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Knowledge representation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467563/sociocultural-influences-on-african-americans-representations-of-type-2-diabetes-a-qualitative-study
#1
Olayinka O Shiyanbola, Earlise Ward, Carolyn Brown
Objective: Illness representations, known as patients' beliefs and expectations about an illness, may be influenced by cultural beliefs and personal experiences. This study explored African Americans' perceptions of the sociocultural factors that influence their representations of diabetes. Design: Six semi-structured focus groups. Setting: Private space at a convenient site. Participants: Forty African Americans, aged 45-60 years with type 2 diabetes for at least one year prior...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465091/-public-participation-in-health-a-review-of-reviews
#2
REVIEW
J J Mira, I Carrillo, I Navarro, M Guilabert, J Vitaller, V Pérez-Jover, H Aguado
BACKGROUND: This study aims to synthesize knowledge about the role of the public's participation in the definition, prioritization, rationalization, monitoring or control of policies, plans, governance, investment/disinvestment, and design of health services. METHODS: Review of review articles (narrative or systematic) about consumer participation indexed in PubMed until August 2016. RESULTS: Forty-two reviews were identified (eighteen systematic and twenty-four narrative)...
February 21, 2018: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462669/assessing-the-practice-of-biomedical-ontology-evaluation-gaps-and-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Muhammad F Amith, Zhe He, Jiang Bian, Juan Antonio Lossio-Ventura, Cui Tao
With the proliferation of heterogeneous health care data in the last three decades, biomedical ontologies and controlled biomedical terminologies play a more and more important role in knowledge representation and management, data integration, natural language processing, as well as decision support for health information systems and biomedical research. Biomedical ontologies and controlled terminologies are intended to assure interoperability. Nevertheless, the quality of biomedical ontologies has hindered their applicability and subsequent adoption in real-world applications...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461071/borderline-personality-disorder-affective-instability-what-you-know-impacts-how-you-feel
#4
Alexandra M Dick, Michael K Suvak
The current study examined the role of conceptual knowledge and language in affective instability (AI) associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Forty-six females meeting criteria for BPD and 51 nonclinical female control participants without BPD completed a measure of general vocabulary and a semantic similarities task that provided estimates of the degree to which participants weighted information about valence and arousal in their understanding of emotion language. Feelings of valence and arousal were assessed using the Self-Assessment Manikin in response to 62 emotionally evocative images, which was used to derive estimates of AI...
February 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455577/exploring-autophagy-with-gene-ontology
#5
Paul Denny, Marc Feuermann, David P Hill, Ruth C Lovering, Helene Plun-Favreau, Paola Roncaglia
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that is well conserved among eukaryotes. It is one of the strategies that cells use to catabolize substances in a controlled way. Autophagy is used for recycling cellular components, responding to cellular stresses and ridding cells of foreign material. Perturbations in autophagy have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration, cardiac disease and cancer. The growing knowledge about autophagic mechanisms needs to be collected in a computable and shareable format to allow its use in data representation and interpretation...
February 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453022/exploring-factors-that-influence-students-attitudes-toward-midwifery-in-jordan-measuring-psychometric-properties-of-a-newly-developed-tool
#6
Lourance A Al Hadid, Omaymah Al-Rajabi, Marwa AlBarmawi, Najah Sayyah Yousef Sayyah, Lwiza Moh'd Toqan
Students' professional choice to proceed in midwifery is influenced by many factors. This study validated an instrument developed to assess students' attitudes toward midwifery in Jordan. It also addressed the motivating and de-motivating factors influencing students' decision concerning joining and continuing in midwifery. A descriptive, cross-section study was conducted on a convenience sample of 374 midwifery students representing private, governmental, and military midwifery colleges. The researchers developed the study questionnaire through conducting a comprehensive literature review, organizing common themes and consulting experts...
