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Emotional Damages

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903725/hippocampal-damage-increases-deontological-responses-during-moral-decision-making
#1
Cornelia McCormick, Clive R Rosenthal, Thomas D Miller, Eleanor A Maguire
: Complex moral decision making is associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in humans, and damage to this region significantly increases the frequency of utilitarian judgments. Since the vmPFC has strong anatomical and functional links with the hippocampus, here we asked how patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage would derive moral decisions on a classic moral dilemmas paradigm. We found that the patients approved of the utilitarian options significantly less often than control participants, favoring instead deontological responses-rejecting actions that harm even one person...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898511/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-cancer-related-cognitive-dysfunction
#2
Shelly Kucherer, Robert J Ferguson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide the reader with an overview of the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) and how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can play an important role in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings show that Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT), a CBT developed to help cancer survivors develop adaptive skills to improve daily cognitive performance and emotional coping, may be an efficacious treatment of CRCD and can be delivered through videoconference technology to improve survivor access to care...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889469/changes-in-neural-circuitry-associated-with-depression-at-pre-clinical-pre-motor-and-early-motor-phases-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Janina Borgonovo, Camilo Allende-Castro, Almudena Laliena, Néstor Guerrero, Hernán Silva, Miguel L Concha
Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed...
November 21, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888771/increased-anxiety-like-behaviors-but-blunted-cortisol-stress-response-after-neonatal-hippocampal-lesions-in-monkeys
#4
Jessica Raper, Mark Wilson, Mar Sanchez, Christa Payne, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The hippocampus is most notably known for its role in cognition and spatial memory; however it also plays an essential role in emotional behaviors and neuroendocrine responses. The current study investigated the long-term effects of neonatal hippocampal lesions (Neo-Hibo) on emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. During infancy, unlike controls, Neo-Hibo monkeys exhibited enhanced expression of emotional behaviors (e.g. freezing, anxiety-like, and self-directed behaviors) when exposed to a human intruder (HI task)...
November 18, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878209/preclinical-models-of-overwhelming-sepsis-implicate-the-neural-system-that-encodes-contextual-fear-memory
#5
Patricio T Huerta, Sergio Robbiati, Tomás Salvador Huerta, Anchal Sabharwal, Rose A Berlin, Maya Frankfurt, Bruce T Volpe
Long-term sepsis survivors sustain cryptic brain injury that leads to cognitive impairment, emotional imbalance, and increased disability burden. Suitable animal models of sepsis, such as cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), have permitted the analysis of abnormal brain circuits that underlie post-septic behavioral phenotypes. For instance, we have previously shown that CLP-exposed mice exhibit impaired spatial memory together with depleted dendritic arbors and decreased spines in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870900/to-fear-is-to-gain-the-role-of-fear-recognition-in-risky-decision-making-in-tbi-patients-and-healthy-controls
#6
Annemarie C Visser-Keizer, Herma J Westerhof-Evers, Marleen J J Gerritsen, Joukje van der Naalt, Jacoba M Spikman
Fear is an important emotional reaction that guides decision making in situations of ambiguity or uncertainty. Both recognition of facial expressions of fear and decision making ability can be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI), in particular when the frontal lobe is damaged. So far, it has not been investigated how recognition of fear influences risk behavior in healthy subjects and TBI patients. The ability to recognize fear is thought to be related to the ability to experience fear and to use it as a warning signal to guide decision making...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862615/the-reciprocal-relationship-between-bipolar-disorder-and-social-interaction-a-qualitative-investigation
#7
Rebecca Owen, Patricia Gooding, Robert Dempsey, Steven Jones
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that social support can influence relapse rates, functioning and various clinical outcomes in people with bipolar disorder. Yet 'social support' is a poorly defined construct, and the mechanisms by which it affects illness course in bipolar disorder remain largely unknown. Key aims of this study were to ascertain which facets of social interaction affect mood management in bipolar disorder, and how symptoms of bipolar disorder can influence the level of support received...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852020/-emotional-and-motivational-functions-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Masataka Watanabe
Patients with the damage to the orbital region of the prefrontal cortex and monkeys with lesions in this area show impairment in emotional and motivational behavior. They also have difficulty in the extinction of learned behavior and in the reversal learning. This brain area is concerned with not only the value estimation of reward and aversive stimuli but also the expectation of these stimuli. The lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the integration of emotion/motivation and cognition. The medial prefrontal cortex is concerned with action selection based on the previous reward history...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833549/impaired-white-matter-connections-of-the-limbic-system-networks-associated-with-impaired-emotional-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829082/influence-of-hearing-risk-information-on-the-motivation-and-modification-of-personal-listening-device-use
#10
Yula C Serpanos, Abbey L Berg, Brittany Renne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the behaviors, knowledge, and motivators associated with personal listening device (PLD) use and (b) to determine the influence of different types of hearing health risk education information (text with or without visual images) on motivation to modify PLD listening use behaviors in young adults. Method: College-age students (N = 523) completed a paper-and-pencil survey tapping their behaviors, knowledge, and motivation regarding listening to music or media at high volume using PLDs...
