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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687596/revealing-the-inhibitory-effect-of-ginseng-on-mitochondrial-respiration-through-synaptosomal-proteomics
#1
Dezhi Kong, Xiaolin Tian, Yunshan Li, Saihang Zhang, Yiru Cheng, Lifang Huo, Huanhuan Ma, Zuxiao Yang, Leiming Ren, Zhang Mingquan, Wei Zhang
Ginseng, the active ingredients of which are ginsenosides, is the most popular herbal medicine and has potential merit in the treatment of cerebral disorders. To better understand the function of Ginseng in the cerebral system, we examined changes in the protein expression profiles of synaptosomes extracted from the cerebral cortical and hippocampal tissues of rats administered a high or low dose of Ginseng for two weeks. More than five thousand proteins belonging to synaptosomes were simultaneously identified and quantitated by an approach combining tandem mass tags with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
April 23, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687302/the-neuronal-ischemic-tolerance-is-conditioned-by-the-tp53-arg72pro-polymorphism
#2
Maria E Ramos-Araque, Cristina Rodriguez, Rebeca Vecino, Elisa Cortijo Garcia, Mercedes de Lera Alfonso, Mercedes Sanchez Barba, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Francisco Purroy, Juan F Arenillas, Angeles Almeida, Maria Delgado-Esteban
Cerebral preconditioning (PC) confers endogenous brain protection after stroke. Ischemic stroke patients with a prior transient ischemic attack (TIA) may potentially be in a preconditioned state. Although PC has been associated with the activation of pro-survival signals, the mechanism by which preconditioning confers neuroprotection is not yet fully clarified. Recently, we have described that PC-mediated neuroprotection against ischemic insult is promoted by p53 destabilization, which is mediated by its main regulator MDM2...
April 23, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679463/cdp-choline-protects-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-preserving-mitochondrial-function-and-reducing-oxidative-stress
#3
Cecilia Zazueta, Mabel Buelna-Chontal, Arturo Macías-López, Nadia G Román-Anguiano, Héctor González-Pacheco, Natalia Pavón, Rashidi Springall, Alberto Aranda-Frausto, Rafael Bojalil, Alejandro Silva-Palacios, Rodrigo Velázquez-Espejel, Sonia Galvan Arzate, Francisco Correa
CDP-choline (citicoline) participates as intermediary in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an essential component of cellular membranes. Citicoline treatment has shown beneficial effects in cerebral ischemia, but its potential to diminish reperfusion damage in liver has not been explored. In this work, we evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of citicoline and its possible association with inflammatory/oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, as they are main cellular features of reperfusion damage...
April 20, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678731/age-related-rise-in-lactate-and-its-correlation-with-lactate-dehydrogenase-ldh-status-in-post-mitochondrial-fractions-isolated-from-different-regions-of-brain-in-mice
#4
Siddhartha Datta, Nilkanta Chakrabarti
Rise in brain lactate is the hallmark of ageing. Separate studies report that ageing is associated with elevation of lactate level and alterations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A/B mRNA-expression-ratio in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, age related lactate rise in brain and its association with LDH status and their brain regional variations are still elusive. In the present study, level of lactate, LDH (A and B) activity and LDH-A expression were evaluated in post-mitochondrial fraction of tissues isolated from four different brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum) of young and aged mice...
April 17, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#5
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678591/ferroptosis-is-newly-characterized-form-of-neuronal-cell-death-in-response-to-arsenite-exposure
#6
Qianghu Tang, LuLu Bai, Zhen Zou, Pan Meng, Yinyin Xia, Shuqun Cheng, Shaoyu Mu, Jianrong Zhou, Xuefeng Wang, Xia Qin, Xianqing Cao, Xuejun Jiang, Chengzhi Chen
Ferroptosis is a novel iron-dependent form of cell death implicated in brain pathology. However, whether arsenite is an inducer of ferroptosis in the neurons remains completely unknown. In this study, the seven-week-old healthy C57BL/6 J male mice were treated with environmental related doses (0.5, 5 and 50 mg/L) of arsenite for 6 months via drinking water, and the ferroptosis-related indicators were further determined. Our results demonstrated for the first time that, arsenite exposure significantly reduced the number of neuron and caused the pathological changes of mitochondria in the cerebral cortex of mice...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674256/effects-of-interleukin-6-and-il-6-ampk-signaling-pathway-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-astrocytes-viability-under-experimental-septic-condition
#7
Xiao-Lan Chen, Yang Wang, Wan-Wan Peng, Yi-Jun Zheng, Tian-Nan Zhang, Ping-Jun Wang, Jin-Da Huang, Qi-Yi Zeng
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a neuromodulation factor with extensive and complex biological activities. IL-6 has been reported to activate AMPK, while AMPK regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-6 in mitochondrial biogenesis using astrocytes under experimental septic condition and examined how IL-6/AMPK signaling pathway affected this process. METHODS: The primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes were randomly allocated into six groups: control group, LPS+IFN-γ group, IL-6 group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6), C group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+Compound C), siRNA group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+IL-6R siRNA) and siRNA+C group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+IL-6R siRNA+ Compound C)...
