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Guaraci D Cordeiro, Mardiore Pinheiro, Stefan Dötterl, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit was developed, yet, little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and the breeding system of C...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Ping Zou
Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
James M Turner, Fritz Geiser
Many mammals use torpor throughout the year but the individual contributions of environmental variables to seasonal changes in torpor expression are often difficult to tease apart. In many mammals, torpor is most often used opportunistically in response to decreased ambient temperature (T a ) and food availability, but information on how seasonally changing photoperiod per se influences torpor patterns is scant. Therefore, we quantified patterns of torpor use in response to natural photoperiod in captive marsupial pygmy-possums held at near-constant T a with a stable food supply over a period of 19 months...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Mo Wang, Baiqing Xu, Ninglian Wang, Junji Cao, Xuexi Tie, Hailong Wang, Chongshu Zhu, Wei Yang
Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations show a winter (November-February) high (413.2ngm(-3)) and spring (March-June) low (139.1ngm(-3)) at Ranwu, but in contrast a winter low and spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6ngm(-3), respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that the monthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds...
September 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Khan M G Mostofa, Hiroshi Sakugawa
The photo-Fenton reaction is a key source of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO) that is produced by the reaction of simultaneous photo-induced generation of Fe(2)(+)-dissolved organic matter (DOM) with H2O2 in sunlit surface waters as well as in the treatment of organic pollutants in the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Concentrations of both H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM were dependent on time and total solar intensity flux, and their levels were highest in the diurnal samples collected at noon compared with the samples collected during the period before sunrise and after sunset...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Andréia C F Salgueiro, Vanderlei Folmer, Hemerson S da Rosa, Márcio T Costa, Aline A Boligon, Fávero R Paula, Daniel H Roos, Gustavo O Puntel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Achyrocline satureioides ("macela or marcela") is a medicinal plant, traditionally collected in "Good Friday" before sunrise. In traditional medicine, dried flowers of A. satureioides are used as anti-dyspeptic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the phytochemical profile and to present an in vitro and in silico approach about toxicity and antioxidant potential of A. satureioides flowers extract and its major phytoconstituents...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Matthew R Clark
Near-surface air temperature (NSAT) anomalies during the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse are investigated at 266 UK sites, using operational data. The high density of observing sites, together with the wide range of ambient meteorological conditions, provided an unprecedented opportunity for analysis of the spatial variability of NSAT anomalies under relatively uniform eclipse conditions. Anomalies ranged from -0.03°C to -4.23°C (median -1.02°C). The maximum (negative) anomaly lagged the maximum obscuration by 15 min on average...
September 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Shelita Dattani, Heather Mohr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
Shuichi Ito, Shuho Hori, Makiko Hirose, Mari Iwahara, Azusa Yatsushiro, Atsushi Matsumoto, Masayuki Tanaka, Chinobu Okamoto, Ken-Ichi Yayou, Tsuyoshi Shimmura
The rhythmic locomotor behavior of flies and mice provides a phenotype for the identification of clock genes, and the underlying molecular mechanism is well studied. However, interestingly, when examining locomotor rhythm in the wild, several key laboratory-based assumptions on circadian behavior are not supported in natural conditions. The rooster crowing 'cock-a-doodle-doo' is a symbol of the break of dawn in many countries. Previously, we used domestic inbred roosters and showed that the timing of roosters' crowing is regulated by the circadian clock under laboratory conditions...
August 17, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Dénes Száz, Alexandra Farkas, András Barta, Balázs Kretzer, Ádám Egri, Gábor Horváth
The theory of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation has been widely accepted for decades without any information about the accuracy of this method. Previously, we have measured the accuracy of the first and second steps of this navigation method in psychophysical laboratory and planetarium experiments. Now, we have tested the accuracy of the third step in a planetarium experiment, assuming that the first and second steps are errorless. Using the fists of their outstretched arms, 10 test persons had to estimate the elevation angles (measured in numbers of fists and fingers) of black dots (representing the position of the occluded Sun) projected onto the planetarium dome...
July 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jose J H Videira, Emiliano Bilotti, Amanda J Chatten
This paper presents an investigation of the geometric effects within a cylindrical array luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). Photon concentration of a cylindrical LSC increases linearly with cylinder length up to 2 metres. Raytrace modelling on the shading effects of circles on their neighbours demonstrates effective incident light trapping in a cylindrical LSC array at angles of incidence between 60-70 degrees. Raytrace modelling with real-world lighting conditions shows optical efficiency boosts when the suns angle of incidence is within this angle range...
July 11, 2016: Optics Express
Olivia J Walch, Amy Cochran, Daniel B Forger
The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country's average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration...
