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Clinical pathways and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741687/a-distinct-plasma-lipid-signature-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-authors
#1
H-M Lin, K L Mahon, J M Weir, P A Mundra, C Spielman, K Briscoe, H Gurney, G Mallesara, G Marx, M R Stockler, PRIMe Consortium, R G Parton, A J Hoy, R J Daly, P J Meikle, L G Horvath
Lipids are known to influence tumour growth, inflammation, and chemoresistance. However, the association of circulating lipids with the clinical outcome of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is unknown. We investigated associations between the plasma lipidome and clinical outcome in CRPC. Lipidomic profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on plasma samples from a Phase 1 discovery cohort of 96 CRPC patients. Results were validated in an independent Phase 2 cohort of 63 CRPC patients...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741507/mtor-signaling-confers-resistance-to-targeted-cancer-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Yakir Guri, Michael N Hall
Cancer is a complex disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. Extensive research over decades has led to the development of therapies that target cancer-specific signaling pathways. However, the clinical benefits of such drugs are at best transient due to tumors displaying intrinsic or adaptive resistance. The underlying compensatory pathways that allow cancer cells to circumvent a drug blockade are poorly understood. We review here recent studies suggesting that mammalian TOR (mTOR) signaling is a major compensatory pathway conferring resistance to many cancer drugs...
November 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741495/adaptive-stress-responses-during-tumor-metastasis-and-dormancy
#3
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Ze'ev A Ronai
To survive inhospitable environments, tumor cells are forced to remodel their signaling pathways by altering transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. This adaptation is regulated in a spatial and temporal manner and gives rise to individual tumor cells with distinct gene expression and metabolic signatures. Such phenotypic heterogeneity is the result of tumor cell plasticity, which-together with the genetic background of the tumor-determines whether cells resist environmental stress, enter dormancy, or metastasize...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741274/cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-6-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer-palbociclib-ribociclib-and-abemaciclib
#4
REVIEW
Dorota Kwapisz
PURPOSE: The cyclin D-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-inhibitor of CDK4 (INK4)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression and its dysregulation is an important contributor to endocrine therapy resistance. CDK4/6 inhibitors trigger cell cycle arrest in Rb protein (pRb)-competent cells. Recent years have seen the development of selective CDK4/6 inhibitors, which have delivered promising results of efficacy and manageable safety profiles. The main objective of this review is to discuss preclinical and clinical data to date, and ongoing clinical trials with palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib in breast cancer...
July 24, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741258/polymorphisms-in-mirna-genes-and-their-involvement-in-autoimmune-diseases-susceptibility
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Latini, Cinzia Ciccacci, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate the expression of multiple protein-encoding genes at the post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs are involved in different pathways, such as cellular proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction and inflammation, and play crucial roles in the development of several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. They have recently been recognized to play a role also in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases...
July 24, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740751/dapk1-as-an-independent-prognostic-marker-in-liver-cancer
#6
Ling Li, Libin Guo, Qingshui Wang, Xiaolong Liu, Yongyi Zeng, Qing Wen, Shudong Zhang, Hang Fai Kwok, Yao Lin, Jingfeng Liu
The death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) can act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene depending on the cellular context as well as external stimuli. Our study aims to investigate the prognostic significance of DAPK1 in liver cancer in both mRNA and protein levels. The mRNA expression of DAPK1 was extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus database in three independent liver cancer datasets while protein expression of DAPK1 was detected by immunohistochemistry in our Chinese liver cancer patient cohort...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740577/egfr-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-in-ovarian-cancer-evaluation-of-patient-cohort-and-literature-review
#7
Christine Mehner, Ann L Oberg, Krista M Goergen, Kimberly R Kalli, Matthew J Maurer, Aziza Nassar, Ellen L Goode, Gary L Keeney, Aminah Jatoi, Derek C Radisky, Evette S Radisky
