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Emotional Damages

Boldizsár Czéh, Szilvia A Nagy
Depressive disorders are complex, multifactorial mental disorders with unknown neurobiology. Numerous theories aim to explain the pathophysiology. According to the "gliocentric theory", glial abnormalities are responsible for the development of the disease. The aim of this review article is to summarize the rapidly growing number of cellular and molecular evidences indicating disturbed glial functioning in depressive disorders. We focus here exclusively on the clinical studies and present the in vivo neuroimaging findings together with the postmortem molecular and histopathological data...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Igor Elman, David Borsook
Pain is essential for avoidance of tissue damage and for promotion of healing. Notwithstanding the survival value, pain brings about emotional suffering reflected in fear and anxiety, which in turn augment pain thus giving rise to a self-sustaining feedforward loop. Given such reciprocal relationships, the present article uses neuroscientific conceptualizations of fear and anxiety as a theoretical framework for hitherto insufficiently understood pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain. To that end, searches of PubMed-indexed journals were performed using the following Medical Subject Headings' terms: pain and nociception plus amygdala, anxiety, cognitive, fear, sensory, and unconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Karolina Tecza, Jolanta Pamula-Pilat, Joanna Lanuszewska, Dorota Butkiewicz, Ewa Grzybowska
The differences in patients' response to the same medication, toxicity included, are one of the major problems in breast cancer treatment. Chemotherapy toxicity makes a significant clinical problem due to decreased quality of life, prolongation of treatment and reinforcement of negative emotions associated with therapy. In this study we evaluated the genetic and clinical risk factors of FAC chemotherapy-related toxicities in the group of 324 breast cancer patients. Selected genes and their polymorphisms were involved in FAC drugs transport ( ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2,SLC22A16 ), metabolism ( ALDH3A1, CBR1, CYP1B1, CYP2C19, DPYD, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, MTHFR,TYMS ), DNA damage recognition, repair and cell cycle control ( ATM, ERCC1, ERCC2, TP53, XRCC1 )...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Rina Ando, Hirotaka Iwaki, Tomoaki Tsujii, Masahiro Nagai, Noriko Nishikawa, Hayato Yabe, Ikuko Aiba, Kazuko Hasegawa, Yoshio Tsuboi, Masashi Aoki, Kenji Nakashima, Masahiro Nomoto
Objective We conducted a study to obtain information that could be used to provide Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with appropriate advice on safe driving. Methods Consecutive PD patients who visited our office were studied. Among these patients, those who had experienced driving after being diagnosed with PD were interviewed by neurologists and a trained nurse to investigate their previous car accidents, motor function, cognitive function, sleepiness, levodopa equivalent dose (LED), and emotional dysregulation...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Wei Zhu, Yufeng Gao, Jieru Wan, Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Shanshan Zhu, Weidong Zang, Xuemei Chen, Wendy Ziai, Daniel F Hanley, Scott J Russo, Ricardo E Jorge, Jian Wang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a detrimental type of stroke. Mouse models of ICH, induced by collagenase or blood infusion, commonly target striatum, but not other brain sites such as ventricular system, cortex, and hippocampus. Few studies have systemically investigated brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits that develop in animal models of ICH in these areas of the right hemisphere. Therefore, we evaluated the brain damage and neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with right hemispheric ICH in ventricle, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Camilla S Hanson, Johanna Newsom, Davinder Singh-Grewal, Nicholas Henschke, Margaret Patterson, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND: Congenital lymphoedema is a lifelong condition that has detrimental physical and psychosocial outcomes for young patients and burdensome treatment responsibilities that may hamper patients' motivation for self-management. There is limited research from the perspective of young people with primary lymphoedema. We aimed to describe the experiences and views of children and adolescents with lymphoedema to inform patient-centred practice. METHODS: Twenty patients (aged 8-21 years) with primary lymphoedema were purposively sampled from two paediatric clinics in Sydney, Australia, to participate in a semistructured interview...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Osamah S Malallah, Cristina M Aller Garcia, Gordon B Proctor, Ben Forbes, Paul G Royall
