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Kate Porcheret, Lucien Wald, Lin Fritschi, Menno Gerkema, Marijke Gordijn, Martha Merrrow, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Daniel Rock, Tracey L Sletten, Guy Warman, Katharina Wulff, Till Roenneberg, Russell G Foster
In humans and most other species, changes in the intensity and duration of light provide a critical set of signals for the synchronisation of the circadian system to the astronomical day. The timing of activity within the 24 h day defines an individual's chronotype, i.e. morning, intermediate or evening type. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between environmental light exposure, due to geographical location, on the chronotype of university students. Over 6 000 university students from cities in the Northern Hemisphere (Oxford, Munich and Groningen) and Southern Hemisphere (Perth, Melbourne and Auckland) completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire...
June 18, 2018: Chronobiology International
Alesia M Jung, Leslie K Dennis, Elizabeth T Jacobs, Georg T Wondrak
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Sun sensitivity, a confounder between sun exposure and sun protection, is often overlooked. We examined how sun exposure and sun protection behaviors among indoor workers varied by sun sensitivity. METHODS: Sun exposure and sun protection diaries over a 45-day period from Midwestern United States indoor workers were examined. We categorized sun sensitivity (fair and non-fair complexion) using tanning inability and sunburn tendency. Total exposure (sunrise to sunset) and peak exposure (10 am and 4 pm) lasting at least 60 minutes were examined...
June 11, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Narelle Hadlow, Suzanne Brown, Robert Wardrop, Johan Conradie, David Henley
OBJECTIVE: Cortisol is a critical stress hormone with circadian rhythms synchronized by light. There are seasonal differences in expression of pro-inflammatory genes and in some diseases moderated by glucocorticoids. As light changes with season and with latitude and longitude, we assessed changes in population cortisol associated with these parameters. DESIGN: Retrospective data audit. PATIENTS: Populations across four states of Australia over three years...
May 30, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Elin Malmqvist, Samuel Jansson, Shiming Zhu, Wansha Li, Katarina Svanberg, Sune Svanberg, Jens Rydell, Ziwei Song, Joakim Bood, Mikkel Brydegaard, Susanne Åkesson
We present the results of, to our knowledge, the first Lidar study applied to continuous and simultaneous monitoring of aerial insects, bats and birds. It illustrates how common patterns of flight activity, e.g. insect swarming around twilight, depend on predation risk and other constraints acting on the faunal components. Flight activity was monitored over a rice field in China during one week in July 2016, using a high-resolution Scheimpflug Lidar system. The monitored Lidar transect was about 520 m long and covered approximately 2...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Han Zhi Li, Xin Xiao Yu, Guo Dong Jia, Na Zhao, Zi Qiang Liu, Wei Wei Lu, Yong E Zhang
This research employed off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique to observe CO2 concentration and δ13 C values of planted Platycladus orientalis in Beijing mountainous area. We compared the variation between CO2 concentration and δ13 C values in the plantation at different heights observed by every 0.5 h to explore how the CO2 concentration and δ13 C values responded to the meteorological factors. The results showed that the CO2 concentration showed the pattern of "first decreased and then increased" after sunrise...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Rafael J Argüello, Marisa Reverendo Simoes, Andreia Mendes, Voahirana Camosseto, Adrian G Torres, Lluis Ribas de Pouplana, Serge A van de Pavert, Evelina Gatti, Philippe Pierre
The processing rate of translating ribosomes along mRNAs regulates gene expression by controling co-translational protein folding and mRNA stability. Many factors regulate translation elongation, including tRNA levels, codon usage, or phosphorylation of eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 ( eEF2 ). Current methods to measure translation elongation lack single cell resolution, require expression of multiple transgenes and have never been successfully applied ex-vivo. Here, we show by using a combination of puromycilation detection and flow cytometry (SunRiSE), that translation elongation can be measured accurately in primary cells in pure or heterogenous populations isolated from blood or tissues...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Sara Al-Musharaf, Mona A Fouda, Iqbal Z Turkestani, Abdulrahman Al-Ajlan, Shaun Sabico, Abdullah M Alnaami, Kaiser Wani, Syed Danish Hussain, Buthaynah Alraqebah, Amal Al-Serehi, Naemah M Alshingetti, Nasser Al-Daghri, Philip G McTernan, Sunil J Wimalawansa, Ponnusamy Saravanan
Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices...
April 15, 2018: Nutrients
José María Martín-Olalla
This work analyzes time use surveys from 19 countries (17 European and 2 American) in the middle latitude (38-61 degree) accounting for 45% of world population in this range. Time marks for primary activities are contrasted against light/dark conditions. The analysis reveals winter sunrise synchronizes labor start time below 54 degree, occurring within winter civil twilight. Winter sunset is a source of synchronization for labor end times. Winter terminator punctuate meal times in Europe: dinner occurs 3 h after winter sunset time within 1 h; 40% narrower than variability of dinner local times...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Masanori Hashizaki, Hiroshi Nakajima, Toshikazu Shiga, Masakazu Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko Kume
In the contemporary era, when life habits are largely determined by social needs and individual preferences, sleep is nevertheless affected by seasonal environmental changes. Japan has large seasonal and geographical alterations of photoperiod and climate. Japan does not adopt the daylight saving time (DST) system, making it a suitable country for the study of seasonal variations in natural human sleep. The aim of this study was to analyze the seasonal changes in the sleep properties (timing and quality) and identify their relationship with environmental changes...
