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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332536/the-rise-of-the-crime-victim-and-punitive-policies-changes-to-the-legal-regulation-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-finland
#1
Riikka Kotanen
This article examines intimate partnership violence as a question of criminal justice policy in Finland, and contributes to criminological discussions regarding oft-stated connections between the politicization of the victim, the treatment of offenders, and repressive criminal justice policies. In this discussion, legislation aiming to regulate and prevent violence against women has often been utilized as an example of such punitive policies. Although criminal policies in Nordic countries differ significantly from more punitive Anglophone policies, punitive tendencies, it has been argued, have increased in the former, too...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330699/accounting-of-ghg-emissions-and-removals-from-forest-management-a-long-road-from-kyoto-to-paris
#2
REVIEW
Joachim H A Krug
BACKGROUND: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others...
January 3, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330164/public-health-guide-to-field-developments-linking-ecosystems-environments-and-health-in-the-anthropocene
#3
Chris G Buse, Jordan Sky Oestreicher, Neville R Ellis, Rebecca Patrick, Ben Brisbois, Aaron P Jenkins, Kaileah McKellar, Jonathan Kingsley, Maya Gislason, Lindsay Galway, Ro A McFarlane, Joanne Walker, Howard Frumkin, Margot Parkes
The impacts of global environmental change have precipitated numerous approaches that connect the health of ecosystems, non-human organisms and humans. However, the proliferation of approaches can lead to confusion due to overlaps in terminology, ideas and foci. Recognising the need for clarity, this paper provides a guide to seven field developments in environmental public health research and practice: occupational and environmental health; political ecology of health; environmental justice; ecohealth; One Health; ecological public health; and planetary health...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329988/rethinking-medicaid-coverage-and-payment-policy-to-promote-high-value-care-the-case-of-long-acting-reversible-contraception
#4
Veronica X Vela, Elizabeth W Patton, Darshak Sanghavi, Susan F Wood, Peter Shin, Sara Rosenbaum
CONTEXT: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is the most effective reversible method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Variability in state-level policies and the high cost of LARC could create substantial inconsistencies in Medicaid coverage, despite federal guidance aimed at enhancing broad access. This study surveyed state Medicaid payment policies and outreach activities related to LARC to explore the scope of services covered. METHODS: Using publicly available information, we performed a content analysis of state Medicaid family planning and LARC payment policies...
January 9, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325927/health-care-access-and-quality-for-persons-with-disability-patient-and-provider-recommendations
#5
Heather F McClintock, Jibby E Kurichi, Frances K Barg, Alice Krueger, Patrice M Colletti, Krizia A Wearing, Hillary R Bogner
BACKGROUND: Significant disparities in health care access and quality persist between persons with disabilities (PWD) and persons without disabilities (PWOD). Little research has examined recommendations of patients and providers to improve health care for PWD. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore patient and health care provider recommendations to improve health care access and quality for PWD through focus groups in the physical world in a community center and in the virtual world in an online community...
December 30, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325398/health-priorities-in-french-speaking-swiss-cantons
#6
Philippe Chastonay, Jean Simos, Nicolas Cantoreggi, Rudolf Zurkinden, Thomas Mattig
In Switzerland, the federal authorities, the cantons, and the communes share the responsibility of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion policies. Yet, the cantons are in most health matters independent in their decisions, thus defining as a matter of fact their own health priorities. We examined and analysed the content of the disease prevention and health promotion plans elaborated during the last decade in six French-speaking cantons with different political contexts and resources, but quite similar population health data, in order to identify the set health priorities...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306177/the-law-on-the-streets-evaluating-the-impact-of-mexico-s-drug-decriminalization-reform-on-drug-possession-arrests-in-tijuana-mexico
#7
J Arredondo, T Gaines, S Manian, C Vilalta, A Bañuelos, S A Strathdee, L Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. METHODS: Using a dataset of municipal police incident reports, we examined patterns of drug possession, and violent and non-violent crime arrests between January 2009 and December 2014...