February 8, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451313/drivers-and-mechanisms-of-tree-mortality-in-moist-tropical-forests
#7
REVIEW
Nate McDowell, Craig D Allen, Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, Paulo Brando, Roel Brienen, Jeff Chambers, Brad Christoffersen, Stuart Davies, Chris Doughty, Alvaro Duque, Fernando Espirito-Santo, Rosie Fisher, Clarissa G Fontes, David Galbraith, Devin Goodsman, Charlotte Grossiord, Henrik Hartmann, Jennifer Holm, Daniel J Johnson, Abd Rahman Kassim, Michael Keller, Charlie Koven, Lara Kueppers, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Yadvinder Malhi, Sean M McMahon, Maurizio Mencuccini, Patrick Meir, Paul Moorcroft, Helene C Muller-Landau, Oliver L Phillips, Thomas Powell, Carlos A Sierra, John Sperry, Jeff Warren, Chonggang Xu, Xiangtao Xu
Tree mortality rates appear to be increasing in moist tropical forests (MTFs) with significant carbon cycle consequences. Here, we review the state of knowledge regarding MTF tree mortality, create a conceptual framework with testable hypotheses regarding the drivers, mechanisms and interactions that may underlie increasing MTF mortality rates, and identify the next steps for improved understanding and reduced prediction. Increasing mortality rates are associated with rising temperature and vapor pressure deficit, liana abundance, drought, wind events, fire and, possibly, CO 2 fertilization-induced increases in stand thinning or acceleration of trees reaching larger, more vulnerable heights...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447726/no-129-exercise-in-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period
#8
Gregory A L Davies, Larry A Wolfe, Michelle F Mottola, Catherine MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: To design Canadian guidelines advising obstetric care providers of the maternal, fetal, and neonatal implications of aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises in pregnancy. OUTCOMES: Knowledge of the impact of exercise on maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity, and of the maternal measures of fitness. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE search from 1966 to 2002 for English language articles related to studies of maternal aerobic and strength conditioning in a previously sedentary population, maternal aerobic and strength conditioning in a previouslyactive population, impact of aerobic and strength conditioning on early and late pregnancy outcomes, and impact of aerobic and strength conditioning on neonatal outcomes, as well as for review articles and meta-analyses related to exercise in pregnancy...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447218/findprimarypairs-an-efficient-algorithm-for-predicting-element-transferring-reactant-product-pairs-in-metabolic-networks
#9
Jon Lund Steffensen, Keith Dufault-Thompson, Ying Zhang
The metabolism of individual organisms and biological communities can be viewed as a network of metabolites connected to each other through chemical reactions. In metabolic networks, chemical reactions transform reactants into products, thereby transferring elements between these metabolites. Knowledge of how elements are transferred through reactant/product pairs allows for the identification of primary compound connections through a metabolic network. However, such information is not readily available and is often challenging to obtain for large reaction databases or genome-scale metabolic models...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447167/activating-attachments-enhances-heart-rate-variability
#10
Richard A Bryant, Thea Hutanamon
Although activating mental representations of attachment figures is beneficial for psychological health, there is a paucity of knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. We investigated how priming attachment figures may modulate parasympathetic stress response. Participants (N = 62) with varying degrees of attachment security underwent a cold pressor test, and then imagined an attachment or non-attachment figure. Heart rate variability was assessed throughout the study. Participants with low avoidant attachment levels displayed less negative affect and greater heart rate variability following the attachment prime than those who imagined the non-attachment prime...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446189/parents-experiences-of-neonatal-transfer-a-meta-study-of-qualitative-research-2000-2017
#11
REVIEW
Hanne Aagaard, Elisabeth O C Hall, Mette S Ludvigsen, Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt, Liv Fegran
Transfers of critically ill neonates are frequent phenomena. Even though parents' participation is regarded as crucial in neonatal care, a transfer often means that parents and neonates are separated. A systematic review of the parents' experiences of neonatal transfer is lacking. This paper describes a meta-study addressing qualitative research about parents' experiences of neonatal transfer. Through deconstruction and reflections of theories, methods, and empirical data, the aim was to achieve a deeper understanding of theoretical, empirical, contextual, historical, and methodological issues of qualitative studies concerning parents' experiences of neonatal transfer over the course of this meta-study (2000-2017)...
February 15, 2018: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440116/improving-interpretation-of-cardiac-phenotypes-and-enhancing-discovery-with-expanded-knowledge-in-the-gene-ontology
#12
Ruth C Lovering, Paola Roncaglia, Douglas G Howe, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Varsha K Khodiyar, Tanya Z Berardini, Susan Tweedie, Rebecca E Foulger, David Osumi-Sutherland, Nancy H Campbell, Rachael P Huntley, Philippa J Talmud, Judith A Blake, Ross Breckenridge, Paul R Riley, Pier D Lambiase, Perry M Elliott, Lucie Clapp, Andrew Tinker, David P Hill
BACKGROUND: A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439791/-the-representation-of-the-body-in-islam
#13
Sadek Beloucif
Science and Islamic culture incorporate the sacred and the profane. For a Muslim, science must be useful for humanity, and scientists must take responsibility, commensurate with their knowledge, for the potential consequences of their research. In this context, questions relating to the body in Islam take into account the Quran, hadiths and elements of established precedents.
