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Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Enrique Jurado-Ruiz, Lourdes M Varela, Amparo Luque, Genoveva Berná, Gladys Cahuana, Enrique Martinez-Force, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Bernat Soria, Baukje de Roos, Manuel Romero Gómez, Franz Martín
SCOPE: We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 weeks to develop NAFLD. HFD fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 weeks with: HFD-L; HFD-EVOO; HFD-OL (phenolics-rich EVOO) and R (reversion; standard diet)...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Weijie Chen, Junlian Wang, Yong Luo, Tao Wang, Xiaochun Li, Aiyun Li, Jia Li, Kang Liu, Baolin Liu
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) and compound K (CK) ameliorated insulin resistance by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammation in adipose tissue. METHODS: To induce ER stress, epididymal adipose tissue from mice or differentiated 3T3 adipocytes were exposed to high glucose. The effects of Rb1 and CK on reactive oxygen species production, ER stress, TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inflammation, insulin signaling activation, and glucose uptake were detected by western blot, emzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or fluorometry...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Francesca T Cannizzo, Sara Pegolo, Paola Pregel, Elisabetta Manuali, Sonia Salamida, Sara Divari, Frine E Scaglione, Enrico Bollo, Bartolomeo Biolatti, Luca Bargelloni
In livestock production corticosteroids are licensed only for therapy, nevertheless they are often illegally used as growth promoters. The aim of this study was to identify morphological or biomolecular alterations induced by prednisolone (PDN) in experimentally treated beef cattle, since PDN and its metabolites are no longer detectable by LC-MS/MS methods in biological fluids. Moreover, PDN do not induce any histological alterations in thymus, differently from Dexamethasone treatments. Therefore, a marker of illicit treatment for this growth promoter could be useful...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Bernardo Sousa-Pinto, Laura Gonçalves, Adriana R Rodrigues, Inês Tomada, Henrique Almeida, Delminda Neves, Alexandra M Gouveia
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity, influencing the release of inflammation mediators and promoting remodeling and collagen deposition in the adipose tissue (AT). In this context, this work aims to elucidate whether TGF-β and Smad-dependent or Smad-independent signaling pathways contribute to regional differentiation of AT in high-fat diet (HFD) and energy-restricted (ER) rat models. For this, TGF-β, TGF-β receptors I and II, PAI-1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR, and western blotting assays allowed the semiquantification of TGF-β and proteins from Smad3, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways in subcutaneous and visceral (epididymal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric) fat depots from control, HFD and ER-treated rats...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Neila Marouani, Olfa Tebourbi, Donia Cherif, Dorsaf Hallegue, Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi, Mohsen Sakly, Moncef Benkhalifa, Khemais Ben Rhouma
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used worldwide in agriculture as a selective herbicide. It has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects on the health of both animals and humans from embryotoxicity and teratogenicity to neurotoxicity. In the present study, we have examined the effect of 2,4-D on male reproductive function of rats. Male Wistar rats received daily by force-feeding 100 or 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg body weight for 30 consecutive days. Rats exposed to 100 and 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg showed a significant decrease in body weights only after 24 days of treatment and in relative weights of testis, seminal vesicles and prostate at killing day, when compared with controls...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Subir K Nagdas, Virginia P Winfrey, Gary E Olson
Nevertheless, a nonviable sperm population is present in the cauda epididymidis of many species. Degenerating spermatozoa release enzymes that could have detrimental effects on the viability of neighboring cells, and they are source of autoantigens that induce an autoimmune response if they escape the blood-epididymis barrier. Does the epididymis have specialized protective mechanism(s) to segregate the viable sperm population from defective spermatozoa? Previously, we identified a fibrinogen-like protein-2 (fgl2) that specifically binds to and polymerizes into a cocoon-like complex coating defective spermatozoa and sperm fragments...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Kazuaki Kajimoto, Erina Suemitsu, Yusuke Sato, Yu Sakurai, Hideyoshi Harashima
Lipin1, a bifunctional protein, regulates fatty acid utilization in the triglyceride biosynthesis pathway. In the current study, using a liver-specific in vivo short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system, we examined the pathological and physiological roles of hepatic Lipin1 in the development of insulin resistance and the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis. Liver-specific silencing of Lipin1 expression was achieved by the systemic administration of siRNA against Lpin1 mRNA (siLpin1)-loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to wild type mice at 3-4 d intervals for 25 d...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Patricia Pérez-Matute, José G Pichel, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, Laura Pérez-Martínez, Raquel Torrens, José Ramón Blanco, José Antonio Oteo
BACKGROUND: Any strategy designed to decrease the macrophage content in adipose tissue (AT) is of great value as a way to decrease inflammation in this fat depot and also as a way to prevent or treat obesity and associated disorders. Maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist approved for the treatment of HIV-infected patients, has beneficial effects on metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MVC on AT macrophage recruitment in a mouse model of obesity. The plausible underlying mechanisms of action were also investigated...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Su-Xing Wang, Jin-Gang Wei, Lu-Lu Chen, Xiang Hu, Wen Kong
BACKGROUND: Catch up growth (CUG) motivated by under-nutrition can lead to insulin resistance (IR) and visceral fat over-accumulation. However, the precise mechanisms on IR induced by adipose tissue changes during CUG remain unresolved. METHODS: Experimental rats were divided into three groups: normal chow group, catch up growth group and resveratrol administrated group. The whole experiment was carried out in four stages: 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) expression level in epididymal adipose tissues (EAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) were detected along with other IR indicators...