January 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306160/do-spatial-patterns-of-urbanization-and-land-consumption-reflect-different-socioeconomic-contexts-in-europe
#8
REVIEW
Luca Salvati, Ilaria Zambon, Francesco Maria Chelli, Pere Serra
Land-use changes and urban sprawl have transformed European cities, with a direct impact on both metropolitan structures and socioeconomic functions. However, these processes tend to be relatively different across countries, being influenced by place-specific factors associated to socioeconomic, historical, political and cultural factors that influence decisions on the use of land. Considering 155 metropolitan areas in 6 European macro-regions, the present study investigates spatial patterns of land consumption profiling cities according to a large set of territorial variables, with the final objective to identify relevant socioeconomic dimensions characteristic of recent processes of urban growth...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305241/a-scoping-review-of-the-implementation-of-health-in-all-policies-at-the-local-level
#9
REVIEW
Maria Guglielmin, Carles Muntaner, Patricia O'Campo, Ketan Shankardass
OBJECTIVES: Health in All Policies (HiAP) is an approach to public policies across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implication of decisions, seeks synergies, and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity. HiAP implementation can involve engagement from multiple levels of government; however, factors contributing or hindering HiAP implementation at the local level are largely unexplored. Local is defined as the city or municipal level, wherein government is uniquely positioned to provide leadership for health and where many social determinants of health operate...
December 20, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304251/the-role-of-leadership-in-people-centred-health-systems-a-sub-national-study-in-the-gambia
#10
Simukai Chigudu, Momodou Jasseh, Umberto d'Alessandro, Tumani Corrah, Adama Demba, Julie Balen
Recently, increasing attention has been given to behavioural and relational aspects of the people who both define and shape health systems, placing them at the core. A growing refrain includes the assertion that important decisions determining health system performance, including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation, are made by people. Within this actor-oriented approach, good leadership has been identified as a key contributing factor in health systems strengthening. However, leadership remains ill-defined and under-researched, especially in resource-limited settings, and understanding the links between leadership and health outcomes remains a challenge...
January 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302176/no-more-broken-promises-challenges-and-opportunities-for-key-populations-in-demanding-more-transparency-accountability-and-participation-in-the-global-response-against-the-hiv-and-aids-epidemic
#11
Tomás A Chang Pico, Jillian Clare Kohler, Julia Hoffmann, Lucy Mungala
The global fight against HIV/AIDS continues to pose challenges: infection rates are on the rise in many settings, stigma and discrimination remain rampant, and the global response is under increasing financial pressure. There is a high risk of losing what has been achieved so far in the fight against HIV and AIDS, but also the momentum to meet the so-called Fast Track targets for 2030. In light of these trends, it is fundamental to focus on the human rights of key populations (KPs)-especially to health, non-discrimination, access to information, and to equal and meaningful participation in political and public affairs-by placing them at the center of the global HIV response...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302160/intersectional-discrimination-of-romani-women-forcibly-sterilized-in-the-former-czechoslovakia-and-czech-republic
#12
Gwendolyn Albert, Marek Szilvasi
This paper reviews domestic and international activism seeking justice for Romani and other women harmed by coercive, forced, and involuntary sterilization in the former Czechoslovakia and Czech Republic. Framed by Michel Foucault's theory of biopower, it summarizes the history of these abuses and describes human rights campaigns involving domestic and international litigation, advocacy, and grassroots activism, as well as the responses of the Czech governments. The paper describes how legal and policy work during the past decade has led to recognition of coercive, forced, and involuntary sterilization as a present-day human rights issue worldwide, to the adoption of new guidelines on female sterilization, and to a joint statement on the issue by seven UN agencies...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298715/the-potential-of-task-shifting-selected-maternal-interventions-to-auxiliary-midwives-in-myanmar-a-mixed-method-study
#13
Kyu Kyu Than, Khaing Nwe Tin, Thazin La, Kyaw Soe Thant, Theingi Myint, James G Beeson, Stanley Luchters, Alison Morgan
BACKGROUND: An estimated 282 women die for every 100,000 live births in Myanmar, most due to preventable causes. Auxiliary Midwives (AMWs) in Myanmar are responsible for providing a package of care during pregnancy and childbirth to women in rural hard to reach areas where skilled birth attendants (Midwives) are not accessible. This study aims to examine the role of AMWs in Myanmar and to assess the current practices of three proposed essential maternal interventions (oral supplement distribution to pregnant women; administration of misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage; management of puerperal sepsis with oral antibiotics) in order to facilitate a formal integration of these tasks to AMWs in Myanmar...