April 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671210/indian-ginseng-withania-somnifera-supplementation-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-experimental-model-of-stroke
#8
Abhilasha Sood, Arpit Mehrotra, Devinder K Dhawan, Rajat Sandhir
Stroke is an increasingly prevalent clinical condition and second leading cause of death globally. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Indian Ginseng, also known as Withania somnifera (WS), supplementation on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of ischemic stroke. Stroke was induced in animals by occluding the middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury resulted in increased oxidative stress indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels; compromised antioxidant system; in terms of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, along with reduction in GSH levels and the redox ratio, impaired mitochondrial functions and enhanced expression of apoptosis markers...
April 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669346/tetrahydrocurcumin-provides-neuroprotection-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-nrf2-signaling-pathway-as-a-potential-mechanism
#9
Guan Wei, Bingji Chen, Qingjiang Lin, Yasong Li, Liangqin Luo, Hefan He, Huangde Fu
The protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been demonstrated, as demonstrated by the inhibition of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are still not well understood. This study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of THC, and its potential mechanisms, in a rat model of TBI. To this end, rats were divided into 4 groups: the sham group, the TBI group, the TBI + vehicle (V) group, and the TBI + THC group...
April 18, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668855/the-negative-ultraslow-potential-electrophysiological-correlate-of-infarction-in-the-human-cortex
#10
Janos Lückl, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Viktor Horst, Uldus Khojasteh, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Karl Schoknecht, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue...
April 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663377/ubiad1-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion-induced-multiple-subcellular-organelles-injury-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-n2a-cells
#11
Yan Huang, Zhiping Hu
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury plays a significant role in the development of multi-subcellular organelles injury after ischemic stroke. UBIAD1 was discovered originally as a potential tumor suppressor protein. Recently, analysis of UBIAD1 has indicated it is a prenyltransferase enzyme for both non-mitochondrial CoQ10 and vitamin K2 production. Further, UBIAD1 has been localized to multiple subcellular organelles. Particularly, UBIAD1 plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and cell proliferation, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, which was closely associated with the cerebral ischemic/reperfusion mechanism...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662437/ketogenic-diet-improves-brain-ischemic-tolerance-and-inhibits-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-preventing-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#12
Min Guo, Xun Wang, Yanxin Zhao, Qi Yang, Hongyan Ding, Qiang Dong, Xingdong Chen, Mei Cui
Background : Neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diets (KD) have been reported in stroke models, and nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of KD on NLRP3 inflammasome and explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods : In in vivo study, mice were fed with KD for 3 weeks and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R)-injury. In in vitro study, SH-SY-5Y cells were treated with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) followed by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661558/genetic-assessment-and-folate-receptor-autoantibodies-in-infantile-onset-cerebral-folate-deficiency-cfd-syndrome
#13
V Th Ramaekers, K Segers, J M Sequeira, M Koenig, L Van Maldergem, V Bours, U Kornak, E V Quadros
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes are defined as neuro-psychiatric conditions with low CSF folate and attributed to different causes such as autoantibodies against the folate receptor-alpha (FR) protein that can block folate transport across the choroid plexus, FOLR1 gene mutations or mitochondrial disorders. High-dose folinic acid treatment restores many neurologic deficits. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Among 36 patients from 33 families the infantile-onset CFD syndrome was diagnosed based on typical clinical features and low CSF folate...
March 3, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643256/critical-role-of-flavin-and-glutathione-in-complex-i-mediated-bioenergetic-failure-in-brain-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Anja Kahl, Anna Stepanova, Csaba Konrad, Corey Anderson, Giovanni Manfredi, Ping Zhou, Costantino Iadecola, Alexander Galkin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic brain injury is characterized by 2 temporally distinct but interrelated phases: ischemia (primary energy failure) and reperfusion (secondary energy failure). Loss of cerebral blood flow leads to decreased oxygen levels and energy crisis in the ischemic area, initiating a sequence of pathophysiological events that after reoxygenation lead to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain damage. Mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are known to be early events in I/R injury...
