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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822262/evaluating-the-influence-of-at-risk-alcohol-use-on-factors-associated-with-smoking-cessation-combining-laboratory-and-ecological-momentary-assessment
#1
Joanna R Sells, Andrew J Waters, R Ross MacLean
OBJECTIVE: Most smokers want to quit but most cessation attempts end in failure. Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking behavior and relapse. We examined the associations between severity of drinking and psychological processes during a cessation attempt in the laboratory and during a quit attempt. METHODS: Smokers (N=209) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were followed from 2 weeks pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit. Participants scoring 0-7 and 8-15 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were classified as low-risk and high-risk drinkers, respectively...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821681/when-brain-beats-behavior-neuroforecasting-crowdfunding-outcomes
#2
Alexander Genevsky, Carolyn Yoon, Brian Knutson
Although traditional economic and psychological theories imply that individual choice best scales to aggregate choice, primary components of choice reflected in neural activity may support even more generalizable forecasts. Crowdfunding represents a significant and growing platform for funding new and unique projects, causes, and products. To test whether neural activity could forecast market-level crowdfunding outcomes weeks later, 30 human subjects (14 female) decided whether to fund proposed projects described on an internet crowdfunding website while undergoing scanning with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821553/epidemiology-of-discordance-between-symptoms-and-signs-of-dry-eye
#3
Erin S Ong, Elizabeth R Felix, Roy C Levitt, William J Feuer, Constantine D Sarantopoulos, Anat Galor
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The frequent lack of association between dry eye (DE) symptoms and signs leads to challenges in diagnosing and assessing the disease. METHODS: Participants underwent ocular surface examinations to evaluate signs of disease and completed questionnaires to assess ocular symptoms, psychological status and medication use. To assess nociceptive system integrity, quantitative sensory testing (QST), including vibratory and thermal threshold measures and temporal summation of pain were obtained at the forearm and forehead...
August 18, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821498/impact-of-child-death-on-paediatric-trainees
#4
Clare E Hollingsworth, Carla Wesley, Jaymie Huckridge, Gabrielle M Finn, Michael J Griksaitis
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of symptoms of acute stress reactions (ASR) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in paediatric trainees following their involvement in child death. DESIGN: A survey designed to identify trainees' previous experiences of child death combined with questions to identify features of PTSD. Quantitative interpretation was used alongside a χ(2) test. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant. SETTING: 604 surveys were distributed across 13 UK health education deaneries...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821473/feasibility-of-a-facebook-intervention-for-exercise-motivation-and-cardiac-rehabilitation-adherence-study-protocol
#5
Lee Anne Siegmund, Haitham M Ahmed, Michael Todd Crawford, James Frank Bena
BACKGROUND: While cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to be effective at improving coronary heart disease (CHD), participation is generally poor. Attempts to increase uptake and adherence often fail. Use of a Facebook intervention for this population may be a unique opportunity to support self-determined motivation and affect adherence. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a Facebook intervention on motivation for exercise and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation in patients with CHD during a 12-week, Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program...
August 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820905/estimating-the-evidential-value-of-significant-results-in-psychological-science
#6
Balazs Aczel, Bence Palfi, Barnabas Szaszi
Quantifying evidence is an inherent aim of empirical science, yet the customary statistical methods in psychology do not communicate the degree to which the collected data serve as evidence for the tested hypothesis. In order to estimate the distribution of the strength of evidence that individual significant results offer in psychology, we calculated Bayes factors (BF) for 287,424 findings of 35,515 articles published in 293 psychological journals between 1985 and 2016. Overall, 55% of all analyzed results were found to provide BF > 10 (often labeled as strong evidence) for the alternative hypothesis, while more than half of the remaining results do not pass the level of BF = 3 (labeled as anecdotal evidence)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#7
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820661/impact-of-a-sleep-course-on-sleep-mood-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-college-students-a-pilot-study
#8
Argelinda Baroni, Jean-Marie Bruzzese, Christina A Di Bartolo, Adam Ciarleglio, Jess P Shatkin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a sleep course on sleep-related behaviors, mood, and anxiety in college students. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 145 students enrolled in either the sleep course (n = 70) or a psychology course (n = 75); data were collected in September 2014, November 2014, and February 2015. METHODS: Sleep characteristics and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using validated questionnaires and sleep logs...
