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Knowledge representation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822778/diabetes-care-program-of-nova-scotia-celebrating-25-years-of-improving-diabetes-care-in-nova-scotia
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer I Payne, Margaret J Dunbar, Pamela Talbot, Meng H Tan
The Diabetes Care Program of Nova Scotia (DCPNS)'s mission is "to improve, through leadership and partnerships, the health of Nova Scotians living with, affected by, or at risk of developing diabetes." Working together with local, provincial and national partners, the DCPNS has improved and standardized diabetes care in Nova Scotia over the past 25 years by developing and deploying a resourceful and collaborative program model. This article describes the model and highlights its key achievements. With balanced representation from frontline providers through to senior decision makers in health care, the DCPNS works across the age continuum, supporting the implementation of national clinical practice guidelines and, when necessary, developing provincial guidelines to meet local needs...
August 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815488/exploring-vaccine-hesitancy-through-an-artist-scientist-collaboration-visualizing-vaccine-critical-parents-health-beliefs
#2
Kaisu Koski, Johan Holst
This project explores vaccine hesitancy through an artist-scientist collaboration. It aims to create better understanding of vaccine hesitant parents' health beliefs and how these influence their vaccine-critical decisions. The project interviews vaccine-hesitant parents in the Netherlands and Finland and develops experimental visual-narrative means to analyse the interview data. Vaccine-hesitant parents' health beliefs are, in this study, expressed through stories, and they are paralleled with so-called illness narratives...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815127/a-knowledge-based-system-for-intelligent-support-in-pharmacogenomics-evidence-assessment-ontology-driven-evidence-representation-and-retrieval
#3
Chia-Ju Lee, Beth Devine, Peter Tarczy-Hornoch
Pharmacogenomics holds promise as a critical component of precision medicine. Yet, the use of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical care is minimal, partly due to the lack of efficient and effective use of existing evidence. This paper describes the design, development, implementation and evaluation of a knowledge-based system that fulfills three critical features: a) providing clinically relevant evidence, b) applying an evidence-based approach, and c) using semantically computable formalism, to facilitate efficient evidence assessment to support timely decisions on adoption of pharmacogenomics in clinical care...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814023/representing-high-dimensional-data-to-intelligent-prostheses-and-other-wearable-assistive-robots-a-first-comparison-of-tile-coding-and-selective-kanerva-coding
#4
Jaden B Travnik, Patrick M Pilarski
Prosthetic devices have advanced in their capabilities and in the number and type of sensors included in their design. As the space of sensorimotor data available to a conventional or machine learning prosthetic control system increases in dimensionality and complexity, it becomes increasingly important that this data be represented in a useful and computationally efficient way. Well structured sensory data allows prosthetic control systems to make informed, appropriate control decisions. In this study, we explore the impact that increased sensorimotor information has on current machine learning prosthetic control approaches...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809718/integration-of-semantic-and-episodic-memories
#5
Adrian Horzyk, Janusz A Starzyk, James Graham
This paper describes the integration of semantic and episodic memory (EM) models and the benefits of such integration. Semantic memory (SM) is used as a foundation of knowledge and concept learning, and is needed for the operation of any cognitive system. EM retains personal experiences stored based on their significance--it is supported by the SM, and in return, it supports SM operations. Integrated declarative memories are critical for cognitive system development, yet very little research has been done to develop their computational models...
August 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808077/gps-knowledge-use-and-confidence-in-national-physical-activity-and-health-guidelines-and-tools-a-questionnaire-based-survey-of-general-practice-in-england
#6
Robin Chatterjee, Tim Chapman, Mike Gt Brannan, Justin Varney
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) brief advice in health care is effective at getting individuals active. It has been suggested that one in four people would be more active if advised by a GP or nurse, but as many as 72% of GPs do not discuss the benefits of physical activity with patients. AIM: To assess the knowledge, use, and confidence in national PA and Chief Medical Officer (CMO) health guidelines and tools among GPs in England. DESIGN AND SETTING: Online questionnaire-based survey of selfselecting GPs in England that took place over a 10-day period in March 2016...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807972/young-women-describe-the-ideal-first-pelvic-examination-qualitative-research-using-semistructured-interviews
#7
Anne Freyens, Mélanie Dejeanne, Elise Fabre, Marie-Eve Rouge-Bugat, Stéphane Oustric
OBJECTIVE: To explore representations of the first pelvic examination (PE) among adolescents who had not yet had this examination and to identify their criteria for a positive experience of it. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: Midi-Pyrénées and Auvergne in France. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who had never had a PE. METHODS: Participants were recruited through snowball sampling and targeted sampling until data saturation was reached...