Radiotherapy is a life-saving treatment for head and neck cancers, but almost 100% of patients develop dry mouth (xerostomia) because of radiation-induced damage to their salivary glands. Patients with xerostomia suffer symptoms that severely affect their health as well as physical, social and emotional aspects of their life. The current management of xerostomia is the application of saliva substitutes or systemic delivery of saliva-stimulating cholinergic agents, including pilocarpine, cevimeline or bethanechol tablets...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Shanthini Kasturi, Jackie Szymonifka, Jayme C Burket, Jessica R Berman, Kyriakos A Kirou, Alana B Levine, Lisa R Sammaritano, Lisa A Mandl
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, validity, and reliability of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health Short Form (PROMIS10) in outpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: SLE outpatients completed PROMIS10, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), LupusQoL-US, and selected PROMIS computerized adaptive tests (CAT) at routine visits at an SLE Center of Excellence. Construct validity was evaluated by correlating PROMIS10 physical and mental health scores with PROMIS CAT, legacy instruments, and physician-derived measures of disease activity and damage...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Azhu Han, Gengfu Wang, Geng Xu, Puyu Su
BACKGROUND: Self-harm (SH) is an emerging problem among Chinese adolescents. The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of SH behaviours and to explore the relationship between childhood adversity and different SH subtypes among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 5726 middle school students were randomly selected in three cities of Anhui province, China, using a stratified cluster sampling method. SH was categorized into five subtypes (highly lethal self-harm, less lethal self-harm with visible tissue damage, self-harm without visible tissue damage, self-harmful behaviours with latency damage and psychological self-harm)...
February 1, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Salvatore Mangione, Chayan Chakraborti, Giuseppe Staltari, Rebecca Harrison, Allan R Tunkel, Kevin T Liou, Elizabeth Cerceo, Megan Voeller, Wendy L Bedwell, Keaton Fletcher, Marc J Kahn
BACKGROUND: Literature, music, theater, and visual arts play an uncertain and limited role in medical education. One of the arguments often advanced in favor of teaching the humanities refers to their capacity to foster traits that not only improve practice, but might also reduce physician burnout-an increasing scourge in today's medicine. Yet, research remains limited. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that medical students with higher exposure to the humanities would report higher levels of positive physician qualities (e...
January 29, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Prashanth Prabhu, Pratyasha Jamuar
Introduction  Vestibular symptoms and damage to the vestibular branch of the eighth cranial nerve is reported in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). However, the real life handicap caused by these vestibular problems in individuals with ANSD is not studied. Objective  The present study attempted to evaluate the dizziness-related handicap in adolescents and adults with ANSD. Method  The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) was administered to 40 adolescents and adults diagnosed with ANSD...
January 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Hannah Hobson, Jeremy Hogeveen, Rebecca Brewer, Caroline Catmur, Barry Gordon, Frank Krueger, Aileen Chau, Geoffrey Bird, Jordan Grafman
The clinical relevance of alexithymia, a condition associated with difficulties identifying and describing one's own emotion, is becoming ever more apparent. Increased rates of alexithymia are observed in multiple psychiatric conditions, and also in neurological conditions resulting from both organic and traumatic brain injury. The presence of alexithymia in these conditions predicts poorer regulation of one's emotions, decreased treatment response, and increased burden on carers. While clinically important, the aetiology of alexithymia is still a matter of debate, with several authors arguing for multiple 'routes' to impaired understanding of one's own emotions, which may or may not result in distinct subtypes of alexithymia...
