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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924942/deficient-neurotrophic-factors-of-cspg4-type-neural-cell-exosomes-in-alzheimer-disease
#1
Edward J Goetzl, Carlos Nogueras-Ortiz, Maja Mustapic, Roger J Mullins, Erin L Abner, Janice B Schwartz, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Exosomes derived from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) 4 type neural precursor cells (CSPG4Es) were purified from human plasma by sequential immunoabsorption with anti-CSPG4 and anti-platelet growth factor receptor α mAb to characterize the potential in vivo roles of CSPG4 cells in neuronal repair. Hepatocyte growth factor, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-2 and -13, and type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which enhance neuronal survival and functions, were quantified in CSPG4E extracts. For CSPG4Es of 24 healthy control subjects, mean levels of hepatocyte growth factor, FGF-13, and IGF-1, but not FGF-2, were significantly higher by up to 7-fold than in their neuronal-derived exosomes, and mean levels of all 4 growth factors were significantly higher by up to 8-fold than in their astrocyte-derived exosomes...
June 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923184/donepezil-for-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jacqueline S Birks, Richard J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor.This review is an updated version of a review first published in 1998...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922145/data-driven-differential-diagnosis-of-dementia-using-multiclass-disease-state-index-classifier
#3
Antti Tolonen, Hanneke F M Rhodius-Meester, Marie Bruun, Juha Koikkalainen, Frederik Barkhof, Afina W Lemstra, Teddy Koene, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Tong Tong, Ricardo Guerrero, Andreas Schuh, Christian Ledig, Marta Baroni, Daniel Rueckert, Hilkka Soininen, Anne M Remes, Gunhild Waldemar, Steen G Hasselbalch, Patrizia Mecocci, Wiesje M van der Flier, Jyrki Lötjönen
Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) hold potential for the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. We developed a novel CDSS, the PredictND tool, designed for differential diagnosis of different types of dementia. It combines information obtained from multiple diagnostic tests such as neuropsychological tests, MRI and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Here we evaluated how the classifier used in it performs in differentiating between controls with subjective cognitive decline, dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922120/specific-patterns-of-white-matter-alterations-help-distinguishing-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-dementia
#4
Fulvia Palesi, Andrea De Rinaldis, Paolo Vitali, Gloria Castellazzi, Letizia Casiraghi, Giancarlo Germani, Sara Bernini, Nicoletta Anzalone, Matteo Cotta Ramusino, Federica M Denaro, Elena Sinforiani, Alfredo Costa, Giovanni Magenes, Egidio D'Angelo, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Giuseppe Micieli
Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) together represent the majority of dementia cases. Since their neuropsychological profiles often overlap and white matter lesions are observed in elderly subjects including AD, differentiating between VaD and AD can be difficult. Characterization of these different forms of dementia would benefit by identification of quantitative imaging biomarkers specifically sensitive to AD or VaD. Parameters of microstructural abnormalities derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been reported to be helpful in differentiating between dementias, but only few studies have used them to compare AD and VaD with a voxelwise approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920356/clitoria-ternatea-l-rootextract-ameliorated-the-cognitive-and-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-the-rat
#5
Thenmoly Damodaran, Byorn Wei Liang Tan, Ping Liao, Surash Ramanathan, Lim Gin Keat, Zurina Hassan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clitoria ternatea L. (CT), commonly known as Butterfly pea, is used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to promote brain function and treat mental disorders. Root of CT has been proven to enhance memory, but its role in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which has been considered as a major cause of brain disorders, has yet to be explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the motor and cognitive effects of acute oral administration of CT root methanolic extract and hippocampal long-term plasticity in the CA1 region of the CCH rat model...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920069/modulating-protein-phosphatase-2a-rescues-disease-phenotype-in-neurodegenerative-tauopathies
#6
Simon McKenzie-Nickson, Jacky Chan, Keyla Perez, Lin W Hung, Lesley Cheng, Amelia Sedjahtera, Lydia Gunawan, Paul A Adlard, David J Hayne, Lachlan E Mcinnes, Paul S Donnelly, David I Finkelstein, Professor Andrew Hill, Kevin J Barnham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide accounting around 70% of all cases. There is currently no treatment for AD beyond symptom management and attempts at developing disease-modifying therapies have yielded very little. These strategies have traditionally targeted the peptide Aβ which is thought to drive pathology. However, the lack of clinical translation of these Aβ-centric strategies underscores the need for diverse treatment strategies targeting other aspects of the disease...