October 4, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Hiroshi Hongo, Eiji Kikuchi, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Satoshi Yazawa, Kent Kanao, Takeo Kosaka, Ryuichi Mizuno, Akira Miyajima, Shiro Saito, Mototsugu Oya
OBJECTIVES: To identify predictive factors for the severity of epididymitis and to develop an algorithm guiding decisions on how to manage patients with this disease. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 160 epididymitis patients at Keio University Hospital. We classified cases into severe and non-severe groups, and compared clinical findings at the first visit. Based on statistical analyses, we developed an algorithm for predicting severe cases. We validated the algorithm by applying it to an external cohort of 96 patients at Tokyo Medical Center...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
M Marcou, V Perst, C Cacchi, M Lehnhardt, T-A Vögeli
Physicians will be rarely confronted with epididymal tumours. These represent only 5% of intrascrotal tumours and are mostly (75%) benign. We report the case of a 50-year-old white male who was presented with a 5-year history of a slow-growing, left scrotal mass, noted through self-examination. Ultrasound study of the scrotum identified a well-circumscribed paratesticular mass. On inguinal surgical exploration, a solid, encapsulated, grey-white mass at the tail of the left epididymis was identified and excised, with intra-operative pathological consultation showing no signs of malignancy...
October 6, 2016: Andrologia
Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Fernando Narciandi, Cliona O'Farrelly, Alan K Kelly, Sean Fair, Kieran G Meade, Patrick Lonergan
Bovine beta-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression for the cauda epididymis of males, where it is absorbed onto the tail and post acrosomal region of sperm. The aim of this study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm function. Fresh and frozen-thawed semen were incubated in the presence of different capacitating agents, as well as with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These treatments, which have been successful in releasing beta-defensin 126 from macaque sperm, proved to be ineffective in bull sperm...
October 5, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Fernando Narciandi, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Ilaina Khairulzaman, Hanne Jahns, Deirdre King, Emma K Finlay, Ken H Mok, Sean Fair, Pat Lonergan, Cliona O'Farrelly, Kieran G Meade
β-Defensins are innate immune molecules, often described as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) because of their bactericidal activity and are now known to have diverse additional functions including in cell signalling, chemoattraction, immunoregulation and reproduction. In humans and primates, β-defensin (BD) 126 has been shown to regulate the ability of sperm to swim through cervical mucus and to protect sperm from attack by the female immune system during transit towards the oviduct. Bovine β-defensin 126 (BBD126) is the ortholog of human defensin 126, and here, computational analysis revealed significant conservation between BBD126 and other mammalian orthologs at the N-terminus, although extensive sequence differences were detected at the C-terminus, implying possible species-specific roles for this β-defensin in reproduction...
October 5, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Bohkyung Kim, Sang Gil Lee, Young-Ki Park, Chai Siah Ku, Tho X Pham, Casey J Wegner, Yue Yang, Sung I Koo, Ock K Chun, Ji-Young Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Won-Yeong Song, Jeong-Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been reported to have many biological functions including anti-obesity. Leptin, peptide hormone produced by adipocytes and its concentration is increased in proportion to the amount of the adipocytes. In the present study, we examined the effects of Korean turmeric on the regulation of adiposity and leptin levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: Leptin secretion, free fatty acid and glycerol contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were measured after incubation of cells with turmeric for 24 hours...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
C R Villa, J Chen, B Wen, S M Sacco, A Taibi, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is an anti-inflammatory nutrient and a determinant of bone health. Some prospective studies suggest that maternal vitamin D status is positively associated with offspring bone mass. We found that serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory molecule related to adiposity, insulin resistance and bone resorption, is lower in healthy mouse offspring exposed to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. LPS reaches the circulation via the gut...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Olivia Jerczynski, Nicolas Lacroix-Pépin, Eric Boilard, Ezequiel Calvo, Agathe Bernet, Michel A Fortier, Ida Björkgren, Petra Sipilä, Clémence Belleannée
Dicer1 is an endoribonuclease involved in the biogenesis of functional molecules such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs). These small non-coding RNAs are important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression and participate in the control of male fertility. With the knowledge that 1) Dicer1-dependent factors are required for proper sperm maturation in the epididymis, and that 2) miRNAs are potent mediators of intercellular communication in most biological systems, we investigated the role of Dicer1-dependent factors produced by the proximal epididymis (initial segment/caput)- including miRNAs- on the regulation of epididymal gene expression in the distal epididymis regions (i...
2016: PloS One
Lei Ding, Feng Zhang, Ming-Xia Zhao, Xing-Sheng Ren, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) causes adipose afferent reflex (AAR) and sympathetic activation. This study is to investigate the effects of AAR on lipolysis and the mechanisms of attenuated lipolysis response to enhanced AAR in obesity. Obesity was caused by high-fat diet for 12 weeks in rats. AAR was induced by injection of capsaicin into inguinal WAT or electrical stimulation of epididymal WAT afferent nerve. AAR caused sympathetic activation, which was enhanced in obesity rats. AAR increased cAMP levels and PKA activity, promoted hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin phosphorylation, and increased lipolysis in WAT, which were attenuated in obesity rats...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
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