January 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Alberto Stefana, Ezio Maria Padovani, Paolo Biban, Manuela Lavelli
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate fathers' emotional experiences of their infant's preterm birth and subsequent stay in neonatal intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: When a baby is born preterm, there is also the premature interruption of the process of preparation for fatherhood. As a result, the impact on fathers of the preterm birth can bring negative consequences for the development of father-infant relationship. DESIGN: A multi-method approach was used which included ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews with fathers, a self-report questionnaire and clinical information between September 2015-March 2017...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J S M Krumeich, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Slum dwellers display specific traits when it comes to disclosing their illnesses to professionals. The resulting actions lead to poor health-seeking behaviour and underutilisation of existing formal health facilities. The ways that slum people use to communicate their feelings about illness, the type of confidants that they choose, and the supportive and unsupportive social and cultural interactions to which they are exposed have not yet been studied in the Indian context, which constitutes an important knowledge gap for Indian policymakers and practitioners alike...
January 16, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
María L Yazde Puleio, Karina V Gómez, Ana Majdalani, Vilma Pigliapoco, Gisella Santos Chocler
Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Depending on its pathophysiological mechanism, it may be classified into nociceptive, neuropathic, and mixed pain. If pain is moderate to severe, a strong opioid should be administered and, when this is the case, morphine is the drug of choice. If morphine is ineffective or causes intolerable adverse effects, opioid rotation is recommended. Our objective was to describe the drug management for mixed pain used in patients assisted by the Palliative Care team of Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde between August 2011 and September 2015...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Anita Franklin, Patricia Lund, Caroline Bradbury-Jones, Julie Taylor
BACKGROUND: Albinism is an inherited condition with a relatively high prevalence in populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. People with oculocutaneous albinism have little or no pigment in their hair, skin and eyes; thus they are visually impaired and extremely sensitive to the damaging effect of the sun on their skin. Aside from the health implications of oculocutaneous albinism, there are also significant sociocultural risks. The impacts of albinism are particularly serious in areas that associate albinism with legend and folklore, leading to stigmatisation and discrimination...
January 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Kerstin Spanhel, Kathrin Wagner, Maximilian J Geiger, Isabell Ofer, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Birgitta Metternich
Flashbulb memories (FM) are a subgroup of autobiographical memories referring to the circumstances in which a person first heard of a surprising, emotionally arousing event. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been reported to be impaired in FM recall. As emotional arousal is central to FM, various authors have suggested a crucial role of the amygdala. However, to date, no studies have directly addressed this hypothesis. In this study, 33 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were tested on an FM task twice with a minimum interval of two months...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Hadass Goldblatt, Anat Freund, Anat Drach-Zahavy, Guy Enosh, Ilana Peterfreund, Neomi Edlis
Research into violence against health care staff by patients and their families within the health care services shows a rising frequency of incidents. The potentially damaging effects on health care staff are extensive, including diverse negative psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine how hospital workers from different professions reacted to patients' and visitors' violence against them or their colleagues, and how they regulated their emotional reactions during those incidents...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Isabell Binter, Christian Herold, Sixtus Allert
INTRODUCTION: Functioning communication is one of the basic elements of a trusting doctor-patient relationship. Good medical communication is more important than ever in times of increasing personnel and time constraints. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent medical communication has an influence on the initiation of arbitration procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was based on arbitration cases of plastic surgery, which were processed and completed by the Arbitration Board for Medical Liability Issues of North Germany between 2005 and 2015...
December 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Alfred M Maluach, Keith A Misquitta, Thomas D Prevot, Corey Fee, Etienne Sibille, Mounira Banasr, Ana C Andreazza
Background: Chronic stress is implicated in the development of various psychiatric illnesses including major depressive disorder. Previous reports suggest that patients with major depressive disorder have increased levels of oxidative stress, including higher levels of DNA/RNA oxidation found in postmortem studies, especially within brain regions responsible for the cognitive and emotional processes disrupted in the disorder. Here, we aimed to investigate whether unpredictable chronic mild stress in mice induces neuronal DNA/RNA oxidation in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and cingulate cortices of the frontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala and to explore potential associations with depressive-like behaviors...
January 2017: Chronic Stress
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