August 18, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820516/caregiver-reported-health-outcomes-effects-of-providing-reflexology-for-symptom-management-to-women-with-advanced-breast-cancer
#9
Dawn Frambes, Alla Sikorskii, Irena Tesnjak, Gwen Wyatt, Rebecca Lehto, Barbara Given
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of delivering a reflexology intervention on health outcomes of informal caregivers, and to explore whether intervention effects are moderated by caregiver characteristics. 
. DESIGN: Two-group, randomized clinical trial.
. SETTING: Eight oncology clinics in urban and rural regions of Michigan and Illinois.
. SAMPLE: 180 informal caregivers of patients with advanced breast cancer...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818818/validation-of-a-smartphone-based-approach-to-in-situ-cognitive-fatigue-assessment
#10
Edward Price, George Moore, Leo Galway, Mark Linden
BACKGROUND: Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue...
August 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818315/screening-for-familial-cancer-risk-focus-on-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Christine Rousset-Jablonski, Anne Gompel
A breast or an ovarian cancer occurring at a young age and/or in a family where other cases preexist suggests that those patients should be candidates for screening for mutations. Despite decades of medical research, less than 30% of cases with a suggestive personal and/or family history of hereditary breast cancer have an identified causative gene mutation. The vast majority of these cases are due to a mutation in one of the highly penetrant breast cancer genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, CDH1, and STK11) and various guidelines direct the management of these patients...
August 7, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818112/prevalence-and-its-associated-psychological-variables-of-symptoms-of-depression-and-anxiety-among-ovarian-cancer-patients-in-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Chun Li Liu, Li Liu, Yi Zhang, Xiao Ze Dai, Hui Wu
BACKGROUND: It is well known that cancer patients tend to have high levels of perceived stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, there is less study on the association between perceived stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety among ovarian cancer patients in China. And the mediating effect of hope and resilience needs to be further studied. In this study, we aim to examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms, to analyze the association between perceived stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety, and to test whether hope and resilience mediate the association of perceived stress with symptoms of depression and anxiety among Chinese patients with ovarian cancer...
August 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818063/variations-in-adolescents-motivational-characteristics-across-gender-and-physical-activity-patterns-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#13
Margaret Lawler, Caroline Heary, Elizabeth Nixon
BACKGROUND: Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA) that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents' PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents' leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. METHODS: Nine hundred ninety-five students (61...
August 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817725/development-of-a-psychological-intervention-for-fatigue-after-stroke
#14
Simiao Wu, Trudie Chalder, Kirstin E Anderson, David Gillespie, Malcolm R Macleod, Gillian E Mead
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is common and distressing, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend any effective treatment for it. Psychological interventions are effective in treating fatigue in other conditions. This paper describes the development and evaluation of the feasibility of a psychological intervention for PSF. METHODS: Based on psychological correlates of PSF and evidence-based psychological interventions for fatigue in other medical conditions, we developed a manualised psychological intervention for PSF, with input from stroke clinicians, psychological therapists, and stroke survivors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817645/translation-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-simplified-chinese-version-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-return-to-sport-after-injury-acl-rsi-scale
#15
Tianwu Chen, Peng Zhang, Yunxia Li, Kate Webster, Jian Zhang, Wei Yao, Yue Yin, Chingchong Ai, Shiyi Chen
PURPOSE: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the anterior cruciate ligament-return to sport after injury (ACL-RSI) into simplified Chinese [ACL-RSI (Cn)]. METHOD: In this diagnostic study, the translation, cross-culturally adaptation, and validation of the ACL-RSI was performed according to international guidelines. A total of 112 patients with ACL reconstruction participated in this study. All were capable of competitive sports before the injury and completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS), the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the Tegner activity score...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817460/high-demand-for-psychotherapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Thomas Klag, Nazar Mazurak, Laura Fantasia, Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke, Andreas Kirschniak, Claudius Falch, Martin Goetz, Nisar P Malek, Paul Enck, Jan Wehkamp
BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of psychological factors to the onset and course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is a matter of constant debate since its beginning, as is the clinical need and the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, the perspective of patients with IBD has largely been ignored in this debate. METHODS: Psychometric tests including the Short-Form IBD Questionnaire (SIBDQ), the ADAP test measuring demand for psychotherapy, and the Fear-of-Progression Questionnaire Short Form as well as disease-related questions were positioned on the internet between December 2014 and January 2016...