November 8, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826265/estimating-the-epidemiology-and-quantifying-the-damages-of-parental-separation-in-children-and-adolescents
#11
Dolores Seijo, Francisca Fariña, Tania Corras, Mercedes Novo, Ramon Arce
Parental separation is linked to multiple negative outcomes for children in all spheres of life. A field study was designed to estimate the epidemiology and to quantify the outcomes on the wellbeing of children from separated parents. Thus, data on socio-economic status, psychological adjustment, behavioral disorders, social relations, self-concept, and academic achievement were gathered from 346 children and adolescents, 173 separated parents, and 173 parents from intact families in the paediatric catchment area of Galicia (Spain)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808535/combating-the-sting-of-rejection-with-the-pleasure-of-revenge-a-new-look-at-how-emotion-shapes-aggression
#12
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall
How does emotion explain the relationship between social rejection and aggression? Rejection reliably damages mood, leaving individuals motivated to repair their negatively valenced affective state. Retaliatory aggression is often a pleasant experience. Rejected individuals may then harness revenge's associated positive affect to repair their mood. Across 6 studies (total N = 1,516), we tested the prediction that the rejection-aggression link is motivated by expected and actual mood repair. Further, we predicted that this mood repair would occur through the positive affect of retaliatory aggression...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797230/comparative-analysis-of-the-perception-of-family-functioning-by-heads-of-families-with-and-without-cancer-members-during-illness
#13
Mohamad Hasan Sahebihagh, Leila Amani, Saleh Salimi, Aram Feizi, Hamid Reza Khalkhali, Shirin Barzanjeh Atri
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major health problem due to the aging population with increasing deaths. Family functioning is affected by cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to comparative analysis of the perception of family functioning by heads of families with and without cancer members during illness, focusing on changes or probable changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This comparative study was conducted on two groups (families with a member of the cancer and controls without a family member with cancer)...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783746/violence-in-the-workplace-in-nursing-consequences-overview
#14
Maiara Bordignon, Maria Inês Monteiro
Objective: to reflect on the consequences of workplace violence experienced by nursing professionals. Methods: this is a reflection paper based on recent publications related to the subject, particularly researches carried out in Brazil and in other countries. Results: exposure to workplace violence has been associated with health problems in nursing professionals, which may be physical damage, emotional manifestations, and psychic disorders...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758900/diagnosed-and-living-with-fibromuscular-dysplasia-a-qualitative-inquiry
#15
Sherry M Bumpus, Christa Kuck, Steven T Heidt, Minnie Bluhm
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a vascular disorder about which little has been known until recently. Patients with FMD may suffer from hypertension, aneurysms, or strokes, as well as symptoms associated with local artery damage. As a result of advances in vascular medicine and growing outcomes registries, we now have a better understanding of the FMD disease process and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the consequences of FMD on patients' day-to-day experiences and mental health status are not well understood...
December 2016: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754930/oxidative-stress-and-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Samina Salim
Biochemical integrity of the brain is vital for normal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). One of the contributing factors of cerebral biochemical impairment is a chemical process called oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs upon excessive free radical production due to insufficiency of counteracting antioxidant response system. The brain with its high oxygen consumption and lipid-rich content is highly susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore, oxidative stress-induced damage to the brain has a strong potential to negatively impact normal CNS functions...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753430/light-activated-antimicrobial-agents-can-inactivate-oral-malodour-causing-bacteria
#17
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747246/depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-without-major-neuropsychiatric-manifestations
#18
Ru Bai, Shuang Liu, Yueyin Zhao, Yuqi Cheng, Shu Li, Aiyun Lai, Zhongqi Xie, Xinyu Xu, Zhaoping Lu, Jian Xu
Depressive and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We conducted this survey to understand the prevalence of depression and anxiety in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestations (non-NPSLE) and to explore the relationship between emotional disorders, symptoms, autoantibodies, disease activity, and treatments in SLE. 176 SLE patients were included, and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were recorded to evaluate their disease activity and emotional status...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743373/depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-are-associated-to-disruption-of-default-mode-network-in-subacute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Marina Weiler, Sara Regina Meira Almeida, Brunno Machado de Campos, Lenise Valler, Li Min Li
Depression and anxiety symptoms are common after stroke and associated to reduction in quality of life and poor physical and social outcomes. The Default Mode Network (DMN) plays an important role in the emotional processing. We investigated whether these symptoms are associated to a disruption of DMN functional connectivity in the first month after stroke. Thirty-four subacute ischemic stroke patients were submitted to: 1) behavioral assessment through Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; 2) neuropsychological assessment using Mini Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; 3) resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition using a 3 T scanner (Philips Achieva)...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739379/challenges-faced-and-support-received-older-adults-perceptions-of-hurricane-sandy
#20
Allison R Heid, Seran Schug, Francine P Cartwright, Rachel Pruchno
OBJECTIVE: Individuals exposed to natural disasters are at risk for negative physical and psychological outcomes. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable; however, social support can act as a resource to help individuals respond to severe stressors. This study explored the challenges older people faced before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and the people they turned to for support. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older adults in New Jersey drawn from the ORANJ BOWL (Ongoing Research on Aging in New Jersey - Bettering Opportunities for Wellness in Life) research panel, who experienced high levels of primary home damage during Hurricane Sandy...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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