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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734256/3d-porous-polyurethanes-featured-by-different-mechanical-properties-characterization-and-interaction-with-skeletal-muscle-cells
#1
Lorenzo Vannozzi, Leonardo Ricotti, Tommaso Santaniello, Tercio Terencio, Reinier Oropesa-Nunez, Claudio Canale, Francesca Borghi, Arianna Menciassi, Cristina Lenardi, Irini Gerges
The fabrication of biomaterials for interaction with muscle cells has attracted significant interest in the last decades. However, 3D porous scaffolds featured by a relatively low stiffness (almost matching the natural muscle one) and highly stable in response to cyclic loadings are not available at present, in this context. This work describes 3D polyurethane-based porous scaffolds featured by different mechanical properties. Biomaterial stiffness was finely tuned by varying the cross-linking degree of the starting foam...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734253/polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-flame-retardant-concentrations-in-faeces-from-young-children-in-queensland-australia-and-associations-with-environmental-and-behavioural-factors
#2
Karin English, Yiqin Chen, Leisa-Maree Toms, Paul Jagals, Robert S Ware, Jochen F Mueller, Peter D Sly
The aim of our study was to investigate children's exposure to the flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by analysing faecal content, a non-invasive matrix, as well as responses to an exposure-assessment questionnaire. A convenience sample of 61 parents with children (aged >3 months to <2 years) completed an online pre-tested questionnaire and provided faecal samples for analysis by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in faecal samples adjusted to 8...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734251/climatic-controls-of-ecohydrological-responses-in-the-highlands-of-northern-ethiopia
#3
Samuale Tesfaye, Emiru Birhane, Toon Leijnse, S E A T M van der Zee
Climate variability and recurrent droughts have a strong negative impact on agricultural production and hydrology in the highlands northern Ethiopia. Since the 1980s, numerous mitigation and land rehabilitation measures have been implemented by local and national authorities to reduce these impacts, are often poorly effective. As underlying reason may be that controlling relationships between climate and ecohydrology at medium-sized catchments (10-10,000km(2)) of semi-arid highlands are not well known. We investigated trends and relationships in precipitation, temperature, streamflow, and net primary productivity (NPP)...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734225/adverse-effects-of-methylmercury-mehg-on-life-parameters-antioxidant-systems-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-the-rotifer-brachionus-koreanus-and-the-copepod-paracyclopina-nana
#4
Young Hwan Lee, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hye-Min Kang, Minghua Wang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Jae-Seong Lee
To evaluate the adverse effects of MeHg on the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana, we assessed the effects of MeHg toxicity on life parameters (e.g. growth retardation and fecundity), antioxidant systems, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways at various concentrations (1ng/L, 10ng/L, 100ng/L, 500ng/L, and 1000ng/L). MeHg exposure resulted in the growth retardation with the increased ROS levels but decreased glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in both B...
July 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734217/emotional-arousal-and-recognition-memory-are-differentially-reflected-in-pupil-diameter-responses-during-emotional-memory-for-negative-events-in-younger-and-older-adults
#5
Dorothea Hämmerer, Alexandra Hopkins, Matthew J Betts, Anne Maaß, Ray J Dolan, Emrah Düzel
A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses...
June 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734216/releasing-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-from-expanded-polystyrenes-in-seawater-field-and-laboratory-experiments
#6
Manviri Rani, Won Joon Shim, Mi Jang, Gi Myung Han, Sang Hee Hong
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a major component of marine debris globally. Recently, hazardous hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) were detected in EPS buoys used for aquaculture farming. Subsequently, enrichment of HBCDDs was found in nearby marine sediments and mussels growing on EPS buoys. It was suspected that EPS buoys and their debris might be sources of HBCDDs. To confirm this, the release of HBCDDs from EPS spherules detached from a buoy to seawater was investigated under field (open sea surface and closed outdoor chambers with sun exposure and in the dark) and laboratory (particle-size) conditions...
