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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779743/neuropsychopharmacological-aesthetics-a-theoretical-consideration-of-pharmacological-approaches-to-causative-brain-study-in-aesthetics-and-art
#1
Blanca Spee, Tomohiro Ishizu, Helmut Leder, Jan Mikuni, Hideaki Kawabata, Matthew Pelowski
Recent developments in neuroaesthetics have heightened the need for causative approaches to more deeply understand the mechanism underlying perception, emotion, and aesthetic experiences. This has recently been the topic for empirical work, employing several causative methods for changing brain activity, as well as comparative assessments of individuals with brain damage or disease. However, one area of study with high potential, and indeed a long history of often nonscientific use in the area of aesthetics and art, employing psychopharmacological chemicals as means of changing brain function, has not been systematically utilized...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759932/examining-the-link-between-placental-pathology-growth-restriction-and-stillbirth
#2
REVIEW
Robert M Silver
Stillbirth, often defined as death of a fetus ≥20 weeks of gestation, is emotionally devastating for families and caregivers. It is often associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Indeed, FGR or small-for-gestational age fetus (SGA) is a major risk factor for stillbirth. In rare cases, this is due to genetic abnormalities or infections. However, in most cases, it is linked to placental insufficiency. This may be due to abnormal placental development or placental damage, thereby resulting in decreased blood flow, oxygen, and nutrients to the fetus...
March 26, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752492/novel-antidepressant-effects-of-paeonol-alleviate-neuronal-injury-with-concomitant-alterations-in-bdnf-rac1-and-rhoa-levels-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-rats
#4
Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jing-Jing Chen, Fei Han, Chuan Pan, Ting-Ting Zhuang, Ya-Fei Cai, Ya-Ping Lu
RATIONALE: Increasing evidence has suggested that major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, dendrites atrophy, and loss of dendritic spines, especially in emotion-associated brain regions including the hippocampus. Paeonol is a kind of polyphenols natural product with a variety of therapeutic effects. Recent studies have reported its antidepressant effects. However, it is unclear what signaling pathways contribute to improve MDD...
May 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742940/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-anxiety-disorder-cause-or-consequence
#5
Alessandra das Graças Fedoce, Frederico Ferreira, Robert G Bota, Vicent Bonet-Costa, Patrick Y Sun, Kelvin J A Davies
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the USA affecting 18% of the population. The cause(s) of anxiety disorders is/are not completely clear, and research in the neurobiology of anxiety at the molecular level is still rather limited. Although mounting clinical and preclinical evidence now indicates that oxidative stress may be a major component of anxiety pathology, whether oxidative stress is the cause or consequence remains elusive. Studies conducted over the past few years suggest that anxiety disorders may be characterized by lowered antioxidant defenses and increased oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids...
May 9, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742753/blood-pressure-emotional-dampening-and-risk-behavior-implications-for-hypertension-development
#6
James A McCubbin, Aaron Nathan, Melissa A Hibdon, Anastasia M Castillo, Jack G Graham, Fred S Switzer
OBJECTIVE: Elevated resting blood pressure (BP) is associated with risk for hypertension and emotional dampening, including reduced responses to emotionally meaningful stimuli. Perception of threat is a critical motivator in avoidance of risky health-damaging behavior. We hypothesize that BP-associated dampening of threat appraisal may increase risk-taking behavior. METHODS: We measured resting BP, perception of affect, and risk behavior in 92 healthy, women (n=49) and men (n=43) recruited from university students and staff, and members of the surrounding community...
