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Forensic genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211539/genetic-analysis-of-19-x-chromosome-str-loci-for-forensic-purposes-in-four-chinese-ethnic-groups
#1
Xingyi Yang, Xiaofang Zhang, Junyong Zhu, Linli Chen, Changhui Liu, Xingling Feng, Ling Chen, Huijun Wang, Chao Liu
A new 19 X- short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR system has recently been developed, though its applicability in forensic studies has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, 932 unrelated individuals from four Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, Uighur and Hui) were successfully genotyped using this new multiplex PCR system. Our results showed significant linkage disequilibrium between markers DXS10103 and DXS10101 in all four ethnic groups; markers DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS6809 and DXS6789, and HPRTB and DXS10101 in Tibetan populations; and markers DXS10074 and DXS10075 in Uighur populations...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208285/determining-gender-by-raman-spectroscopy-of-a-bloodstain
#2
Aliaksandra Sikirzhytskaya, Vitali Sikirzhytski, Igor K Lednev
The development of novel methods for forensic science is a constantly growing area of modern analytical chemistry. Raman spectroscopy is one of a few analytical techniques capable of nondestructive and nearly instantaneous analysis of a wide variety of forensic evidence, including body fluid stains, at the scene of a crime. In this proof-of-concept study, Raman microspectroscopy was utilized for gender identification based on dry bloodstains. Raman spectra were acquired in mapping mode from multiple spots on a bloodstain to account for intrinsic sample heterogeneity...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193507/identification-of-organ-tissue-types-and-skin-from-forensic-samples-by-microrna-expression-analysis
#3
Eva Sauer, Antje Extra, Philipp Cachée, Cornelius Courts
The identification of organ tissues in traces recovered from scenes and objects with regard to violent crimes involving serious injuries can be of considerable relevance in forensic investigations. Molecular genetic approaches are provably superior to histological and immunological assays in characterizing organ tissues, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs), due to their cell type specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, emerged as a promising molecular species for forensic analyses, with a range of tried and tested indicative markers...
February 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186609/-analysis-of-genetic-polymorphisms-of-15-str-loci-among-ethnic-hans-from-xiamen
#4
Lili Wu, Peng Ran, Xiujuan Zheng, Juanjuan Zhou, Bin Pei, Xiuyu Song
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci selected by an AmpFLSTR Identifiler(TM) system for personal identification and paternity testing among ethnic Hans from Xiamen, Fujian. METHODS: For 400 unrelated individuals, allelic frequencies for the 15 STR loci from the AmpFLSTR Identifiler(TM) kit were determined. Population genetics parameters for forensic usage were calculated. RESULTS: No deviation of the observed allele frequency from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations was found by Chi-square test (P>0...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177847/the-forensic-application-of-dna-barcoding-for-identification-of-illegally-traded-african-pangolin-scales
#5
Monica Mwale, Desire Lee Dalton, Raymond Jansen, Marli Roelofse, Darren William Pietersen, Prudent Sankwetea Mokgokong, Antoinette Kotze
The escalating growth in illegal wildlife trade (IWT) and anthropogenic habitat changes threaten the survival of pangolin species globally. All eight extant species have experienced drastic population size reductions globally with high extinction risk in Asia. Consequently, forensic services have become critical for law enforcement of IWT, with a need for standardised and validated genetic identification methods. The seizure of three tonnes of pangolin scales, originating from Africa, by the Hong Kong Customs Authority provided an opportunity for the forensic application of DNA barcoding for identification...
October 27, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176637/personalized-medicine-applied-to-forensic-sciences-new-advances-and-perspectives-for-a-tailored-forensic-approach
#6
Alessandro Santurro, Anna Maria Vullo, Marina Borro, Giovanna Gentile, Raffaele La Russa, Maurizio Simmaco, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy"...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174015/microhaplotype-identified-and-performed-in-genetic-investigation-using-pcr-sscp
#7
Peng Chen, Jing Zhu, Yan Pu, Youjing Jiang, Dan Chen, Hui Wang, Jiong Mao, Bin Zhou, Linbo Gao, Peng Bai, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
The recently introduced concept of microhaplotype loci has attracted attention in forensics. Previous studies estimated the allele frequencies generally through obtaining genotypic data on the individual SNPs from a larger set of unrelated individuals then phasing microhaplotypes by statistical and computational techniques. Determining phase for a single new individual requires the larger set of individuals to have been genotyped previously. Rare microhaplotypes possessed only by the target individual or microhaplotypes private to a specific population not previously studied are unlikely to be accurately phased using data sets of SNPs...
