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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046694/hyperglycemia-exacerbates-downregulation-of-dynamin-like-protein-1-in-ischemic-cerebral-injury
#1
Dong-Ju Park, Myeong-Ok Kim, Phil-Ok Koh
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of adult disability and death. Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of stroke and poor outcomes after brain injury. Dynamin-like protein I (DLP-1) regulates mitochondrial fission and promotes mitochondrial dynamics. Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, and the downregulation of DLP-1 has been previously identified in a stroke animal model. Here, we investigated the changes in DLP-1 protein expression in an animal model of focal cerebral ischemia with induced hyperglycemia...
September 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045576/activation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-1-is-involved-in-protection-against-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cerebral-ischaemic-tolerance-induced-by-isoflurane-preconditioning
#2
M Cai, Q Yang, G Li, S Sun, Y Chen, L Tian, H Dong
Background: Isoflurane preconditioning (IPC) induces cerebral ischaemic tolerance, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine changes in mitochondrial function in the brain after IPC, and whether the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) could be involved in the mechanism of mitochondrial protection mediated by IPC. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with isoflurane 2% for 1 h day-1, for 5 days consecutively, and then subjected to 120 min right middle cerebral artery occlusion...
October 13, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043564/the-ucp2-866g-a-polymorphism-could-be-considered-as-a-genetic-marker-of-different-functional-prognosis-in-ischemic-stroke-after-recanalization
#3
I Díaz-Maroto Cicuéndez, E Fernández-Díaz, J García-García, J Jordán, I Fernández-Cadenas, J Montaner, G Serrano-Heras, T Segura
Recent studies based on experimental animal models of stroke have suggested that uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is thought to regulate energy metabolism and reduce reactive oxygen species generation, provides protection against reperfusion damage. We aimed to investigate whether -866G/A polymorphism in the promoter of the UCP2 gene, which enhances its transcriptional activity, is associated with functional prognosis in patients with embolic ischemic stroke after early recanalization...
October 17, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042253/calcium-uptake-and-cytochrome-c-release-from-normal-and-ischemic-brain-mitochondria
#4
Alexander Andreyev, Pratistha Tamrakar, Robert E Rosenthal, Gary Fiskum
At abnormally elevated levels of intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake may compromise mitochondrial electron transport activities and trigger membrane permeability changes that allow for release of cytochrome c and other mitochondrial apoptotic proteins into the cytosol. In this study, a clinically relevant canine cardiac arrest model was used to assess the effects of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion on mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity, Ca(2+) uptake-mediated inhibition of respiration, and Ca(2+)-induced cytochrome c release, as measured in vitro in a K(+)-based medium in the presence of Mg(2+), ATP, and NADH-linked oxidizable substrates...
October 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026001/understanding-a-role-for-hypoxia-in-lesion-formation-and-location-in-the-deep-and-periventricular-white-matter-in-small-vessel-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Santiago Martinez Sosa, Kenneth J Smith
The deep and periventricular white matter is preferentially affected in several neurological disorders, including cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in this injury. Here we consider the potential pathogenic role of tissue hypoxia in lesion development, arising partly from the vascular anatomy of the affected white matter. Specifically, these regions are supplied by a sparse vasculature fed by long, narrow end arteries/arterioles that are vulnerable to oxygen desaturation if perfusion is reduced (as in SVD, MS and diabetes) or if the surrounding tissue is hypoxic (as in MS, at least)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022237/dysfunction-of-membrane-trafficking-leads-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#6
REVIEW
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Bingren Hu
Neurons require an extraordinarily high level of membrane trafficking activities because of enriched axonal terminals and dendritic branches. For that reason, defects in the membrane trafficking pathway are a hallmark of most, and may be all, neurodegenerative disorders. A major cellular membrane trafficking pathway is the Golgi apparatus (Golgi hereafter)-late endosome-lysosome axis for supplying lysosomal enzymes. This pathway is regulated by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) ATPase. This review article is to discuss a novel hypothesis that brain ischemia inactivates NSF ATPase, resulting in a cascade of events of disruption of the Golgi-endosome-lysosome pathway, release of cathepsin B (CTSB), and induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during the postischemic phase...
