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Psychological testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441838/in-your-face
#1
Johnathan Caleb Peterson, Carly Jacobs, John Hibbing, Kevin Smith
Research suggests that people can accurately predict the political affiliations of others using only information extracted from the face. It is less clear from this research, however, what particular facial physiological processes or features communicate such information. Using a model of emotion developed in psychology that treats emotional expressivity as an individual-level trait, this article provides a theoretical account of why emotional expressivity may provide reliable signals of political orientation, and it tests the theory in four empirical studies...
February 14, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441401/exercise-induced-fatigue-in-young-people-advances-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Dimitrios A Patikas, Craig A Williams, Sébastien Ratel
PURPOSE: In recent decades, the interest for exercise-induced fatigue in youth has substantially increased, and the effects of growth on the peripheral (muscular) and central (neural) mechanisms underpinning differences in neuromuscular fatigue between healthy children and adults have been described more extensively. The purpose of this review is to retrieve, report, and analyse the findings of studies comparing neuromuscular fatigue between children and adults. Objective measures of the evaluation of the physiological mechanisms are discussed...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441037/the-integration-of-realistic-episodic-memories-relies-on-different-working-memory-processes-evidence-from-virtual-navigation
#3
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439745/some-problems-with-non-inferiority-tests-in-psychotherapy-research-psychodynamic-therapies-as-an-example
#4
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439382/the-impact-of-occupational-splash-sharps-and-needlestick-injuries-ssnis-on-the-quality-of-life-of-healthcare-workers-in-a-kenyan-university-hospital
#5
George Ongete, Francis John Raymond Duffy
BACKGROUND: Infection as a consequence of splash sharps and needlestick injuries (SSNIs) is a hazard faced by healthcare workers. Little is known about the impact this has on quality of life particularly in countries where the risk of infection is high. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the impact SSNIs have on the quality of life of healthcare workers in Kenya, where blood borne illness prevalence is high. METHODS: A hospital-wide survey of a facility in Nairobi was conducted...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439325/prediction-and-early-detection-of-alzheimer-s-dementia-professional-disclosure-practices-and-ethical-attitudes
#6
Mark Schweda, Anna Kögel, Claudia Bartels, Jens Wiltfang, Anja Schneider, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: Biomarker-supported testing for preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) finds its way into clinical practice. Professional attitudes and practices regarding disclosure and ethical issues are controversial in many countries. OBJECTIVES: Against this background, the objective was to survey the actual practice and the attitudes of physicians in German hospitals and memory clinics in order to explore possible practical insecurities and ethical concerns...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439085/idea-intervention-to-prevent-depressive-symptoms-and-promote-well-being-in-early-stage-dementia-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#7
Remco Tuijt, Gill Livingston, Rebecca L Gould, Rebecca Jones, Elisabet Sole Verdaguer, Vasiliki Orgeta
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among people with dementia, impacting quality of life and cognitive and functional decline. Currently, little is known about the acceptability and feasibility of psychological interventions for people with mild dementia, with recent reviews identifying the need for further evidence. Developing and evaluating psychological interventions to prevent and treat these symptoms is, therefore, an important clinical and research priority. This protocol describes a study testing the acceptability and feasibility of a manual-based behavioural activation (BA) intervention for preventing and treating depressive symptoms in people with mild dementia...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438835/structural-mri-correlates-of-cognitive-function-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Artemios Artemiadis, Maria Anagnostouli, Ioannis Zalonis, Konstantinos Chairopoulos, Nikos Triantafyllou
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) has been associated with numerous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In this study we investigated the association of a large set of 2D and 3D MRI markers with cognitive function in MS. METHODS: A sample of 61 RRMS patients (mean age 41.8 ± 10.6 years old, 44 women, mean disease duration 137.9 ± 83.9 months) along with 51 age and gender matched healthy controls was used in this cross-sectional study...