January 20, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171783/attitudes-regarding-the-national-forensic-dna-database-survey-data-from-the-general-public-prison-inmates-and-prosecutors-offices-in-the-republic-of-serbia
#8
Smilja Teodorović, Dragan Mijović, Una Radovanović Nenadić, Marina Savić
Worldwide, the establishment of national forensic DNA databases has transformed personal identification in the criminal justice system over the past two decades. It has also stimulated much debate centering on ethical issues, human rights, individual privacy, lack of safeguards and other standards. Therefore, a balance between effectiveness and intrusiveness of a national DNA repository is an imperative and needs to be achieved through a suitable legal framework. On its path to the European Union (EU), the Republic of Serbia is required to harmonize its national policies and legislation with the EU...
January 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168762/developing-a-new-nonbinary-snp-fluorescent-multiplex-detection-system-for-forensic-application-in-china
#9
Yanfang Liu, Huidan Liao, Ying Liu, Juanjuan Guo, Yi Sun, Xiaoliang Fu, Ding Xiao, Jifeng Cai, Lingmei Lan, Pingli Xie, Lagabaiyila Zha
Nonbinary single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are potential forensic genetic markers because that their discrimination power is greater than that of normal binary SNPs, and that they can detect highly degraded samples. We previously developed a nonbinary SNP multiplex typing assay. In the present study, we selected additional 20 nonbinary SNPs from the NCBI SNP database and verified them through pyrosequencing. These 20 nonbinary SNPs were analyzed using the fluorescent-labeled SNaPshot multiplex SNP typing method...
February 6, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164539/post-mortem-identification-of-a-fire-carbonized-body-by-str-genotyping
#10
Raluca Dumache, Camelia Muresan, Veronica Ciocan, Alexandru F Rogobete, Alexandra Enache
BACKGROUND: Identification of bodies of unknown identity that are victims of exposure to very high temperatures, resulting from fires, plane crashes, and terrorist attacks, represents one of the most difficult sides of forensic genetics, because of the advanced state of decomposition. The aim of this study was the identification of the carbonized cadaver of a fire victim through STR genotyping. METHODS: We used blood samples obtained from the iliac artery during the autopsy examination as biological samples from the unidentified victim...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146053/cardiac-channelopathies-and-sudden-death-recent-clinical-and-genetic-advances
#11
REVIEW
Anna Fernández-Falgueras, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Josep Brugada, Ramon Brugada, Oscar Campuzano
Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia)...
January 29, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139940/mitochondrial-dna-control-region-sequences-may-differentiate-yanbian-koreans-in-china-from-other-asian-populations
#12
Xiao-Na Li, Ji-Long Zheng, Jun Yao, Yue Dong, Zhang-Sen Shi, Bao-Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: Sequence polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are valuable in forensic medicine and anthropological genetics. AIM: We investigated the mtDNA control region sequences in 295 unrelated individuals living in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the People's Republic of China. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from blood stained filter papers. Hypervariable regions of the mtDNA control region (HVI and HVII) were amplified and sequenced...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138773/revisiting-the-male-genetic-landscape-of-china-a-multi-center-study-of-almost-38-000-y-str-haplotypes
#13
REVIEW
Michael Nothnagel, Guangyao Fan, Fei Guo, Yongfeng He, Yiping Hou, Shengping Hu, Jiang Huang, Xianhua Jiang, Wook Kim, Kicheol Kim, Chengtao Li, Hui Li, Liming Li, Shilin Li, Zhao Li, Weibo Liang, Chao Liu, Di Lu, Haibo Luo, Shengjie Nie, Meisen Shi, Hongyu Sun, Jianpin Tang, Lei Wang, Chuan-Chao Wang, Dan Wang, Shao-Qing Wen, Hongyan Wu, Weiwei Wu, Jiaxin Xing, Jiangwei Yan, Shi Yan, Hongbing Yao, Yi Ye, Libing Yun, Zhaoshu Zeng, Lagabaiyila Zha, Suhua Zhang, Xiufen Zheng, Sascha Willuweit, Lutz Roewer
China has repeatedly been the subject of genetic studies to elucidate its prehistoric and historic demography. While some studies reported a genetic distinction between Northern and Southern Han Chinese, others showed a more clinal picture of small differences within China. Here, we investigated the distribution of Y chromosome variation along administrative as well as ethnic divisions in the mainland territory of the People's Republic of China, including 28 administrative regions and 19 recognized Chinese nationalities, to assess the impact of recent demographic processes...