May 7, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738554/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-can-cause-acute-neurologic-impairment-without-overt-structural-damage-in-juvenile-rats
#7
Alicia Meconi, Ryan C Wortman, David K Wright, Katie J Neale, Melissa Clarkson, Sandy R Shultz, Brian R Christie
Repeated concussion is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious public health concern around the world. Moreover, there is a greater awareness amongst health professionals of the potential for repeated pediatric concussions to detrimentally alter the structure and function of the developing brain. To better study this issue, we developed an awake closed head injury (ACHI) model that enabled repeated concussions to be performed reliably and reproducibly in juvenile rats. A neurological assessment protocol (NAP) score was generated immediately after each ACHI to help quantify the cumulative effects of repeated injury on level of consciousness, and basic motor and reflexive capacity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737432/assessment-of-sudomotor-function
#8
REVIEW
Sylvia J Buchmann, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Marie Luise Kubasch, Ben Min-Woo Illigens, Timo Siepmann
PURPOSE: To review the currently available literature on clinical autonomic tests of sudomotor function. METHODS: We searched PubMED/MEDLINE for articles on technical principles and clinical applications of sudomotor tests with a focus on their drawbacks and perspectives in order to provide a narrative review. RESULTS: The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex sweat test (QSART) is the most widely used test of sudomotor function. The technique captures pathology with low intra- and inter-subject variability but is limited by technical demands...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734102/low-doses-of-methylmercury-intoxication-solely-or-associated-to-ethanol-binge-drinking-induce-psychiatric-like-disorders-in-adolescent-female-rats
#9
Ivaldo Jesus Almeida Belém-Filho, Paula Cardoso Ribera, Aline Lima Nascimento, Antônio Rafael Quadros Gomes, Rafael Rodrigues Lima, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Marta Chagas Monteiro, Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior, Marcelo Oliveira Lima, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that provokes damage to developing brain. Simultaneously, the consumption of ethanol among adolescents has increased. Evidence concerning the effects of MeHg low doses per se or associated with ethanol during adolescence are scarce. Thus, we investigate behavioral disorders resulted from exposure to MeHg low doses and co-intoxicated with ethanol in adolescent rats. Wistar rats received chronic exposure to low doses of MeHg (40 μg/kg/day for 5 weeks) and/or ethanol binge drinking (3 g/kg/day at 3 days per week for 5 weeks)...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729530/effects-of-multiple-viewings-of-an-ultraviolet-photo-on-sun-protection-behaviors
#10
H I M Mahler
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether multiple viewings of one's ultraviolet (UV) facial photo differentially affects subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to a single viewing. STUDY DESIGN: Pretest-posttest control group. METHODS: Southern California college students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to be shown their UV facial photo one time, multiple times over the course of 2 weeks, or not at all. Emotional reactions, perceived susceptibility to skin damage, and sun protection intentions were assessed immediately, and sun protection behaviors were assessed during a surprise telephonic follow-up 1 month later...
May 2, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726979/predictors-of-persistent-sleep-problems-among-older-disaster-survivors-a-natural-experiment-from-the-2011-great-east-japan-earthquake-and-tsunami
#11
Xiaoyu Li, Orfeu M Buxton, Hiroyuki Hikichi, Sebastien Haneuse, Jun Aida, Katsunori Kondo, Ichiro Kawachi
Study Objectives: To examine prospectively the associations of disaster experiences and social support with sleep problems in older adults. Methods: Data came from a natural experiment caused by the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Participants in an ongoing prospective cohort (3,547 Japanese individuals aged 65 years or older) were inadvertently exposed to the disaster due to their residential location (Iwanuma city) after the 2010 baseline survey...
May 3, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723680/selective-impairments-in-components-of-affective-prosody-in-neurologically-impaired-individuals
#12
Amy Wright, Sadhvi Saxena, Shannon M Sheppard, Argye E Hillis
The intent and feelings of the speaker are often conveyed less by what they say than by how they say it, in terms of the affective prosody - modulations in pitch, loudness, rate, and rhythm of the speech to convey emotion. Here we propose a cognitive architecture of the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes underlying recognition and generation of affective prosody. We developed the architecture on the basis of the computational demands of the task, and obtained evidence for various components by identifying neurologically impaired patients with relatively specific deficits in one component...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720107/the-experience-of-women-with-an-eating-disorder-in-the-perinatal-period-a-meta-ethnographic-study
#13
Sarah Fogarty, Rakime Elmir, Phillipa Hay, Virginia Schmied
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a time of enormous body transformation. For those with an eating disorder during pregnancy this time of transformation can be distressing and damaging to both the mother and the child. In this meta-ethnographic study, we aimed to examine the experiences of women with an Eating Disorder in the perinatal period; that is during pregnancy and two years following birth. METHOD: A meta-ethnographic framework was used in this review. After a systematic online search of the literature using the keywords such as pregnancy, eating disorders, anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder, perinatal, postnatal and post-partum, 11 papers, involving 94 women, were included in the review...
May 2, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719360/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-induced-by-large-doses-of-nitrous-oxide-inhalation-a-case-report
#14
Tianzhen Chen, Na Zhong, Haifeng Jiang, Min Zhao, Zhikang Chen, Haiming Sun
Nitrous Oxide, which is also called laughing gas, now ranks as the 7th most popular drug in the world. Nitrous oxide mainly disturbs B12 metabolism and damages nerves, followed by apparent neuropsychiatric symptoms. It's beneficial to the prognosis of patients if we identify and treat their symptoms early. This case report describes a 19-year-old male who presented with auditory hallucination, persecutory delusions and unstable emotions after abuse of nitrous oxide over the course of half a year. Moreover, neurological signs such as weakness and hyperesthesia also appeared...
