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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224179/antidiabetic-polypill-improves-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mixed-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Carmen Infante-Garcia, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Carmen Hierro-Bujalance, Esperanza Ortegon, Eleanor Pickett, Rosemary Jackson, Fernando Hernandez-Pacho, Tara Spires-Jones, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an important risk factor to suffer dementia, being Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common form. Both AD and T2D are closely related to aging and with a growing elderly population it might be of relevance to explore new therapeutic approaches that may slow or prevent central complications associated with metabolic disorders. Therefore, we propose the use of the antidiabetic polypill (PP), a pharmacological cocktail, commonly used by T2D patients that include metformin, aspirin, simvastatin, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223769/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-search-of-shared-pathomechanisms
#2
REVIEW
D Polsek, N Gildeh, D Cash, R Winsky-Sommerer, S C R Williams, F Turkheimer, G D Leschziner, M J Morrell, I Rosenzweig
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant public health concern. The incidence continues to rise, and it is set to be over one million in the UK by 2025. The processes involved in the pathogenesis of AD have been shown to overlap with those found in cognitive decline in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Currently, the standard treatment for OSA is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. Adherence to treatment can, however, be an issue, especially in patients with dementia. Also, not all patients respond adequately, necessitating the use of additional treatments...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223183/conversion-between-addenbrooke-s-cognitive-examination-iii-and-mini-mental-state-examination
#3
Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Vanesa Pytel, Ana Cortés-Martínez, María Valles-Salgado, Teresa Rognoni, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: We aim to provide a conversion between Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, to predict the MMSE result based on ACE-III, thus avoiding the need for both tests, and improving their comparability. METHODS: Equipercentile equating method was used to elaborate a conversion table using a group of 400 participants comprising healthy controls and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Then, reliability was assessed in a group of 100 healthy controls and patients with AD, 52 with primary progressive aphasia and 22 with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia...
December 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223171/caregiver-burden-sleep-quality-depression-and-anxiety-in-dementia-caregivers-a-comparison-of-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Shuai Liu, Jing Liu, Xiao-Dan Wang, Zhihong Shi, Yuying Zhou, Jing Li, Tao Yu, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND: Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study...
December 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222909/an-emerging-role-of-astrocytes-in-vascular-contributions-to-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#5
REVIEW
Brittani R Price, Christopher M Norris, Pradoldej Sompol, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is understood to be the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is also a frequent co-morbidity with AD. While VCID is widely acknowledged as a key contributor to dementia, the mechanistic underpinnings of VCID remain poorly understood. In this review, we address the potential role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of VCID. The vast majority of the blood vessels in the brain are surrounded by astrocytic end-feet...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222775/sensory-neurons-from-tau-transgenic-mice-and-their-utility-in-drug-screening
#6
Aviva M Tolkovsky, Jack Brelstaff
Tau misfolding is a major cause of neurodegeneration, tauopathies being a growing group of diseases in which tau forms insoluble aggregates, best known in Alzheimer disease as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Many transgenic mouse models of tauopathies have been generated, but it has been difficult to demonstrate disease in primary brain neurons from these mice because neurons need to be harvested within a few days of birth and tau fails to produce NFTs. Transgenic mice have been generated that express the 0N4R isoform of human tau mutated at amino acid 301 (P301S mice) under the Thy1...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#7
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222544/association-of-age-related-hearing-loss-with-cognitive-function-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
David G Loughrey, Michelle E Kelly, George A Kelley, Sabina Brennan, Brian A Lawlor
Importance: Epidemiologic research on the possible link between age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and cognitive decline and dementia has produced inconsistent results. Clarifying this association is of interest because ARHL may be a risk factor for outcomes of clinical dementia. Objectives: To examine and estimate the association between ARHL and cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources and Study Selection: A search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and SCOPUS from inception to April 15, 2016, with cross-referencing of retrieved studies and personal files for potentially eligible studies was performed...
December 7, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221501/lean-methodology-reduces-inappropriate-use-of-antipsychotics-for-agitation-at-a-psychiatric-hospital
#9
Joshana K Goga, Antonio Depaolo, Sunil Khushalani, J Ken Walters, Robert Roca, Marc Zisselman, Christopher Borleis
OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate the Effects of Applying Lean Methodology-Improving Quality Increasing Efficiency by Eliminating Waste and Reducing Costs-An Approach To Decrease the Prescribing Frequency of Antipsychotics for The Indication of Agitation. DESIGN: Historically Controlled Study. SETTING: Bheppard Pratt Health System is the Largest Private Provider of Psychiatric Care in Maryland With a Total Bed Capacity of 300. There Were 4 337 Patient Days From November 1 2012 to October 31 2013 on the Dementia Unit...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221491/a-phase-iii-randomized-trial-of-gantenerumab-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Susanne Ostrowitzki, Robert A Lasser, Ernest Dorflinger, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Tania Nikolcheva, Elizabeth Ashford, Sylvie Retout, Carsten Hofmann, Paul Delmar, Gregory Klein, Mirjana Andjelkovic, Bruno Dubois, Mercè Boada, Kaj Blennow, Luca Santarelli, Paulo Fontoura
BACKGROUND: Gantenerumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) and removes Aβ plaques by Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. In the SCarlet RoAD trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of gantenerumab in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study, we investigated gantenerumab over 2 years. Patients were randomized to gantenerumab 105 mg or 225 mg or placebo every 4 weeks by subcutaneous injection...