October 11, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018327/maternal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-neurological-outcomes-in-adolescent-offspring-with-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#7
Yik L Chan, Sonia Saad, Rita Machaalani, Brian G Oliver, Bryce Vissel, Carol Pollock, Nicole M Jones, Hui Chen
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy occurs in approximately 6 per 1000 term newborns leading to devastating neurological consequences, such as cerebral palsy and seizures. Maternal smoking is one of the prominent risk factors contributing to HI injury. Mitochondrial integrity plays a critical role in neural injury and repair during HI. We previously showed that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) can reduce brain mitochondrial fission and autophagosome markers in male offspring. This was accompanied by increased brain cell apoptosis (active caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017857/administration-of-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic-acid-that-potentially-targets-mitochondrial-dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-confers-cerebral-preconditioning-against-ischemic-stroke-injury
#8
Jinzi Wu, Rongrong Li, Wenjun Li, Ming Ren, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Nathalie Sumien, Ran Liu, Shaohua Yang, James W Simpkins, Michael J Forster, Liang-Jun Yan
The objective of this study was to investigate a possible role of mitochondrial dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) as a chemical preconditioning target for neuroprotection against ischemic injury. We used 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA), a reportedly reversible DLDH inhibitor, as the preconditioning agent and administered MICA to rats mainly via dietary intake. Upon completion of 4 week's MICA treatment, rats underwent 1h transient ischemia and 24h reperfusion followed by tissue collection. Our results show that MICA protected the brain against ischemic stroke injury as the infarction volume of the brain from the MICA-treated group was significantly smaller than that from the control group...
October 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016679/perimenopause-and-emergence-of-an-alzheimer-s-bioenergetic-phenotype-in-brain-and-periphery
#9
Lisa Mosconi, Valentina Berti, Crystal Guyara-Quinn, Pauline McHugh, Gabriella Petrongolo, Ricardo S Osorio, Christopher Connaughty, Alberto Pupi, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Richard S Isaacson, Mony J de Leon, Russell H Swerdlow, Roberta Diaz Brinton
After advanced age, female sex is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological mechanisms underlying the increased AD risk in women remain largely undetermined. Preclinical studies identified the perimenopause to menopause transition, a neuroendocrine transition state unique to the female, as a sex-specific risk factor for AD. In animals, estrogenic regulation of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) falters during perimenopause. This is evident in glucose hypometabolism and decline in mitochondrial efficiency which is sustained thereafter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990067/thevetiaflavone-from-wikstroemia%C3%A2-indica-ameliorates-pc12-cells-injury-induced-by-ogd-r-via-improving-ros%C3%A2-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#10
Huankai Yao, Zhenhai Yuan, Guangming Wei, Chun Chen, Jingyu Duan, Yan Li, Yunru Wang, Chunping Zhang, Yuanhua Liu
Cerebral ischemia and following reperfusion affects many people worldwide. To discover efficient therapeutic approaches, numerous natural products have been investigated. The current study investigated the protective effects of thevetiaflavone, a natural flavonoid obtained from Wikstroemia indica, and the associated mechanisms using PC12 cells induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation. As a result, thevetiaflavone improves cell viability and suppresses the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from the cytoplasm...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977856/improvement-of-mitochondrial-function-mediated-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-5-4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone-in-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries
#11
Mingyang Wang, Lu Feng, Ji Zheng, Junya Liu, Shujie Fan, Jun Zhao, Nan Yang, Yanyong Liu, Zhanjun Yang, Caiying Ye, Pingping Zuo
Deficits in mitochondrial function is a critical inducement in the major pathways that drive neuronal cell death in ischemic process particularly. Drugs target to improve the mitochondrial function may be a feasible therapeutic choice in treatment with ischemic diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether 5-(4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (RD-1), a compound derived from rhodanine, could protect against ischemic neuronal damage via improving mitochondrial function. We tested the neuroprotective effect of RD-1 both in rats modeled by middle cerebral artery occlusion reperfusion in vivo and in primary cortical neurons subjected to hypoxia/reperfusion injury in vitro...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975969/research-on-biogenesis-of-mitochondria-in-astrocytes-in-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-models
#12
Y-Z Zhao, Z-Y Gao, L-Q Ma, Y-Y Zhuang, F-L Guan
OBJECTIVE: To study the structural and functional changes in mitochondria in astrocytes of the cerebral cortex of the rats in the simulated sepsis environment in vitro and the relationship between these changes and the biogenesis of mitochondria in astrocytes by establishing models of sepsis astrocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structural and functional changes in mitochondria in astrocytes of the cerebral cortex of the rats were evaluated. The ultra structural changes in the mitochondria, astrocytes, and ultrathin sections, were observed with a transmission electron microscope...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975622/the-low-affinity-neurotensin-receptor-antagonist-levocabastine-impairs-brain-nitric-oxide-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-function-by-independent-mechanisms
#13
Silvia Lores-Arnaiz, Analía G Karadayian, Alicia Gutnisky, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz
Neurotensin is known to inhibit neuronal Na+, K+ -ATPase, an effect that is rescued by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition. However, whether the neurotensinergic and the nitrergic systems are independent pathways, or are mechanistically linked, is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue and found that the administration of NTS2 antagonist, levocabastine (50 μg/kg, i.p.) inhibited NO synthase (NOS) activity by 74 and 42% after 18 h in synaptosomal and mitochondrial fractions isolated from the Wistar rat cerebral cortex, respectively; these effects disappeared 36 h after levocabastine treatment...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974669/non-exertional-heatstroke-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Chiara Mozzini, Giovanni Xotta, Ulisse Garbin, Anna Maria Fratta Pasini, Luciano Cominacini
BACKGROUND Heatstroke (HS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by an elevation of the core body temperature above 40°C, central nervous system dysfunction, and possible multi-organ failure. HS can trigger systemic inflammation, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), rhabdomyolysis, cerebral edema and seizures, pulmonary edema, heart dysfunctions, and renal and hepatic failure. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 41-year-old Romanian woman with a history of alcoholism who developed HS after arriving by bus in Verona, Italy in June 2016...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966881/neuroimaging-biomarkers-of-caloric-restriction-on-brain-metabolic-and-vascular-functions
#15
Ai-Ling Lin, Ishita Parikh, Jared D Hoffman, David Ma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
March 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949271/pressure-passivity-of-cerebral-mitochondrial-metabolism-is-associated-with-poor-outcome-following-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#16
Subhabrata Mitra, Gemma Bale, David Highton, Roxanna Gunny, Cristina Uria-Avellanal, Alan Bainbridge, Magdalena Sokolska, David Price, Angela Huertas-Ceballos, Giles S Kendall, Judith Meek, Ilias Tachtsidis, Nicola J Robertson
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Impaired autoregulation after hypoxia-ischaemia has been suggested to contribute further to injury. Thalamic lactate/N-Acetylasperate (Lac/NAA) peak area ratio of > 0.3 on proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is associated with poor neurodevelopment outcome following HIE. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) plays a central role in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis. Using a novel broadband NIRS system, we investigated the impact of pressure passivity of cerebral metabolism (CCO), oxygenation (haemoglobin difference (HbD)) and cerebral blood volume (total haemoglobin (HbT)) in 23 term infants following HIE during therapeutic hypothermia (HT)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948066/a-study-on-effect-of-curcumin-on-anticerebral-aneurysm-in-the-male-albino-rats
#17
Li-Juan Bo, Zhuang Miao, Zhan-Feng Wang, Kai-Zhi Zhang, Zheng Gao
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the curcumin effect on the cerebral aneurysm. Apoptosis is known to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of a cerebral aneurysm. Therefore, we investigated the effect of curcumin on apoptosis of smooth muscle cells of a cerebral aneurysm-induced male albino rats. METHODS: In this study, the cerebral aneurysm has been induced in the male albino rats by the CaCl2 administration. After cerebral aneurysm induction, smooth muscle cells were isolated...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940506/molecular-and-clinical-spectra-of-fbxl4-deficiency
#18
Ayman W El-Hattab, Hongzheng Dai, Mohammed Almannai, Julia Wang, Eissa A Faqeih, Ali Al Asmari, Mohammed A M Saleh, Mohammed A O Elamin, Majid Alfadhel, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Mais Hashem, Mazhor S Aldosary, Rawan Almass, Faten B Almutairi, Maysoon Alsagob, Mohammed Al-Owain, Shirin Al-Sharfa, Zuhair N Al-Hassnan, Zuhair Rahbeeni, Mohammed A Al-Muhaizea, Nawal Makhseed, Gretchen K Foskett, David A Stevenson, Natalia Gomez-Ospina, Chung Lee, Richard G Boles, Samantha A Schrier Vergano, Saskia B Wortmann, Wolfgang Sperl, Thomas Opladen, Georg F Hoffmann, Maja Hempel, Holger Prokisch, Bader Alhaddad, Johannes A Mayr, Wenyaw Chan, Namik Kaya, Lee-Jun C Wong
F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 4 (FBXL4) is a mitochondrial protein whose exact function is not yet known. However, cellular studies have suggested that it plays significant roles in mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, and mitochondrial dynamics. Biallelic pathogenic variants in FBXL4 are associated with an encephalopathic mtDNA maintenance defect syndrome that is a multisystem disease characterized by lactic acidemia, developmental delay, and hypotonia. Other features are feeding difficulties, growth failure, microcephaly, hyperammonemia, seizures, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, elevated liver transaminases, recurrent infections, variable distinctive facial features, white matter abnormalities and cerebral atrophy found in neuroimaging, combined deficiencies of multiple electron transport complexes, and mtDNA depletion...
September 22, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936463/sea-food-consumption-for-improving-cardiac-and-cerebral-manifestations-of-mitochondrial-encephalopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#19
Fulvio A Scorza, Josef Finsterer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928429/nrf2-ho-1-mediates-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-mangiferin-on-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-by-attenuating-mitochondria-related-apoptosis-and-neuroinflammation
#20
Zefeng Wang, Songxue Guo, Junxing Wang, Yuanyuan Shen, Jianmin Zhang, Qun Wu
Early brain injury (EBI) is involved in the process of cerebral tissue damage caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and multiple mechanisms, such as apoptosis and inflammation, participate in its development. Mangiferin (MF), a natural C-glucoside xanthone, has been reported to exert beneficial effects against several types of organ injury by influencing various biological progresses. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of MF to protect against EBI following SAH via histological and biological assessments...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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