March 28, 2018: Chronobiology International
Abhinandan Mani Tripathi, Abhishek Niranjan, Sribash Roy
Development of flower color in plants is a complex process. Among others, it is an important trait for ornamental flowering plants. Canna is a flowering ornamental plant of family Cannaceae. To understand the molecular mechanism of flower color development in Canna, RNA sequencing from flower tissues of two contrasting flower color cultivars, Red President (RP) and Tropical Sunrise (TS) was performed. More than 27.0 million and 19.0 million clean reads were obtained from RP and TS, respectively. The combined clean reads were assembled into 147,295 unigenes...
June 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Carina Poulin, David Antoine, Yannick Huot
Diurnal variations of phytoplankton size distributions, chlorophyll, carbon and nitrogen content, in vivo fluorescence and associated optical absorption and scattering properties were observed in the laboratory to help understand in situ and spatial observations. We grew triplicate semi-continuous cultures of T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi under a sinusoidal light regime. We observed diurnal variations in the particulate absorption (ap ), scattering (bp ), attenuation (cp ), and backscattering coefficients (bbp ), which correlate with carbon and Chl concentrations...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Martin Czerny, Bartosz Rylski, Julia Morlock, Holger Schröfel, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Bertrand Saint Lebes, Olivier Meyrignac, Fatima Mokrane, Mario Lescan, Christian Schlensak, Constatijn Hazenberg, Trijntje Bloemert-Tuin, Sue Braithwaite, Joost van Herwaarden, Herve Rousseau
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess the results after orthotopic branched endovascular aortic arch repair using a new double-branch endoprosthesis in patients with thoracic aortic disease affecting the aortic arch who cannot undergo classical surgery. METHODS: Within a 4-year period, 15 patients with thoracic aortic disease affecting the aortic arch were treated with the Bolton Relay plus double-branch endoprosthesis (Bolton Medical, Sunrise, FL, USA). We assessed clinical outcome, occurrence of endoleaks and the need for secondary interventions...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Dan Small
Whereas illness, sickness, and disease are dark clouds on the horizon of our lives, the complex process of healing is our sunrise. In this essay, I introduce the concept of healing emplotment, a lived process of knowingly bringing together strategies for self-awareness, the creation of hope, and the management of risk to overcome psychosocial peril. This results in a purposeful re-authoring of the self in society, personhood, in the face of life-threatening events. Rather than only bringing threats to which the stricken must respond, serious illness can also present opportunities for narrative re-authoring of our biopsychosocial self...
December 29, 2017: Health Communication
Yunus Erdem, Gülsüm Özkan, Şükrü Ulusoy, Mustafa Arıcı, Ülver Derici, Şule Şengül, Şükrü Sindel, Şehsuvar Ertürk
Intermittent fasting is a phenomenon which can be observed in most humans. The effect of intermittent fasting on blood pressure variability (BPV) has not previously been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of fasting on blood pressure (BP) (with office, home, central, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [ABPM]) and on BPV. Sixty individuals were included in the study. Office, home, ABPM, and central BP measurements were performed before and during intermittent fasting. Standard deviation and coefficient variation were used for office and home BPV measurement, while the smoothness index was used to calculate ABPM variability...
January 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Mariana Marinho-E-Silva, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento
BACKGROUND Studies on malaria vectors in the Pantanal biome, Central Brazil, were conducted more than half a century ago. OBJECTIVES To update anopheline records and assess receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. METHODS Five-day anopheline collections were conducted bimonthly in Salobra, Mato Grosso do Sul state, for one year. Indoors, mosquitoes were collected from their resting places, while in open fields, they were captured using protected human-baited and horse-baited traps near the house and at the Miranda River margin, respectively...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Spine
Angela Bullanday Scott, Mini Singh, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Marta Hernandez-Jover, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Lee, Peter Groves
There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland...
2017: PloS One
Allison Mayfield, Vamsi Singaraju, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Zain Sayeed, Jamal K Saleh, Khaled J Saleh
Extensor mechanism complications involving the patella frequently result in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Postoperative patellar dislocation may be caused by soft tissue imbalance, improper sizing, and position of the prosthesis. This report describes a case of revision TKA requiring several rounds of soft tissue releases in an effort to treat the patient's chronic patellar dislocation. In the process, a novel surgical approach was developed for the surgical management of refractory chronic patellar dislocations...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
Divyashri Baraniya, Paolo Nannipieri, Susanne Kublik, Gisle Vestergaard, Michael Schloter, Anne Schöler
While root exudation follows diurnal rhythms, little is known about the consequences for the microbiome of the rhizosphere. In this study, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze the active microbial communities, before and after sunrise, in the rhizosphere of barley. We detected increased activities of many prokaryotic microbial taxa and functions at the pre-dawn stage, compared to post-dawn. Actinomycetales, Planctomycetales, Rhizobiales, and Burkholderiales were the most abundant and therefore the most active orders in the barley rhizosphere...
May 2018: Microbial Ecology
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