February 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703097/the-sex-life-of-women-surviving-breast-cancer
#15
Anna Ghizzani, Simone Bruni, Stefano Luisi
The diagnosis of breast cancer elicits diverse emotional responses in patients and partners. Surviving cancer has raised new needs and caretakers must understand the medical and psychological latent effects of oncology therapy. Improving patients' well-being is crucial as 19 million survivors are expected in the next decade in the United States alone. In general, sexuality contributes to one's well-being but when it is disrupted by the occurrence of cancer, women withdraw emotionally, no longer feel desirable due to esthetic damage, and become overwhelmed by the thought of sex...
April 27, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702410/scared-or-scarred-could-dissociogenic-lesions-predispose-to-nonepileptic-seizures-after-head-trauma
#16
REVIEW
Stoyan Popkirov, Alan J Carson, Jon Stone
A history of head injury is common in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). This association has so far been interpreted as either spurious or psychologically mediated. Biased recall and misattribution could foster illness beliefs about brain damage that promote symptom production. Furthermore, the emotional impact of head injury could induce long-term changes in stress responsivity. Lastly, maladaptive cognitive-behavioural processes involving symptom modelling and aversive conditioning, known to play a role in functional neurological disorders, could contribute to the development of PNES after head trauma...
April 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698734/metacognition-of-visuomotor-decisions-in-conversion-disorder
#17
Indrit Sinanaj, Rebekah Blakemore, Julian Klug, Yann Cojan, Silvio Galli, Alexandre Berney, Selma Aybek, Patrik Vuilleumier
Motor conversion disorder (CD) entails genuine disturbances in the subjective experience of patients who maintain they are unable to perform a motor function, despite lack of apparent neurological damage. Abilities by which individuals assess their own capacities during performance in a task are called metacognitive, and distinctive impairment of such abilities is observed in several disorders of self-awareness such as blindsight and anosognosia. In CD, previous research has focused on the recruitment of motor and emotional brain systems, generally linking symptoms to altered limbic-motor interactions; however, metacognitive function has not been studied to our knowledge...
April 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681885/right-hemisphere-regions-critical-for-expression-of-emotion-through-prosody
#18
Sona Patel, Kenichi Oishi, Amy Wright, Harry Sutherland-Foggio, Sadhvi Saxena, Shannon M Sheppard, Argye E Hillis
Impaired expression of emotion through pitch, loudness, rate, and rhythm of speech (affective prosody) is common and disabling after right hemisphere (RH) stroke. These deficits impede all social interactions. Previous studies have identified cortical areas associated with impairments of expression, recognition, or repetition of affective prosody, but have not identified critical white matter tracts. We hypothesized that: (1) differences across patients in specific acoustic features correlate with listener judgment of affective prosody and (2) these differences are associated with infarcts of specific RH gray and white matter regions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676484/structural-and-metabolic-brain-correlates-of-apathy-in-huntington-s-disease
#19
Saul Martínez-Horta, Jesús Perez-Perez, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Andrea Horta-Barba, Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Beatriz Gomez-Anson, Gloria Andrea Lozano-Martinez, Diego Alfonso Lopez-Mora, Valle Camacho, Alejandro Fernández-León, Ignasi Carrió, Jaime Kulisevsky
BACKGROUND: Apathy is the most prevalent and characteristic neuropsychiatric feature of Huntington's disease. Congruent with the main early pathological changes, apathy is primarily associated with subcortical damage in frontal-striatal circuits. However, little is known about its precise subserving mechanisms and the contribution of regions other than the basal ganglia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to define the neural correlates of apathy in Huntington's disease based on gray matter volume and PET/CT of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism...
April 20, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673084/impairment-in-judgement-of-the-moral-emotion-guilt-following-orbitofrontal-cortex-damage
#20
Michitaka Funayama, Akihiro Koreki, Taro Muramatsu, Masaru Mimura, Motoichiro Kato, Takayuki Abe
Although neuroimaging studies have provided evidence for an association between moral emotions and the orbitofrontal cortex, studies on patients with focal lesions using experimental probes of moral emotions are scarce. Here, we addressed this topic by presenting a moral emotion judgement task to patients with focal brain damage. Four judgement tasks in a simple pairwise choice paradigm were given to 72 patients with cerebrovascular disease. These tasks consisted of a perceptual line judgement task as a control task; the objects' preference task as a basic preference judgement task; and two types of moral emotion judgement task, an anger task and a guilt task...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
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