February 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437756/pre-post-mixed-methods-feasibility-study-of-the-workingwell-mobile-support-tool-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness-in-the-usa-a-pilot-study-protocol
#9
Joanne Nicholson, Spenser M Wright, Alyssa M Carlisle
INTRODUCTION: Successful competitive employment has been found to be related to enhanced self-esteem, higher quality of life and reduced mental health service use for individuals living with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The effectiveness of the individual placement and support model has been demonstrated in multiple randomised controlled trials in many countries. The management of stress, depression and anxiety in the workplace may be effectively enhanced through digital mental health interventions...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437297/snot-22-based-clusters-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-without-nasal-polyposis-exhibit-distinct-endotypic-and-prognostic-differences
#10
Devyani Lal, Claire Hopkins, Rohit D Divekar
BACKGROUND: Endotypic and prognosticating features of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) are poorly understood. Our objectives were to use an unbiased symptom-based approach to: (1) study symptoms, clinical and endotypic features; and (2) identify features predicating outcomes from endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). METHODS: Clinical, computed tomography (CT), histopathology, and 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) data was collected on 146 adult CRSsNP patients who underwent ESS...
February 13, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436935/cell-phone-induced-ostracism-threatens-fundamental-needs
#11
Andrew Hales, Maayan Dvir, Eric Wesselmann, Daniel J Kruger, Catrin Finkenauer
Cell phones are useful tools with both practical and social benefits. However, using them in the context of face-to-face conversations may be problematic. We consider this behavior a form of ostracism and test its effects on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. In Study 1 participants who recalled a time in which a friend was checking a cell phone during a serious conversation reported feeling more ostracized (ignored and excluded), greater pain and threat to basic needs than participants recalling a conversation without a cell phone interruption or a control event...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436364/the-west-midlands-active-lifestyle-and-healthy-eating-in-school-children-waves-study-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-testing-the-clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-multifaceted-obesity-prevention-intervention-programme-targeted-at-children
#12
Peymane Adab, Timothy Barrett, Raj Bhopal, Janet E Cade, Alastair Canaway, Kar Keung Cheng, Joanne Clarke, Amanda Daley, Jonathan Deeks, Joan Duda, Ulf Ekelund, Emma Frew, Paramjit Gill, Tania Griffin, Karla Hemming, Kiya Hurley, Emma R Lancashire, James Martin, Eleanor McGee, Miranda J Pallan, Jayne Parry, Sandra Passmore
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that school-based interventions can be effective in preventing childhood obesity, but better-designed trials are needed that consider costs, process, equity, potential harms and longer-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the WAVES (West Midlands ActiVe lifestyle and healthy Eating in School children) study intervention, compared with usual practice, in preventing obesity among primary school children...
February 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436362/screening-tool-for-psychological-intimate-partner-violence-portuguese-validation-of-the-psychological-maltreatment-of-women-inventory
#13
Rita Começanha, Ângela Maia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory-Short Form (PMWI-SF) is a well-established and brief instrument for assessing psychological intimate partner violence (IPV). In the absence of a specific tool to assess psychological IPV in Portuguese women, this study sought to confirm the factor structure of the Portuguese PMWI-SF and analyze its psychometric properties. METHOD: Five hundred and six women filled out the e-survey including the assessment of IPV (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, Psychological Abuse Survey, and PMWI-SF) and psychopathology through the Brief Symptom Inventory...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436238/the-incremental-role-of-trait-emotional-intelligence-on-perceived-cervical-screening-barriers
#14
Sebastiano Costa, Nadia Barberis, Rosalba Larcan, Francesca Cuzzocrea
Researchers have become increasingly interested in investigating the role of the psychological aspects related to the perception of cervical screening barriers. This study investigates the influence of trait EI on perceived cervical screening barriers. Furthermore, this study investigates the incremental validity of trait EI beyond the Big Five, as well as emotion regulation in the perceived barrier towards the Pap test as revealed in a sample of 206 Italian women that were undergoing cervical screening. Results have shown that trait EI is negatively related to cervical screening barriers...