June 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916525/chronic-grief-management-a-live-streaming-video-group-based-intervention-for-family-caregivers-of-individuals-with-dementia-in-long-term-care
#7
Olimpia Paun, Fawn Cothran
Family caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) experience long-term mental health effects. Although caregivers who place relatives in long-term care (LTC) experience increased depression, anxiety, and chronic grief post-placement, interventions to improve caregivers' mental health have focused mainly on in-home care. Current researchers previously tested a group-based Chronic Grief Management Intervention (CGMI) with ADRD caregivers of individuals in LTC, with significant effects on caregiver mental health outcomes...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916037/non-alzheimer-s-contributions-to-dementia-and-cognitive-resilience-in-the-90-study
#8
John L Robinson, Maria M Corrada, Gabor G Kovacs, Myrna Dominique, Carrie Caswell, Sharon X Xie, Virginia M-Y Lee, Claudia H Kawas, John Q Trojanowski
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the oldest-old is complicated by the increasing prevalence of age-related neurofibrillary tangles, plaques and non-AD pathologies such as cerebrovascular disease (CVD), hippocampal sclerosis (HS), aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), as well as TDP-43 and Lewy pathology. The contribution of these non-AD pathologies to dementia and cognitive resilience is unclear. We assessed the level of AD neuropathologic change (ADNPC) and non-AD pathology in 185 participants enrolled in The 90+ Study with available cognitive assessments and brain tissue...
June 18, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916024/lost-in-translation-evidence-for-protein-synthesis-deficits-in-als-ftd-and-related-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
Erik M Lehmkuhl, Daniela C Zarnescu
Cells utilize a complex network of proteins to regulate translation, involving post-transcriptional processing of RNA and assembly of the ribosomal unit. Although the complexity provides robust regulation of proteostasis, it also offers several opportunities for translational dysregulation, as has been observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. Defective mRNA localization, mRNA sequatration, inhibited ribogenesis, mutant tRNA synthetases, and translation of hexanucleotide expansions have all been associated with neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916017/rna-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-defects-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Ashley Boehringer, Robert Bowser
In eukaryotic cells, transcription and translation are compartmentalized by the nuclear membrane, requiring an active transport of RNA from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. This is accomplished by a variety of transport complexes that contain either a member of the exportin family of proteins and translocation fueled by GTP hydrolysis or in the case of mRNA by complexes containing the export protein NXF1. Recent evidence indicates that RNA transport is altered in a number of different neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915582/imbalance-of-circulating-t-h-17-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#11
Timo Jan Oberstein, Lava Taha, Philipp Spitzer, Janina Hellstern, Martin Herrmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Juan Manuel Maler
The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), i.e., neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, consist of beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau. These are accompanied by reactive microglia and astrocytes in the vicinity of the neuritic plaques and by changes to the peripheral immune system, e.g., an increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. To address a potential involvement of peripheral T helper cell (Th ) subsets in AD, we conducted a case control study with 54 individuals with AD dementia ( n  = 14), with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (MCIAD , n  = 14), with MCI unlikely due to AD (MCIother , n  = 13), and controls without cognitive impairment (controls, n  = 13)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914902/case-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-pca-evolved-to-pca-cbs
#12
Nicola Salvadori, Mirella Russo, Leonardo Biscetti, Katia D' Andrea, Massimo Eugenio Dottorini, Lucilla Parnetti
A 68-year-old lawyer developed insidious disturbances in topographic orientation and apraxia. He underwent a geriatric evaluation, only documenting slight cognitive disturbances, and a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), showing mild right-lateralised frontoparietal hypometabolism. After 1 year, because of worsening in spatial orientation and the onset of dressing apraxia, he was referred to our memory clinic. The neuropsychological evaluation documented proeminent visuospatial, praxis deficits and dysgraphia...
June 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914543/hepatitis-b-core-vlp-based-mis-disordered-tau-vaccine-elicits-strong-immune-response-and-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-and-neuropathology-progression-in-tau-p301s-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#13
Mei Ji, Xi-Xiu Xie, Dong-Qun Liu, Xiao-Lin Yu, Yue Zhang, Ling-Xiao Zhang, Shao-Wei Wang, Ya-Ru Huang, Rui-Tian Liu
BACKGROUND: Truncated mis-disordered tau protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Tau294-305 , an epitope in the truncated tau, is essential for pathological tau-tau interaction and aggregation. A tau294-305 -targeted approach may have beneficial effects in the treatment of AD and FTD. METHODS: In this study, we genetically fused tau294-305 epitope to the hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) major immunodominant region (MIR) (with the resultant protein termed T294-HBc), and we subcutaneously immunized a Tau...
