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miRNA tick

Roberto A Barrero, Felix D Guerrero, Michael Black, John McCooke, Brett Chapman, Faye Schilkey, Adalberto A Pérez de León, Robert J Miller, Sara Bruns, Jason Dobry, Galina Mikhaylenko, Keith Stormo, Callum Bell, Quanzhou Tao, Robert Bogden, Paula M Moolhuijzen, Adam Hunter, Matthew I Bellgard
The genome of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, an ectoparasite with global distribution, is estimated to be 7.1Gbp in length and consists of approximately 70% repetitive DNA. We report the draft assembly of a tick genome that utilized a hybrid sequencing and assembly approach to capture the repetitive fractions of the genome. Our hybrid approach produced an assembly consisting of 2.0Gbp represented in 195,170 scaffolds with a N50 of 60,284bp. The Rmi v2.0 assembly is 51.46% repetitive with a large fraction of unclassified repeats, short interspersed elements, long interspersed elements and long terminal repeats...
June 1, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Michael Hackenberg, David Langenberger, Alexandra Schwarz, Jan Erhart, Michail Kotsyfakis
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an important disease vector whose salivary secretions mediate blood-feeding success on vertebrate hosts, including humans. Here we describe the expression profiles and downstream analysis of de novo-discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in I. ricinus salivary glands and saliva. Eleven tick-derived libraries were sequenced to produce 67,375,557 Illumina reads. De novo prediction yielded 67 bona fide miRNAs out of which 35 are currently not present in miRBase. We report for the first time the presence of microRNAs in tick saliva, obtaining furthermore molecular indicators that those might be of exosomal origin...
August 2017: RNA
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Guangping Liu, Evgeniya Volkova, Alexander G Pletnev
The recent emergence of Zika virus underscores the need for new strategies for a rapid development of safe flavivirus vaccines. Using another flavivirus (Langat virus [LGTV]) that belongs to the group of tick-borne flaviviruses as a model, we describe a dual strategy for virus attenuation which synergistically accesses the specificity of microRNA (miRNA) genome targeting and the effectiveness of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) insertion. To increase the stability and immunogenicity of bicistronic LGTVs, we developed a novel approach in which the capsid (C) protein gene was relocated into the 3' noncoding region (NCR) and expressed under translational control from an IRES...
April 18, 2017: MBio
Adonis Sfera, Carolina Osorio, Luzmin Inderias, Michael Cummings
BACKGROUND: Exposed to antipsychotic drugs (APDs), older individuals with dementing illness are at risk of cerebrovascular adverse effects (CVAE), including sudden death. Transient microvascular dysfunctions are known to occur in younger persons exposed to APDs; however, they seldom progress to CVAE, suggesting that APDs alone are insufficient for engendering this untoward effect. It is, therefore, believed that a preexistent microvascular damage is necessary for CVAE to take place, but the exact nature of this lesion remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Guangping Liu, Heather Kenney, Meghan Hermance, Saravanan Thangamani, Alexander G Pletnev
Tick-borne viruses include medically important zoonotic pathogens that can cause life-threatening diseases. Unlike mosquito-borne viruses, whose impact can be restrained via mosquito population control programs, for tick-borne viruses only vaccination remains the reliable means of disease prevention. For live vaccine viruses a concern exists, that spillovers from viremic vaccinees could result in introduction of genetically modified viruses into sustainable tick-vertebrate host transmission cycle in nature...
2016: Scientific Reports
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Guangping Liu, Kui Shen, Alexander G Pletnev
Insertion of microRNA target sequences into the flavivirus genome results in selective tissue-specific attenuation and host-range restriction of live attenuated vaccine viruses. However, previous strategies for miRNA-targeting did not incorporate a mechanism to prevent target elimination under miRNA-mediated selective pressure, restricting their use in vaccine development. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new approach for miRNA-targeting of tick-borne flavivirus (Langat virus, LGTV) in the duplicated capsid gene region (DCGR)...