December 8, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220880/development-of-a-new-biochip-array-for-apoe4-classification-from-plasma-samples-using-immunoassay-based-methods
#11
Sigrun Badrnya, Tara Doherty, Ciaran Richardson, Robert I McConnell, John V Lamont, Michael Veitinger, Stephen P FitzGerald, Maria Zellner, Ellen Umlauf
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a key player in lipid transport and metabolism and exists in three common isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE4. The presence of the E4 allelic variant is recognized as a major genetic risk factor for dementia and other chronic (neuro)degenerative diseases. The availability of a validated assay for rapid and reliable APOE4 classification is therefore advantageous. METHODS: Biochip array technology (BAT) was successfully applied to identify directly the APOE4 status from plasma within 3 h, through simultaneous immunoassay-based detection of both specific APOE4 and total APOE levels...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220126/can-the-retina-be-used-to-diagnose-and-plot-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Deepti Mahajan, Marcela Votruba
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of senile dementia. It impairs the quality of life of a person and their family, posing a serious economic and social threat in developed countries. The fact that the diagnosis can only be definitively made post-mortem, or when the disease is fairly advanced, presents a serious problem if novel therapeutic interventions are to be devised and used early in the course of the disease. There is therefore a pressing need for more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests with which we can detect AD in the preclinical stage...
December 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217819/association-between-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-age-overweight-and-structural-mri-patterns-in-901-subjects
#13
Johanna Hoffmann, Deborah Janowitz, Sandra Van der Auwera, Katharina Wittfeld, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich, Mohamad Habes, Christos Davatzikos, Jan Terock, Martin Bahls, Annemarie Goltz, Angela Kuhla, Henry Völzke, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Serum neuron-specific enolase (sNSE) is considered a marker for neuronal damage, related to gray matter structures. Previous studies indicated its potential as marker for structural and functional damage in conditions with adverse effects to the brain like obesity and dementia. In the present study, we investigated the putative association between sNSE levels, body mass index (BMI), total gray matter volume (GMV), and magnetic resonance imaging-based indices of aging as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like patterns...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216633/greater-experience-of-negative-non-target-emotions-by-patients-with-neurodegenerative-diseases-is-related-to-lower-emotional-well-being-in-caregivers
#14
Kuan-Hua Chen, Jenna L Wells, Marcela C Otero, Sandy J Lwi, Claudia M Haase, Robert W Levenson
BACKGROUND: Behavioral symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative diseases can be particularly challenging for caregivers. Previously, we reported that patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) experienced emotions that were atypical or incongruent with a given situation (i.e., non-target emotions). AIM: We tested the hypothesis that greater experience of non-target emotions by patients is associated with lower caregiver emotional well-being...
December 8, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215629/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-dementia-deciphering-the-data
#15
Paul Moayyedi, Maxine A Lewis
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective and suppressing acid, and therefore have efficacy against gastric acid-related disorders. The long-term safety of PPIs is less clear and there have been a number of studies raising concerns regarding risk of pneumonia, fracture, Clostridium difficile, chronic renal failure, and dementia. This latter concern is addressed by a study in this issue of AJG using health care registry data and found there was no association between PPI use and Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, there was no increased risk of dementia with long-term use of PPIs or higher doses of PPIs...
December 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#16
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214153/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-discrepancy-between-clinical-neuroimaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-criteria-in-an-italian-cohort-of-geriatric-outpatients-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#17
Giulia A M Dolci, Sarah Damanti, Valeria Scortichini, Alessandro Galli, Paolo D Rossi, Carlo Abbate, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari, Andrea Arighi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Elio Scarpini, Silvia Inglese, Maura Marcucci
Background: The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, and neuroimaging in the diagnostic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not clear, in particular in the older patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical diagnosis of AD with CSF biomarkers and with cerebrovascular damage at neuroimaging in a cohort of geriatric patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of ≥65-year-old patients with cognitive impairment referred to an Italian geriatric outpatient clinic, for whom the CSF concentration of amyloid-β (Aβ), total Tau (Tau), and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) was available...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214114/calcium-dysregulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-target-for-new-drug-development
#18
Yong Wang, Yun Shi, Huafeng Wei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia among aged people whose population is rapidly increasing. AD not only seriously affects the patient's physical health and quality of life, but also adds a heavy burden to the patient's family and society. It is urgent to understand AD pathogenesis and develop the means of prevention and treatment. AD is a chronic devastating neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Current approaches for management focus on helping patients relieve or delay the symptoms of cognitive dysfunction...
August 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213530/disease-awareness-may-increase-risk-of-suicide-in-young-onset-dementia-a-case-report
#19
Maria Alice Tourinho Baptista, Raquel Luiza Santos, Nathália Kimura, Isabel Barbeito Lacerda, Marcia Cristina Nascimento Dourado
Studies report that people with young onset Alzheimer's disease (YOAD) have higher levels of disease awareness compared to those with late onset AD. We report a case of a man with YOAD who had preserved awareness of disease, depression and risk of suicide associated with the development of the dementia. Cognitive functioning, disease severity, depressive symptoms and awareness of disease were assessed using validated measures. The person with YOAD showed a moderate level of disease severity and high degree of dependence for activities of daily living...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213527/high-education-accelerates-cognitive-decline-in-dementia-a-brief-report-from-the-population-based-nedices-cohort
#20
Israel Contador, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, D Lora Pablos, Alberto Villarejo, Julián Benito-León
High education has been associated with faster cognitive decline after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is unclear whether these findings extend to other dementia subtypes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether educational attainment influences the cognitive trajectories of older adults with different dementia subtypes. METHODS: All participants were selected from NEDICES, a prospective population-based cohort study of Spanish older adults. A total sample of 53 individuals with dementia completed the MMSE-37 at Times 1 and 2 (mean follow-up=2...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
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