January 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297771/social-medicine-and-international-expert-networks-in-latin-america-1930-1945
#14
Eric D Carter
This paper examines the international networks that influenced ideas and policy in social medicine in the 1930s and 1940s in Latin America, focusing on institutional networks organised by the League of Nations Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau. After examining the architecture of these networks, this paper traces their influence on social and health policy in two policy domains: social security and nutrition. Closer scrutiny of a series of international conferences and local media accounts of them reveals that international networks were not just 'conveyor belts' for policy ideas from the industrialised countries of the US and Europe into Latin America; rather, there was often contentious debate over the relevance and appropriateness of health and social policy models in the Latin American context...
January 3, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294790/the-gay-panic-defense-legal-defense-strategy-or-reinforcement-of-homophobia-in-court
#15
Jenna Tomei, Robert J Cramer, Marcus T Boccaccini, Nancy Ryba Panza
Gay panic refers to a heterosexual man violently responding to unwanted sexual advances from a gay man. In court, the defendant may argue he was provoked or temporarily insane. This study utilized 352 jury-eligible citizens to assess differences across mediums of gay panic. Participants were asked to read vignettes depicting a control, gay panic as provocation, or gay panic as insanity condition and provide verdicts and ratings of blame and responsibility. Participants also completed measures assessing political orientation and homonegativity...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283643/-let-s-get-in-formation-on-becoming-a-psychologist-activist-in-the-21st-century
#16
Kevin L Nadal
Throughout the history of the United States, there have been many social movements that have resulted in an array of historic societal outcomes-ranging from the end of racial segregation to women's voting rights to the legalization of same-sex marriages. Despite the positive outcomes derived from political activism, many psychologists have struggled with how to advocate for social justice while maintaining their professional responsibilities and ethical boundaries. The current article reviews the historical ways that psychologists have participated in political movements-from the use of psychological research in landmark U...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281603/shedding-light-on-governance-for-roma-health-inequities
#17
Marta Escobar-Ballesta, Manuel García-Ramírez, Daniela Miranda, Roumyana Petrova-Benedict
The health inequities suffered by the Roma population in Europe represent an alarming and unacceptable source of injustice. As the main ethnic minority in Europe, the gap between the health conditions of the Roma and the rest of the population poses a challenge to human rights and public health. Many political efforts have been deployed in Europe to tackle these inequities. However, they have fallen short, even causing paradoxical consequences. In this paper, we argue that previous political efforts have failed because they were developed from a neoliberal perspective, which perceives Roma health inequities as isolated ethnic problems for which there is no political accountability...
January 2018: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276704/path-dependence-and-universal-health-coverage-the-case-of-egypt
#18
REVIEW
Ayman Fouda, Francesco Paolucci
Universal health coverage (UHC) is the big objective in health policy which several countries are seeking to achieve. Egypt is no different and its endeavors to attain UHC have been going on since the 1960s. This article discusses the status of UHC in Egypt using theories of political science and economics by analyzing the historical transformations in the Egyptian health system and its institutional settings. This article then specifically examines the path dependence theory against the sociopolitical background of Egypt and assesses any pattern between the theory and the current UHC status in Egypt...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276678/understanding-bicycling-in-cities-using-system-dynamics-modelling
#19
Alexandra Macmillan, James Woodcock
Background: Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes...
December 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276191/plagued-by-politics-cuba-s-national-sanatorium-project-1936-59
#20
Kelly Urban
In 1936, Fulgencio Batista, the head of the Cuban military (and the de facto ruler of Cuba), founded the National Tuberculosis Council (CNT) to lead a state-directed anti-tuberculosis campaign. While most national and colonial governments neglected tuberculosis until the postwar period, populist politics pushed Batista to prioritize a disease of poverty by the mid-1930s. However, national politics also undermined efforts to control the disease in Cuba. Authoritarianism facilitated Batista's considerable influence over tuberculosis policy, and he and his advisors pursued political objectives rather than following the technical advice offered by professional groups...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
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