August 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815744/identifying-prebariatric-subtypes-based-on-temperament-traits-emotion-dysregulation-and-disinhibited-eating-a-latent-profile-analysis
#17
Lisa Schäfer, Claudia Hübner, Thomas Carus, Beate Herbig, Florian Seyfried, Stefan Kaiser, Tatjana Schütz, Arne Dietrich, Anja Hilbert
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of bariatric surgery has been proven; however, a subset of patients fails to achieve expected long-term weight loss postoperatively. As differences in surgery outcome may be influenced by heterogeneous psychological profiles in prebariatric patients, previous subtyping models differentiated patients based on temperament traits. The objective of this study was to expand these models by additionally considering emotion dysregulation and disinhibited eating behaviors for subtyping, as these factors were associated with maladaptive eating behaviors and poor postbariatric weight loss outcome...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815600/the-many-facets-of-mindfulness-and-the-prediction-of-change-following-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-mbsr
#18
Michael J Gawrysiak, Stevie N Grassetti, Jeffrey M Greeson, Ryan C Shorey, Ryan Pohlig, Michael J Baime
OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) promotes numerous psychological benefits, but few studies have identified for whom MBSR is most effective. The current study tested the hypothesis that lower baseline mindfulness invites more "room to grow" and, thus, predicts greater improvement during MBSR. METHOD: We examined three facets of mindfulness (awareness, acceptance, decentering) among 131 MBSR participants prior to enrollment, to test the hypothesis that lower baseline mindfulness predicts greater improvements in perceived stress, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) following MBSR...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815583/educational-and-rehabilitation-service-utilization-in-adolescents-born-preterm-or-with-a-congenital-heart-defect-and-at-high-risk-for-disability
#19
Annette Majnemer, Noemi Dahan-Oliel, Charles Rohlicek, Sean Hatzigeorgiou, Barbara Mazer, Desiree B Maltais, Norbert Schmitz
AIM: This historical cohort study describes the use of educational and rehabilitation services in adolescents born preterm or with a congenital heart defect (CHD). METHOD: Parents of 76 young people (mean age 15y 8mo [SD 1y 8mo]) with CHD and 125 born ≤29 weeks gestational age (mean age 16y [SD 2y 5mo]) completed a demographics questionnaire including educational and rehabilitation resource utilization within the previous 6 months. Rehabilitation services included occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech language pathology, psychology...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815014/the-relationship-between-intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-chiropractic-students-and-their-treatment-intervention-choices
#20
Stanley I Innes, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde, Bruce F Walker
BACKGROUND: Psychological factors, such as intolerance of uncertainty (IU), have been shown to impact on the quality of medical care. However, this psychological measure has not been studied in the chiropractic profession. Our objective was to investigate if higher levels of IU in chiropractic students were related to poor choices of management in specific clinical scenarios. Also, we sought to investigate if levels of IU were related to students' intentions to adopt a prescriptive chiropractic technique system and evaluate their levels of self-belief...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
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