April 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627876/naringin-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-inhibiting-peroxynitrite-mediated-mitophagy-activation
#15
Jinghan Feng, Xingmiao Chen, Shengwen Lu, Wenting Li, Dan Yang, Weiwei Su, Xijun Wang, Jiangang Shen
Excessive autophagy/mitophagy plays important roles during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Peroxynitrite (ONOO- ), a representative reactive nitrogen species, mediates excessive mitophagy activation and exacerbates cerebral I/R injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that naringin, a natural antioxidant, could inhibit ONOO- -mediated mitophagy activation and attenuate cerebral I/R injury. Firstly, we demonstrated that naringin possessed strong ONOO- scavenging capability and also inhibited the production of superoxide and nitric oxide in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 10 h oxygen-glucose-deprivation plus 14 h of reoxygenation or ONOO- donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine conditions...
April 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625105/myoclonus-epilepsy-retinitis-pigmentosa-leukoencephalopathy-and-cerebral-calcifications-associated-with-a-novel-m-5513g-a-mutation-in-the-mt-tw-gene
#16
Elena Cardaioli, Andrea Mignarri, Teresa Anna Cantisani, Alessandro Malandrini, Claudia Nesti, Anna Rubegni, Niccola Funel, Antonio Federico, Filippo Maria Santorelli, Maria Teresa Dotti
We sequenced the mitochondrial genome from a 40-year-old woman with myoclonus epilepsy, retinitis pigmentosa, leukoencephalopathy and cerebral calcifications. Histological and biochemical features of mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction were present. Direct sequencing showed a novel heteroplasmic mutation at nucleotide 5513 in the MT-TW gene that encodes tRNATrp . Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis confirmed that about 80% of muscle mtDNA harboured the mutation while it was present in minor percentages in mtDNA from other tissues...
April 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615062/kars-related-diseases-progressive-leukoencephalopathy-with-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-calcifications-as-new-phenotype-and-a-review-of-literature
#17
Anna Ardissone, Davide Tonduti, Andrea Legati, Eleonora Lamantea, Rita Barone, Imen Dorboz, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Gabriella Nebbia, Marco Maggioni, Barbara Garavaglia, Isabella Moroni, Laura Farina, Anna Pichiecchio, Simona Orcesi, Luisa Chiapparini, Daniele Ghezzi
BACKGROUND: KARS encodes lysyl- transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase, which catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA-Lys in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Eleven families/sporadic patients and 16 different mutations in KARS have been reported to date. The associated clinical phenotype is heterogeneous ranging from early onset encephalopathy to isolated peripheral neuropathy or nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Recently additional presentations including leukoencephalopathy as predominant cerebral involvement or cardiomyopathy, isolated or associated with muscular and cerebral involvement, have been reported...
April 4, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595076/anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-in-neurological-diseases-a-review
#18
Wa Cai, Wei-Dong Shen
Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Most of these diseases can be obviously alleviated by means of acupuncture treatment. Current research studies have shown that the efficacy of acupuncture to these medical conditions is closely associated with the anti-apoptotic potentials. Mainly based on the acupuncture's anti-apoptotic efficacy in prevalent neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease, depression or stress related-modes, spinal cord injuries, etc...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593636/combined-treatment-with-dichloroacetic-acid-and-pyruvate-reduces-hippocampal-neuronal-death-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#19
Dae Ki Hong, A Ra Kho, Bo Young Choi, Song Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Sang Hwon Lee, Kyoung-Ha Park, Jae-Bong Park, Sang Won Suh
Transient cerebral ischemia (TCI) occurs when blood flow to the brain is ceased or dramatically reduced. TCI causes energy depletion and oxidative stress, which leads to neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) acts as an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Additionally, DCA is known to increase mitochondrial pyruvate uptake and promotes glucose oxidation during glycolysis, thus enhancing pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of PDK activity by DCA, which increases the rate of pyruvate conversion to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), prevents ischemia-induced neuronal death...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589772/alda-1-an-aldh2-activator-protects-against-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-via-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress
#20
Tao Zhang, Qiang Zhao, Fang Ye, Chan-Yan Huang, Wan-Mei Chen, Wen-Qi Huang
AIM: Previous studies have proved that activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase two (ALDH2) can attenuate oxidative stress through clearance of cytotoxic aldehydes, and can protect against cardiac, cerebral and lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ALDH2 activator Alda-1 on hepatic I/R injury. METHODS: Partial warm ischemia was performed in the left and middle hepatic lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 h, followed by 6 h of reperfusion...
March 28, 2018: Free Radical Research
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