August 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#8
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807104/understanding-practitioner-professionalism-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-health-lessons-from-student-and-registrar-placements-at-an-urban-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-primary-healthcare-service
#9
Deborah A Askew, Vivian J Lyall, Shaun C Ewen, David Paul, Melissa Wheeler
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to be pathologised in medical curriculum, leaving graduates feeling unequipped to effectively work cross-culturally. These factors create barriers to culturally safe health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this pilot pre-post study, the learning experiences of seven medical students and four medical registrars undertaking clinical placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service in 2014 were followed...
August 15, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806722/spontaneous-modality-general-abstraction-of-a-ratio-scale
#10
Cory D Bonn, Jessica F Cantlon
The existence of a generalized magnitude system in the human mind and brain has been studied extensively but remains elusive because it has not been clearly defined. Here we show that one possibility is the representation of relative magnitudes via ratio calculations: ratios are a naturally dimensionless or abstract quantity that could qualify as a common currency for magnitudes measured on vastly different psychophysical scales and in different sensory modalities like size, number, duration, and loudness. In a series of demonstrations based on comparisons of item sequences, we demonstrate that subjects spontaneously use knowledge of inter-item ratios within and across sensory modalities and across magnitude domains to rate sequences as more or less similar on a sliding scale...
August 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806576/allocentric-and-contra-aligned-spatial-representations-of-a-town-environment-in-blind-people
#11
Silvia Chiesa, Susanna Schmidt, Carla Tinti, Cesare Cornoldi
Evidence concerning the representation of space by blind individuals is still unclear, as sometimes blind people behave like sighted people do, while other times they present difficulties. A better understanding of blind people's difficulties, especially with reference to the strategies used to form the representation of the environment, may help to enhance knowledge of the consequences of the absence of vision. The present study examined the representation of the locations of landmarks of a real town by using pointing tasks that entailed either allocentric points of reference with mental rotations of different degrees, or contra-aligned representations...
August 11, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804738/social-observation-task-in-a-linear-maze-for-rats
#12
Xiang Mou, Daoyun Ji
Animals often learn through observing their conspecifics. However, the mechanisms of them obtaining useful knowledge during observation are beginning to be understood. This protocol describes a novel social observation task to test the 'local enhancement theory', which proposes that presence of social subjects in an environment facilitates one's understanding of the environments. By combining behavior test and in vivo electrophysiological recording, we found that social observation can facilitate the observer's spatial representation of an unexplored environment...
July 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797280/illness-perception-diabetes-knowledge-and-self-care-practices-among-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Nuworza Kugbey, Kwaku Oppong Asante, Korkor Adulai
BACKGROUND: Self-care practices among persons living with type-2 diabetes are very crucial in diabetes manages as poor self-care results in complications. However, little research exists within the Ghanaian context. This study examined whether type-2 diabetes patients' illness perception and diabetes knowledge significantly predict diabetes self-care practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was employed and a total of 160 participants (45 males and 115 females) were sampled from a general hospital in Accra...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796806/an-analysis-of-the-influence-of-deep-neural-network-dnn-topology-in-bottleneck-feature-based-language-recognition
#14
Alicia Lozano-Diez, Ruben Zazo, Doroteo T Toledano, Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez
Language recognition systems based on bottleneck features have recently become the state-of-the-art in this research field, showing its success in the last Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE 2015) organized by NIST (U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology). This type of system is based on a deep neural network (DNN) trained to discriminate between phonetic units, i.e. trained for the task of automatic speech recognition (ASR). This DNN aims to compress information in one of its layers, known as bottleneck (BN) layer, which is used to obtain a new frame representation of the audio signal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796611/simultaneous-local-binary-feature-learning-and-encoding-for-homogeneous-and-heterogeneous-face-recognition
#15
Jiwen Lu, Venice Erin Liong, Jie Zhou
In this paper, we propose a simultaneous local binary feature learning and encoding (SLBFLE) approach for both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition. Unlike existing hand-crafted face descriptors such as local binary pattern (LBP) and Gabor features which usually require strong prior knowledge, our SLBFLE is an unsupervised feature learning approach which automatically learns face representation from raw pixels. Unlike existing binary face descriptors such as the LBP, discriminant face descriptor (DFD), and compact binary face descriptor (CBFD) which use a two-stage feature extraction procedure, our SLBFLE jointly learns binary codes and the codebook for local face patches so that discriminative information from raw pixels from face images of different identities can be obtained by using a one-stage feature learning and encoding procedure...