January 30, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138757/genetic-variations-of-15-autosomal-and-17-y-str-markers-in-sindhi-population-of-pakistan
#14
Rukhsana Perveen, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Muhammad Shafique, Muhammad Shahzad, Tayyab Husnain
This study comprises genetic characterization of 15 autosomal and 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in 103 unrelated male inhabitants of the Sindhi population to establish its lineage and parameters of forensic interest. The examined autosomal STRs revealed high combined power of discrimination, combined power of exclusion, and the combined matching probability as 0.99999999999999999042580, 0.9999977141, and 9.5742 × 10(-18), respectively. A total of 89 unique haplotypes were obtained, of which 84 were observed once with a haplotype diversity value of 0...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134350/the-identification-of-a-1916-irish-rebel-new-approach-for-estimating-relatedness-from-low-coverage-homozygous-genomes
#15
Daniel Fernandes, Kendra Sirak, Mario Novak, John A Finarelli, John Byrne, Edward Connolly, Jeanette E L Carlsson, Edmondo Ferretti, Ron Pinhasi, Jens Carlsson
Thomas Kent was an Irish rebel who was executed by British forces in the aftermath of the Easter Rising armed insurrection of 1916 and buried in a shallow grave on Cork prison's grounds. In 2015, ninety-nine years after his death, a state funeral was offered to his living family to honor his role in the struggle for Irish independence. However, inaccuracies in record keeping did not allow the bodily remains that supposedly belonged to Kent to be identified with absolute certainty. Using a novel approach based on homozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified these remains to be those of Kent by comparing his genetic data to that of two known living relatives...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127629/genetic-polymorphisms-of-24-y-str-loci-in-hani-ethnic-minority-from-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#16
Liping Hu, Tao Gu, Xiaodong Fan, Xiaokun Yuan, Min Rao, Jing Bo Pang, Aiting Nie, Lei Du, Xiufeng Zhang, Shengjie Nie
In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 250 unrelated Hani male individuals from Lvchun county, Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Hani group ranged from 0.2683 (DYS437) to 0.8837 (DYS447). According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 204 different haplotypes were obtained, 174 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Hani group were 0...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123277/can-lip-prints-provide-biologic-evidence
#17
Preeti Sharma, Neeraj Sharma, Vijay Wadhwan, Pooja Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Lip prints are unique and can be used in personal identification. Very few studies are available which establish them as biological evidence in the court of law. Thus, the objective of this study was to attempt to isolate DNA and obtain full short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the individual from the lip prints on different surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve lip prints were procured on different surfaces such as tissue paper, cotton cloth, ceramic tile, and glass surface...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120328/origin-analytical-characterization-and-use-of-human-odor-in-forensics
#18
Vincent Cuzuel, Guillaume Cognon, Isabelle Rivals, Charles Sauleau, François Heulard, Didier Thiébaut, Jérôme Vial
Developing a strategy to characterize the odor prints of individuals should be relevant to support identification obtained using dogs in courts of justice. This article proposes an overview of the techniques used for the forensic profiling of human odor. After reviewing the origin of human odor-both genetic and physiological-the different analytical steps from sample collection to statistical data processing are presented. The first challenge is the collection of odor, whether by direct sampling with polymer patches, cotton gauze, etc...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112227/genetic-structure-of-tibetan-populations-in-gansu-revealed-by-forensic-str-loci
#19
Hong-Bing Yao, Chuan-Chao Wang, Jiang Wang, Xiaolan Tao, Lei Shang, Shao-Qing Wen, Qiajun Du, Qiongying Deng, Bingying Xu, Ying Huang, Hong-Dan Wang, Shujin Li, Bin Cong, Liying Ma, Li Jin, Johannes Krause, Hui Li
The origin and diversification of Sino-Tibetan speaking populations have been long-standing hot debates. However, the limited genetic information of Tibetan populations keeps this topic far from clear. In the present study, we genotyped 15 forensic autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) from 803 unrelated Tibetan individuals from Gansu Province (635 from Gannan and 168 from Tianzhu) in northwest China. We combined these data with published dataset to infer a detailed population affinities and genetic substructure of Sino-Tibetan populations...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107530/broad-scale-genetic-diversity-of-cannabis-for-forensic-applications
#20
Christophe Dufresnes, Catherine Jan, Friederike Bienert, Jérôme Goudet, Luca Fumagalli
Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs...
2017: PloS One
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