BACKGROUND: Limited effectiveness of therapeutic agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical trials using unselected ovarian cancer patients has prompted efforts to more effectively stratify patients who might best benefit from these therapies. A series of studies that have evaluated immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of EGFR in ovarian cancer biopsies has produced unclear results as to the utility of this measure as a prognostic biomarker. Here, we used one of the largest, single institution cohorts to date to determine possible associations of EGFR expression with patient outcome...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740573/telomere-length-regulation-through-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Titto Augustine, Radhashree Maitra, Sanjay Goel
Length of the telomere (TL), a structure at the tip of chromosome that protects and ensures stability, is determined by multi-protein complexes such as telosome/shelterin and telomerase. Earlier studies from our laboratory show that longer TL has potential to be positive predictive biomarker of clinical outcome to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with KRAS WT metastatic colorectal cancer. Although there is extensive literature suggesting the role of shelterin and telomerase, not much literature exists that describes the role of EGFR and KRAS pathway in regulating TL...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740556/yd277-suppresses-triple-negative-breast-cancer-partially-through-activating-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathway
#9
Zekun Chen, Qiuju Wu, Ye Ding, Wenhui Zhou, Rong Liu, Haiying Chen, Jia Zhou, Jing Feng, Ceshi Chen
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor clinical outcomes. YD277 is a novel small molecule derived from ML264, a KLF5 inhibitor that elicits cytotoxic effects in colon cancer cell lines. Our previous studies suggest that Krüpple-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a promising therapeutic target for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrated that YD277 significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC cells, independent of KLF5 inhibition. YD277 also reduced the protein expression levels of Cyclin D1, Bcl2 and Bclxl and promoted the expression of p21 and p27...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740547/down-regulated-mir-23a-contributes-to-the-metastasis-of-cutaneous-melanoma-by-promoting-autophagy
#10
Weinan Guo, Huina Wang, Yuqi Yang, Sen Guo, Weigang Zhang, Yu Liu, Xiuli Yi, Jingjing Ma, Tao Zhao, Lin Liu, Zhe Jian, Ling Liu, Gang Wang, Tianwen Gao, Qiong Shi, Chunying Li
Melanoma is among the most aggressive tumors, and the occurrence of metastasis leads to a precipitous drop in the patients' survival. Therefore, identification of metastasis-associated biomarkers and therapeutic targets will contribute a lot to improving melanoma theranostics. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in modulating cancer invasion and metastasis, and are proved as potential non-invasive biomarkers in sera for various tumors. Here, we reported miR-23a as a novel metastasis-associated miRNA that played a remarkable role in modulating melanoma invasive and metastatic capacity and was of great value in predicting melanoma metastasis and prognosis...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740507/mir-195-inhibits-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-cell-lines-by-targeting-ccnd1-and-fgf2
#11
Yali Yin, Shubin Hong, Shuang Yu, Yanrui Huang, Shuwei Chen, Yujie Liu, Quan Zhang, Yanbing Li, Haipeng Xiao
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) dysregulation was commonly seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and miR-195 was verified to be downregulated in PTC by the large data set analysis from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our study aimed to explore the biological functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-195 in PTC. METHODS: The relative expression of miR-195 and its target genes were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR assay in 38 pairs of PTC and the adjacent thyroid tissues...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739741/clinical-correlation-between-wisp2-and-%C3%AE-catenin-in-gastric-cancer
#12
Liting Li, Yuxin Cui, Jia F Ji, Wen G Jiang
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1 (WNT1)-inducible signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP2) may play an important role in the development of gastric cancer (GC) by regulating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the present study, we investigated whether there is correlation between WISP2 and β-catenin proteins, and their association with clinicopathological features in GC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on 119 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and 99 adjacent normal gastric tissues collected from patients with GC at the Beijing Cancer Hospital...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739716/clinical-significance-of-pd1-and-pdl1-in-human-breast-cancer
#13
Michal Uhercik, Andrew J Sanders, Sioned Owen, Eleri L Davies, Anup K Sharma, Wen G Jiang, Kefah Mokbel
BACKGROUND/AIM: Programmed death 1 (PD1) and its ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) form a pathway which when activated is thought to result in suppression of antitumor adaptive responses, influencing antitumor immunity. With potential targeted therapies emerging against PDL1, we investigated the clinical significance of mRNA expression levels of PD1 and PDL1 in our breast cancer cohort to explore its association with disease progression and prognosis. Previous studies evaluating the expression of PD1 and PDL1 (mRNA or protein) and its association with prognosis in breast cancer showed both positive and negative correlations and hence remain controversial...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739680/bdnf-an-oncogene-or-tumor-suppressor
