spread across the boreal forest regions of Canada and the northern United States (US).  Contemporary populations have low genetic diversity, due either to low number of individuals in the original migration (founder effect), and/or subsequent population bottlenecks in North America.  Genetic tests based on informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are helpful in forensic and wildlife conservation activities, but have been difficult to develop for moose, due to the lack of a reference genome assembly and whole genome sequence (WGS) data...
2018: F1000Research
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