May 2016: Science Advances
Daniel Scotcher, Christopher Jones, Maria Posada, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Aleksandra Galetin
The programme for the 2015 AAPS Annual Meeting and Exhibition (Orlando, FL; 25-29 October 2015) included a sunrise session presenting an overview of the state-of-the-art tools for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and mechanistic prediction of renal drug disposition. These concepts are based on approaches developed for prediction of hepatic clearance, with consideration of scaling factors physiologically relevant to kidney and the unique and complex structural organisation of this organ. Physiologically relevant kidney models require a number of parameters for mechanistic description of processes, supported by quantitative information on renal physiology (system parameters) and in vitro/in silico drug-related data...
September 2016: AAPS Journal
Takeharu Yamanaka, Eiji Oki, Kentaro Yamazaki, Kensei Yamaguchi, Kei Muro, Hiroyuki Uetake, Takeo Sato, Tomohiro Nishina, Masataka Ikeda, Takeshi Kato, Akiyoshi Kanazawa, Tetsuya Kusumoto, Calvin Chao, Margarita Lopatin, Jayadevi Krishnakumar, Helen Bailey, Kiwamu Akagi, Atsushi Ochiai, Atsushi Ohtsu, Yasuo Ohashi, Takayuki Yoshino
PURPOSE: The 12-gene Recurrence Score assay has been validated in resected stage II colon cancer treated with or without chemotherapy and resected stage III disease treated with chemotherapy. This study evaluated the 12-gene Recurrence Score assay for stage II and III colon cancer without chemotherapy to reveal the natural course of recurrence risk in stage III disease. METHODS: A cohort-sampling design was used. From 1,487 consecutive patients with stage II to III disease who had surgery alone, 630 patients were sampled for inclusion with a 1:2 ratio of recurrence and nonrecurrence...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
N Scherbaum, M Specka, C Kaspar, T Mikoteit, B Lieb
Objectives: In the SUNRISE-project, the unemployment benefit office refers long-term unemployed clients (25-49 years old) to medical and psychological specialists of an addiction clinic, if substance-related problems are suspected as an obstacle for job placement. The present study aims at characterizing these clients with respect to educational qualifications, vocational training, diagnosed addictive disorders, and other mental disorders. Of special interest is the temporal sequence of unemployment and addictive disorders...
June 14, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Rachida Belaïch, Saïd Boujraf, Mohammed Benzagmout, Rabia Magoul, Mustapha Maaroufi, Siham Tizniti
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was assessing the intermittent fasting effect on brain plasticity and oxidative stress (OS) using blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) approach. Evidences of physiological and molecular phenomena involved in this process are discussed and compared to reported literature. METHOD: Six fully healthy male non-smokers volunteered in this study. All volunteers were right handed, and have an equilibrated, consistent and healthy daily nutritional habit, and a healthy lifestyle...
June 8, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
David E Gerber, David R Spigel, David Giorgadze, Mikhail Shtivelband, Olga V Ponomarova, Joseph S Shan, Kerstin B Menander, Chandra P Belani
BACKGROUND: Bavituximab is a phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody with a selective tumor, vascular-directed immune response. In this phase II trial the efficacy and safety of bavituximab combined with docetaxel for previously treated, advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 21 days for up to 6 cycles combined with weekly, blinded infusions of placebo, bavituximab 1 mg/kg, or bavituximab 3 mg/kg until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity...
May 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
Andrew David Beale, David Whitmore, Damian Moran
Most of the life with which humans interact is exposed to highly rhythmic and extremely predictable changes in illumination that occur with the daily events of sunrise and sunset. However, while the influence of the sun feels omnipotent to surface dwellers such as ourselves, life on earth is dominated, in terms of biomass, by organisms isolated from the direct effects of the sun. A limited understanding of what life is like away from the sun can be inferred from our knowledge of physiology and ecology in the light biosphere, but a full understanding can only be gained by studying animals from the dark biosphere, both in the laboratory and in their natural habitats...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Niels Peter Revsbech, Erik Trampe, Mads Lichtenberg, David M Ward, Michael Kühl
UNLABELLED: Microbes can produce molecular hydrogen (H2) via fermentation, dinitrogen fixation, or direct photolysis, yet the H2 dynamics in cyanobacterial communities has only been explored in a few natural systems and mostly in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the diel in situ H2 dynamics in a hot spring microbial mat, where various ecotypes of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) are the only oxygenic phototrophs. In the evening, H2 accumulated rapidly after the onset of darkness, reaching peak values of up to 30 μmol H2 liter(-1) at about 1-mm depth below the mat surface, slowly decreasing to about 11 μmol H2 liter(-1) just before sunrise...
July 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Natalie Isaksson, Thomas J Evans, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Susanne Åkesson
BACKGROUND: Generalist predators may vary their diet and use of habitat according to both internal state (e.g. breeding stage) and external (e.g. weather) factors. Lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus (Linnaeus 1758) are dietary generalists, foraging in both terrestrial and marine habitats during breeding. We investigate what affects the gulls' propensity to forage at sea or on land. We assess the importance of terrestrial foraging to gulls in the Baltic Sea (sub. sp. L. f. fuscus), looking especially at their use of agricultural fields...
2016: Movement Ecology
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