January 2018: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438876/off-the-top-of-my-head-malleability-and-stability-in-natural-categories
#14
Tomás A Palma, Ana Sofia Santos, Leonel Garcia-Marques
Previous research has found that category representations are highly malleable knowledge structures, varying widely across different contexts and individuals. However, it has also been found that such malleability does not apply equally to all types of category information. The present research further investigates the representational malleability versus stability of natural taxonomic categories. Using perceptual fluency as means to induce malleability, we explored whether malleability is moderated by the degree of typicality of category information...
February 10, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427936/eurecon-equidistant-uniform-rigid-body-ensemble-constructor
#15
P Popov, S Grudinin
Conformational ensembles comprise one of the fundamental concepts in statistical bioinformatics and appear in a variety of applications, e.g. molecular docking, virtual screening, searching for pharmacophores, etc. High-throughput applications require billions of conformations to be considered, thus, one often uses the rigid-body representation of molecules or its fragments to cope with the computational cost. Of particular interest is generation of the near-native conformational ensembles, which consist of conformations structurally close to the biologically relevant ones...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424407/-the-constructivist-epistemological-belief-about-scientific-knowledge-varies-according-to-the-year-of-training-in-medical-students-but-not-in-students-of-other-health-careers
#16
Ximena Lazcano, Francisco Villalón, Soledad Vera, Paulette Conget
BACKGROUND: To optimize the teaching-learning process it is fundamental to know the representations that students have regarding knowledge. Epistemological beliefs are implicit theories that guide the practical actions of people. AIM: To characterize and compare epistemological beliefs regarding the nature and acquisition of scientific knowledge of health career students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, 726 students coursing first, third or fifth year from six health careers answered a validated questionnaire that includes closed and open questions aimed to characterize their epistemological beliefs about scientific knowledge...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412279/social-representations-of-undergraduates-about-the-education-through-work-for-health-program
#17
Luana Dos Santos Costa, Gláucia Alexandre Formozo
OBJECTIVE: analyze the social representation of undergraduates from the health area in which were scholars of PET-Saúde of the UFRJ-Macaé Professor Aloísio Teixeira Campus about this program and its contribution to the respective professional training. METHOD: This is an exploratory, descriptive study, with a qualitative approach. A total of 38 undergraduates participated, and a professional socioeconomic questionnaire and semi-structured interview were used to collect data...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409656/user-systems-architectures-two-studies-in-design-and-assessment
#18
Michael Tainsh
The concept of User System Architectures (USA) is introduced as part of the overall systems architecture. A USA is defined as a set of ergonomics information and knowledge assembled to represent system structure and content. It is described in the context of the system development lifecycle. The characteristics associated with a USA are outlined. These include layers of description, viewpoints, coherency and traceability. The concept of coherency between layers and the techniques for tracing the design characteristics back to the requirements (i...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409110/a-mixed-methods-study-identifying-key-intervention-targets-to-improve-participation-in-daily-living-activities-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients
#19
Katie L Hackett, Katherine H O Deane, Julia L Newton, Vincent Deary, Simon Bowman, Tim Rapley, Wan-Fai Ng
OBJECTIVE: Functional ability and participation in life situations are compromised in many primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) patients. This study aims to identify the key barriers and priorities to participation in daily living activities, in order to develop potential future interventions. METHODS: Group concept mapping (GCM), a semi-quantitative, mixed-methods, approach was used to identify and structure ideas from UK PSS patients, adults living with a PSS patient (AHMs) and health care professionals (HCPs)...
February 6, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407242/the-influence-of-vision-touch-and-proprioception-on-body-representation-of-the-lower-limbs
#20
Kayla D Stone, Anouk Keizer, H Chris Dijkerman
Numerous studies have shown that the representation of the hand is distorted. When participants are asked to localize unseen points on the hand (e.g. the knuckle), it is perceived to be wider and shorter than its physical dimensions. Similar distortions occur when people are asked to judge the distance between two tactile points on the hand; estimates made in the longitudinal direction are perceived as significantly shorter than those made in the transverse direction. Yet, when asked to visually compare the shape and size of one's own hand to a template hand, individuals are accurate at estimating the size of their own hands...
February 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
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