April 20, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Natalya L Teterina, Olga A Maximova, Heather Kenney, Guangping Liu, Alexander G Pletnev
In recent years, microRNA-targeting has become an effective strategy for selective control of tissue-tropism and pathogenicity of both DNA and RNA viruses. Previously, we reported the successful application of this strategy to control the neurovirulent phenotype of a model chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue type 4 virus (TBEV/DEN4), containing the structural protein genes of a highly virulent TBEV in the genetic backbone of non-neuroinvasive DEN4 virus. In the present study, we investigated the suitability of this approach for the attenuation of the more neurovirulent chimeric virus (TBEV/LGTV), which is based on the genetic backbone of the naturally attenuated member of the TBEV serocomplex, a Langat virus (LGTV)...
March 2016: Antiviral Research
B D Clarke, J A Roby, A Slonchak, A A Khromykh
Flaviviruses are single-stranded positive sense RNA enveloped viruses. The flavivirus genus includes important human pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV). In addition to the viral proteins and viral genomic RNA, flaviviruses produce at least two functional non-coding RNAs derived from the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), the subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) and a putative WNV miRNA (KUN-miR-1)...
August 3, 2015: Virus Research
Jin Luo, Guang-Yuan Liu, Ze Chen, Qiao-Yun Ren, Hong Yin, Jian-Xun Luo, Hui Wang
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis...
June 15, 2015: Gene
Vladimir Mrljak, Nada Kučer, Josipa Kuleš, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Mirna Brkljačić, Martina Crnogaj, Tatjana Zivičnjak, Iva Smit, Jose Joaquin Ceron, Renata Barić Rafaj
Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with world-wide significance caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. The eicosanoids, as inflammatory mediators, are involved in the regulation of the immune response and inflammatory reaction. Metabolism of lipids is of great importance in babesiosis. In this study it was aimed to investigate the dynamics of serum concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), triglycerides, total cholesterol (Chol), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis and healthy dogs...
March 17, 2014: Veterinary Parasitology
Jinlin Zhou, Yongzhi Zhou, Jie Cao, Houshuang Zhang, Yingfang Yu
The salivary glands are vital to the biological success of ticks and they are a major route of pathogen transmission. Tick salivary glands undergo remarkable growth and differentiation during the blood-feeding period. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding small RNA molecules found in diverse organisms that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. To explore transcriptional differences in the miRNAs of fed and unfed tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) salivary glands, we investigated small RNA (sRNA) transcriptomes derived from the salivary glands and made a comparative analysis of miRNA profiles related to tick blood-feeding in the salivary glands...
March 2013: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Brian L Heiss, Olga A Maximova, Dzung C Thach, James M Speicher, Alexander G Pletnev
Neurotropic flaviviruses can efficiently replicate in the developing and mature central nervous systems (CNS) of mice causing lethal encephalitis. Insertion of a single copy of a target for brain-expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in the 3' noncoding region (3'NCR) of the flavivirus genome (chimeric tick-borne encephalitis virus/dengue virus) abolished virus neurovirulence in the mature mouse CNS. However, in the developing CNS of highly permissive suckling mice, the miRNA-targeted viruses can revert to a neurovirulent phenotype by accumulating deletions or mutations within the miRNA target sequence...
May 2012: Journal of Virology
Roberto A Barrero, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Bing Zhang, Paula Moolhuijzen, Kazuho Ikeo, Yoshio Tateno, Takashi Gojobori, Felix D Guerrero, Ala Lew-Tabor, Matthew Bellgard
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes modulating a large diversity of biological processes. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new opportunities to understand the biology of a number of species. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, causes significant economic losses in cattle production worldwide and this drives us to further understand their biology so that effective control measures can be developed...
2011: BMC Genomics
Harald Rouha, Caroline Thurner, Christian W Mandl
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play a pivotal role in the regulation of posttranscriptional gene expression in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Although DNA viruses have been shown to encode miRNAs and exploit the cellular RNA silencing machinery as a convenient way to regulate viral and host gene expression, it is generally believed that this pathway is not available to RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of the cell because miRNA biogenesis is initiated in the nucleus...
December 2010: Nucleic Acids Research
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