February 13, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436162/therapeutic-alliance-in-dietetic-practice-for-weight-loss-insights-from-health-coaching
#15
Annaliese Nagy, Anne McMahon, Linda Tapsell, Frank Deane, Danielle Arenson
AIM: The psychological construct of 'therapeutic alliance' can be used to better understand the effectiveness of consultations, particularly goal setting for weight management. We analysed audio-recorded health coaching sessions during a weight loss trial to explore relationships between therapeutic alliance and various contextual factors. METHODS: Audio recordings of 50 health coaching sessions were analysed. After assessing fidelity to the protocol, therapeutic alliance was measured using an adapted Working Alliance Inventory Observer-rated Short Version (WAI-O-S), and examined by (i) identifying relationships between contextual factors and WAI-O-S scores (Spearman's coefficients); (ii) testing the impact of preparatory exercises and body mass index on WAI-O-S scores (one-way analysis of variance and least-squared differences tests) and (iii) comparing differences in WAI-O-S scores based on relationship status, gender and follow-up session completion (independent samples t-tests)...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436160/patterns-and-predictors-of-exhaustion-episodes-in-patients-with-stable-copd-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Francesc Medina-Mirapeix, Roberto Bernabeu-Mora, Luz María Giménez-Giménez, Joaquina Montilla-Herrador, Jose Antonio García-Vidal, Josep Benítez-Martínez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exhaustion is the perception of low energy. Little is known about how exhaustion persists, remits or reappears over time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or how to predict these events. We determined the likelihood of transitions between states of exhaustion and no exhaustion among patients with stable COPD followed up for 2 years. We investigated combinations of potential factors for their abilities to predict new-onset exhaustion episodes...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436144/phase-1-3-of-the-cross-cultural-development-of-an-eortc-questionnaire-for-the-assessment-of-sexual-health-in-cancer-patients-the-eortc-shq-22
#17
Anne Sophie Oberguggenberger, Eva Nagele, Elisabeth C Inwald, Krzysztof Tomaszewski, Anne Lanceley, Andy Nordin, Carien L Creutzberg, Karin Kuljanic, Dimitrios Kardamakis, Claudia Schmalz, Juan Arraras, Anna Costantini, Thierry Almont, Chie Wei-Chu, Sara Dehandschutter, Zoe Winters, Elfriede Greimel
To develop and pretest an European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Sexual Health Questionnaire (EORTC SHQ-22) for the assessment of physical, psychological, and social aspects of sexual health (SH) in male and female cancer patients and survivors. Questionnaire construction started with creating a list of relevant SH issues based on a comprehensive literature review. Issues were subsequently evaluated for relevance and prioritization by 78 healthcare professionals (HCP) and 107 patients from 12 countries during in-depth interviews (phase 1)...
February 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435912/concreteness-norms-for-1-659-french-words-relationships-with-other-psycholinguistic-variables-and-word-recognition-times
#18
Patrick Bonin, Alain Méot, Aurélia Bugaiska
Words that correspond to a potential sensory experience-concrete words-have long been found to possess a processing advantage over abstract words in various lexical tasks. We collected norms of concreteness for a set of 1,659 French words, together with other psycholinguistic norms that were not available for these words-context availability, emotional valence, and arousal-but which are important if we are to achieve a better understanding of the meaning of concreteness effects. We then investigated the relationships of concreteness with these newly collected variables, together with other psycholinguistic variables that were already available for this set of words (e...
February 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435785/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-postpartum-depression-in-home-visiting-programs-prevalence-association-and-mediating-mechanisms
#19
Joshua P Mersky, Colleen E Janczewski
Objectives In this study, we examined the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) and its association with select demographic factors and antenatal conditions. We also investigated whether greater exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is associated with PPD, and if antenatal conditions mediate the ACE-PPD relationship. Methods Data were collected from 735 low-income women receiving home visiting services. Descriptive and bivariate analyses provided estimates of PPD and its correlates, and nested path analyses were used to test for mediation...
February 12, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435271/gene-expression-profiling-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-hereditary-gingival-fibromatosis
#20
Lei Fang, Yu Wang, Xuejun Chen
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a benign, non-hemorrhagic and fibrous gingival overgrowth that may cover all or part of the teeth. It typically interferes with speech, lip closure and chewing, and can also be a psychological burden that affects the self-esteem of patients. Owing to high genetic heterogeneity, genetic testing to confirm diagnosis is not justified. It is therefore important to identify key signature genes and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying HGF. The aim of the present study was to determine HGF-related genes and to analyze these genes through bioinformatics methods...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
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