July 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734201/modification-of-chemical-properties-cu-fractionation-and-enzymatic-activities-in-an-acid-vineyard-soil-amended-with-winery-wastes-a-field-study
#7
Isabel Rodríguez-Salgado, Paula Pérez-Rodríguez, Antía Gómez-Armesto, Montserrat Díaz-Raviña, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, David Fernández-Calviño
The effects of adding two winery wastes, perlite waste (PW) and bentonite waste (BW), to an acid vineyard soil were assessed using some chemical and biological soil properties in a field study that lasted 18 months. The addition of PW (up to 81 Mg ha(-1)) had neither significant nor permanent effects on soil characteristics such as the pH, organic matter content or nutrient concentrations, the amounts of copper or zinc, or the electrical conductivity. Moreover, no persistent negative effects were found on the enzymatic activities after PW application...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734189/two-dimensional-modeling-of-elastic-wave-propagation-in-solids-containing-cracks-with-rough-surfaces-and-friction-part-i-theoretical-background
#8
Vladislav Aleshin, Steven Delrue, Andrey Trifonov, Olivier Bou Matar, Koen Van Den Abeele
Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns the modeling of internal contacts (called cracks for brevity), while part II is related to the integration of the developed contact model into a solid mechanics module that allows the description of wave propagation processes...
July 13, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734185/primary-small-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-breast-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Abigail Tremelling, Selyne Samuel, Mary Murray
INTRODUCTION: Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (SCNCB) is a very uncommon type of breast cancer. Histology and morphology are virtually indistinguishable from small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung (SCNCL), mandating a search for a primary site elsewhere in the body. There is no standard approach to treatment as there are only a limited number of cases reported in the literature. This report summarizes a case of primary SCNCB and presents a review of the literature...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734180/bottom-up-assembly-of-salivary-gland-microtissues-for-assessing-myoepithelial-cell-function
#10
Tugba Ozdemir, Padma Pradeepa Srinivasan, Daniel R Zakheim, Daniel A Harrington, Robert L Witt, Mary C Farach-Carson, Xinqiao Jia, Swati Pradhan-Bhatt
Myoepithelial cells are flat, stellate cells present in exocrine tissues including the salivary glands. While myoepithelial cells have been studied extensively in mammary and lacrimal gland tissues, less is known of the function of myoepithelial cells derived from human salivary glands. Several groups have isolated tumorigenic myoepithelial cells from cancer specimens, however, only one report has demonstrated isolation of normal human salivary myoepithelial cells needed for use in salivary gland tissue engineering applications...
July 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734176/cancer-immunotherapy-moving-forward-with-peptide-t-cell-vaccines
#11
REVIEW
Takumi Kumai, Aaron Fan, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Recent advances in cancer immunology, such as the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have validated immune cells as potential key players for effective cancer treatment. The efficacy of these therapies seems to be codependent on a tumor-reactive T lymphocyte response. For many years, numerous attempts and strategies in developing vaccines to generate tumor-reactive T cells have yielded poor results in the clinic due to suboptimal immunogenicity and the inability to overcome an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734175/cd8-t-cell-programming-by-cytomegalovirus-vectors-applications-in-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-vaccination
#12
REVIEW
Klaus Früh, Louis Picker
Vectors based on cytomegalovirus (CMV) represent a novel vaccine platform that maintains high frequencies of non-exhausted effector memory T cells in both CMV sero-positive and sero-negative individuals. In non-human primate models, CMV vectored vaccines provide unprecedented protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Moreover, CMV vectors can be genetically altered to program highly diverse CD8+ T cell responses that differ in their epitope targeting including conventional, MHC-I restricted CD8+ T cells as well as unconventional CD8+ T cells restricted by MHC class II or non-polymorphic MHC-E...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734174/old-and-new-adjuvants
#13
REVIEW
Amy S McKee, Philippa Marrack
Adjuvants have been deliberately added to vaccines since the 1920's when alum was discovered to boost antibody responses, leading to better protection. The first adjuvants were discovered by accident and were used in the safer but less immunogenic subunit vaccines, supposedly by providing an antigen depot to extend antigen presentation. Since that time, much has been discovered about how these adjuvants impact cells at the tissue site to activate innate immune responses, mobilize dendritic cells and drive adaptive immunity...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734172/clear-evidence-for-item-limits-in-visual-working-memory
#14
Kirsten C S Adam, Edward K Vogel, Edward Awh
There is a consensus that visual working memory (WM) resources are sharply limited, but debate persists regarding the simple question of whether there is a limit to the total number of items that can be stored concurrently. Zhang and Luck (2008) advanced this debate with an analytic procedure that provided strong evidence for random guessing responses, but their findings can also be described by models that deny guessing while asserting a high prevalence of low precision memories. Here, we used a whole report memory procedure in which subjects reported all items in each trial and indicated whether they were guessing with each response...