June 19, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914396/informant-questionnaire-on-cognitive-decline-in-the-elderly-iqcode-for-assessing-the-severity-of-dementia-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Yunlong Ding, Jiali Niu, Yanrong Zhang, Wenpeng Liu, Yan Zhou, Can Wei, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) is widely used as a complementary screening tool for dementia. However, there are few studies concerning the efficacy of the IQCODE for assessing the severity of cognitive impairments in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the IQCODE for assessing the severity of dementia in patients with AD. METHODS: According to the clinical dementia rating (CDR), 394 patients with AD were enrolled and classified into three groups: mild, moderate and severe groups...
June 19, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914389/item-distribution-and-inter-rater-reliability-of-the-german-version-of-the-quality-of-life-in-alzheimer-s-disease-scale-qol-ad-proxy-for-people-with-dementia-living-in-nursing-homes
#15
Martin Nikolaus Dichter, Eva-Maria Wolschon, Christian G G Schwab, Gabriele Meyer, Sascha Köpke
BACKGROUND: The Quality of Life in Alzheimer's disease scale (QoL-AD) is a widely used Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) instrument. However, studies investigating the instrument's inter-rater reliability (IRR) are missing. This study aimed to determine the item distribution and IRR of the German proxy version of the QoL-AD (13 Items) and a nursing home-specific instrument version (QoL-AD NH, 15 Items). METHODS: The instruments were applied to 73 people with dementia living in eight nursing homes in Germany...
June 19, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914039/does-treating-vascular-risk-factors-prevent-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Susanna C Larsson, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has associated Alzheimer's disease (AD) with vascular risk factors (VRFs), but whether treatment of VRFs reduces the incidence of dementia and AD is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize available data on the impact of treatment of VRFs on dementia and AD incidence. METHODS: Pertinent studies published until 1 January 2018 were identified from PubMed. Both randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective studies that investigated the impact of treatment of VRFs on dementia or AD incidence were included...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914038/a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-reduces-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE-load-and-improves-memory-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Hasina Akhter, Wen-Tan Huang, Thomas van Groen, Hui-Chien Kuo, Toshio Miyata, Rui-Ming Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of dementia in the elderly with no effective treatment. Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of AD and is believed to be a central disease-causing and disease-promoting event. In a previous study, we showed that deletion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a primary inhibitor of tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA), significantly reduced brain Aβ load in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of familial AD...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914034/genotyping-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-genome-wide-association-study-index-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-brains-for-dementia-research-cohort
#18
Keeley J Brookes, George McConnell, Kirsty Williams, Sultan Chaudhury, Gaganjit Madhan, Tulsi Patel, Christopher Turley, Tamar Guetta-Baranes, Jose Bras, Rita Guerreiro, John Hardy, Paul T Francis, Kevin Morgan
The Brains for Dementia Research project is a recently established longitudinal cohort which aims to provide brain tissue for research purposes from neuropathologically defined samples. Here we present the findings from our analysis on the 19 established GWAS index SNPs for Alzheimer's disease, in order to demonstrate if the BDR sample also displays association to these variants. A highly significant association of the APOEɛ4 allele was identified (p = 3.99×10-12). Association tests for the 19 GWAS SNPs found that although no SNPs survive multiple testing, nominal significant findings were detected and concordance with the Lambert et al...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914032/testing-hippocampal-memory-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#19
Cinzia Bussè, Paolo Caffarra, Alice Rossi, Giovanni Zorzi, Federica Fragiacomo, Giulia Camporese, Sara Pompanin, Gian Antonio Di Bernardo, Annachiara Cagnin
The Free and Cued Selective Reminding test (FCSRT) was used to assess memory in 19 patients with prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and 25 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. DLB scored better than AD in selective measures of the FCSRT: immediate total recall (p = 0.01) and index of sensitivity of cueing (p = 0.001), while free delayed and total memory scores were similarly impaired. The index of sensitivity of cueing held a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 79% in distinguishing DLB. FCSRT could help in disentangling hippocampal memory deficits from memory impairment due to ineffective recall strategies...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914030/zinc-exacerbates-tau-pathology-in-a-tau-mouse-model
#20
Kristen M Craven, William R Kochen, Carlos M Hernandez, Jane M Flinn
Hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a key pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and Parkinson's disease. The essential trace element zinc exacerbates tauopathy in vitro as well as in a Drosophila model of AD. However, the interaction has never been assessed behaviorally or biochemically in mammals. Zinc supplementation is prevalent in society, finding use as a treatment for macular degeneration and cataracts, and is also taken as an immune system booster with high levels appearing in multivitamins marketed toward the elderly...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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