August 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796604/dual-temporal-and-spatial-sparse-representation-for-inferring-group-wise-brain-networks-from-resting-state-fmri-dataset
#16
Junhui Gong, Xiaoyan Liu, Tianming Liu, Jiansong Zhou, Gang Sun, Juanxiu Tian
Recently, sparse representation has been successfully used to identify brain networks from task-based fMRI dataset. However, when using the strategy to analyze resting-state fMRI dataset, it is still a challenge to automatically infer the group-wise brain networks under consideration of group commonalities and subject-specific characteristics. In the paper, a novel method based on dual temporal and spatial sparse representation (DTSSR) is proposed to meet this challenge. Firstly, the brain functional networks with subject-specific characteristics are obtained via sparse representation with online dictionary learning for the fMRI time series (temporal domain) of each subject...
August 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795834/contrasting-gist-based-and-template-based-guidance-during-real-world-visual-search
#17
Brett Bahle, Michi Matsukura, Andrew Hollingworth
Visual search through real-world scenes is guided both by a representation of target features and by knowledge of the sematic properties of the scene (derived from scene gist recognition). In 3 experiments, we compared the relative roles of these 2 sources of guidance. Participants searched for a target object in the presence of a critical distractor object. The color of the critical distractor either matched or mismatched (a) the color of an item maintained in visual working memory for a secondary task (Experiment 1), or (b) the color of the target, cued by a picture before search commenced (Experiments 2 and 3)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793112/social-representations-of-older-adults-regarding-quality-of-life
#18
Marielle Cristina Gonçalves Ferreira, Luiz Fernando Rangel Tura, Rafael Celestino da Silva, Márcia de Assunção Ferreira
Objective: to identify the social representations of older adults regarding quality of life, and to analyze the care practices adopted to promote it. Method: qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research, applying the Theory of Social Representations. Thirty older people from a Health Academy of Rio de Janeiro participated in the study. The software Alceste was used, and lexical analysis of data was performed. Results: social representations of quality of life are based on the social determinants of health; they evidence knowledge and practices of care by valuing physical activities...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782432/affect-technoscience-and-textual-analysis-interrogating-the-affective-dynamics-of-the-zika-epidemic-through-media-texts
#19
Venla Oikkonen
Science and Technology Studies has become increasingly interested in the roles of affect and emotions in science and technology. Researchers have examined, for example, emotions in the production of scientific knowledge, patients' or users' affective experiences of technologies, and emotionally charged cultural representations of science. However, less attention has been paid to the underlying affective dynamics that connect these sites, experiences and representations. This article builds on the premises that, first, unpacking these underlying affective dynamics is pivotal to understanding emerging technoscientific phenomena, and, second, that such affective dynamics often need to be accessed through cultural texts such as media...
August 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781719/between-accommodating-and-activating-framing-policy-reforms-in-response-to-workforce-aging-across-europe
#20
Anne C Kroon, Rens Vliegenthart, Martine van Selm
In the past decade, European governments have implemented activating policy reforms to maximize older workers' employment and employability, representing a paradigmatic change in approaches to work and retirement. This study isolates the factors that explain the relative success and failure of competitive frames that are either in favor of or against activating policies in European news coverage, by applying time-series analysis (ordinary least squares with panel-corrected standard errors) to monthly aggregated news coverage in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Spain over the timespan 2006-2013...
July 2017: International Journal of Press/politics
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