July 19, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734166/naturally-occurring-immunomodulators-with-antitumor-activity-an-insight-on-their-mechanisms-of-action
#15
REVIEW
Shimaa Ibrahim Abdelmonym Mohamed, Ibrahim Jantan, Md Areeful Haque
Natural products with immunomodulatory activity are widely used in treatment of many diseases including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders in addition to cancer. They gained a great interest in the last decades as therapeutic agents since they provide inexpensive and less toxic products than the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents. Immunomodulators are the agents that have the ability to boost or suppress the host defense response that can be used as a prophylaxis as well as in combination with other therapeutic modalities...
July 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734158/interaction-between-platelet-derived-micrornas-and-cyp2c19-2-genotype-on-clopidogrel-antiplatelet-responsiveness-in-patients-with-acs
#16
Li Peng, Jun Liu, Liuan Qin, Jia Liu, Shaozhi Xi, Caiyi Lu, Tong Yin
BACKGROUND: Both platelet-derived microRNAs and the genotype of CYP2C19*2 were implicated for the variability of clopidogrel antiplatelet responsiveness. However, their interaction on the antiplatelet responsiveness of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unknown. METHODS: Consecutive clopidogrel-treated patients with ACS were recruited, with their antiplatelet responsiveness evaluated by the relative platelet inhibition (RI), as measured by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) at baseline and 5days' after the maintenance treatment of clopidogrel...
July 13, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734156/a-novel-hypoxia-response-element-regulates-oxygen-related-repression-of-tissue-factor-pathway-inhibitor-in-the-breast-cancer-cell-line-mcf-7
#17
Xue Yan Cui, Grethe Skretting, Mari Tinholt, Benedicte Stavik, Anders Erik Astrup Dahm, Kristine Kleivi Sahlberg, Sandip Kanse, Nina Iversen, Per Morten Sandset
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is one of the most pervasive physiological stresses in solid tumors. We have previously demonstrated that tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) expression was transcriptionally repressed by the activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α under hypoxic conditions. However, the role of HIF-2α, also known as endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1), on TFPI expression remains unclear. AIM: To explore the role of HIF-2α/EPAS1 in the regulation of TFPI expression under hypoxia in breast cancer cells...
July 14, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734140/deregulation-of-levels-of-angiopoietin-1-and-angiopoietin-2-is-associated-with-severe-courses-of-hantavirus-infection
#18
Christian Nusshag, Anja Osberghaus, Alexandra Baumann, Paul Schnitzler, Martin Zeier, Ellen Krautkrämer
BACKGROUND: Hantavirus disease is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and its antagonist angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) play a key role in the control of capillary permeability. Ang-1 is responsible for maintenance of cell-to-cell contacts whereas Ang-2 destabilizes monolayers. An imbalance of Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels results in enhanced permeability and capillary leakage. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the involvement of angiopoietins in hantavirus-induced disruption of endothelia, we measured the levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in hantavirus infection...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734136/the-good-and-bad-of-targeting-cancer-associated-extracellular-matrix
#19
REVIEW
Sabina Sangaletti, Claudia Chiodoni, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo
The maintenance of tissue homeostasis requires extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Immune cells actively participate in regenerating damaged tissues contributing to ECM deposition and shaping. Dysregulated ECM deposition characterizes fibrotic diseases and cancer stromatogenesis, where a chronic inflammatory state sustains the ECM increase. In cancer, the ECM fosters several steps of tumor progression, providing pro-survival and proliferative signals, promoting tumor cell dissemination via collagen fibers or acting as a barrier to impede drug diffusion...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734128/the-experience-of-initiating-injection-drug-use-and-its-social-context-a-qualitative-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis
#20
REVIEW
Andy Guise, Danielle Horyniak, Jason Melo, Ryan McNeill, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Understanding the experience of initiating injection drug use and its social contexts is crucial to inform efforts to prevent transitions into this mode of drug consumption and support harm reduction. We systematically reviewed and synthesized existing qualitative scientific literature to identify the socio-structural contexts for, and experiences of, the initiation of injection drug use. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS, and SSCI), along with a manual search, including of key journals and subject experts...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
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