#14
REVIEW
Daniel P Radin, Parth Patel
Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that are vital to the proper development of the central nervous system. Their effects on cells are governed by the expression and activation of the tyrosine kinase receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. TrkB has been immensely implicated in mediating neuronal migration, development and differentiation. It has also been shown to protect several neuronal cell types from an array of cytotoxic stressors after activation by its conjugate ligand brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738532/genipin-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-counteracting-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#15
Eglal Mahgoub, Shanmugam Muthu Kumaraswamy, Kamal Hassan Kader, Balaji Venkataraman, Shreesh Ojha, Ernest Adeghate, Mohanraj Rajesh
Cisplatin (CP) is a potent and widely used chemotherapeutic agent. However, the clinical benefits of CP are compromised because it elicits nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. In this study, we investigated the nephroprotective effects of the phytochemical genipin (GP) isolated from the gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) fruit, using a murine model of CP-induced nephropathy. GP pretreatment attenuated the CP-induced renal tissue injury by diminishing the serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and cystatin C levels, as well as those of kidney injury molecule-1...
July 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738360/targeting-developmental-pathways-the-achilles-heel-of-cancer
#16
Wolfram C M Dempke, Klaus Fenchel, Peter Uciechowski, Timothy Chevassut
Developmental pathways (e.g., Notch, Hippo, Hedgehog, Wnt, and TGF-β/BMP/FGF) are networks of genes that act co-ordinately to establish the body plan, and disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Interestingly, all developmental pathways are highly conserved cell signalling systems present in almost all multicellular organisms. In addition, they have a crucial role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and finally in organ development...
July 22, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738343/mir-26a-b-inhibit-tumor-growth-and-angiogenesis-by-targeting-the-hgf-vegf-axis-in-gastric-carcinoma
#17
Yiran Si, Haiyang Zhang, Tao Ning, Ming Bai, Yi Wang, Haiou Yang, Xinyi Wang, Jialu Li, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal expression of HGF is found in various cancers and correlates with tumor proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the HGF-VEGF axis remains unclear. METHODS: The expression characteristic of HGF in human gastric cancer tissues was shown by an immunohistochemistry assay, and the expression levels of target protein were detected by Western blot. The relative levels of miR-26a/b and target mRNA were examined by qRT-PCR...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736703/genome-wide-mirna-gene-and-methylation-analysis-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-to-identify-changes-associated-with-lymph-node-metastases
#18
Kelly A Avery-Kiejda, Andrea Mathe, Rodney J Scott
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a particularly important breast cancer subtype with an aggressive clinical phenotype that is associated with a higher likelihood of metastasis. This subtype is characterized by an absence of the estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, as well as the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/HER neu). The absence of the three receptors significantly reduces targeted treatment options for patients with TNBC and as such, there is an urgent need to identify novel treatment targets...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736639/promising-therapeutics-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-in-clinical-trials
#19
REVIEW
Lingling Du, Zheng Che, Andrea Wang-Gillam
Many novel therapeutics are being developed for patients with cancers along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These emerging agents are frequently classified by their biological targets such as tumor growth pathways, tumor metabolism, microenvironment, etc. Some agents targeting cancer growth pathways are based on existing clinically validated therapeutic targets, such as regorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while other agents focus on newly identified targets, such as FGFR fusions in cholangiocarcinoma...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736637/primary-and-acquired-resistance-to-biologic-therapies-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Sam J Lubner, Nataliya V Uboha, Dustin A Deming
Improvements in the understanding of cancer biology have led to therapeutic advances in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Drugs which target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways have led the way in colon cancer. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as bevacizumab, ramucirumab, cetuximab, and panitumumab, have improved progression free survival and overall survival (OS) for colorectal cancers and were quickly adopted. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has demonstrated significant benefit for gastroesophageal cancers and in the setting of HER2 amplification, trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy has become the standard of care...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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