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Knowledge representation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040907/what-do-monkeys-know-about-others-knowledge
#1
Lindsey A Drayton, Laurie R Santos
Recently, comparative psychologists have suggested that primates represent others' knowledge states. Evidence for this claim comes from studies demonstrating that primates expect others to maintain representations of objects when those objects are not currently visible. However, little work has explored whether nonhuman primates expect others to share the more sophisticated kinds of object knowledge that they themselves possess. We therefore investigated whether primates attribute to others knowledge that is acquired through the mental transformation of a static object representation...
October 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035333/water-quality-sensing-and-spatio-temporal-monitoring-structure-with-autocorrelation-kernel-methods
#2
Iván P Vizcaíno, Enrique V Carrera, Sergio Muñoz-Romero, Luis H Cumbal, José Luis Rojo-Álvarez
Pollution on water resources is usually analyzed with monitoring campaigns, which consist of programmed sampling, measurement, and recording of the most representative water quality parameters. These campaign measurements yields a non-uniform spatio-temporal sampled data structure to characterize complex dynamics phenomena. In this work, we propose an enhanced statistical interpolation method to provide water quality managers with statistically interpolated representations of spatial-temporal dynamics. Specifically, our proposal makes efficient use of the a priori available information of the quality parameter measurements through Support Vector Regression (SVR) based on Mercer's kernels...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035214/a-graph-cut-approach-to-artery-vein-classification-in-ultra-widefield-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscopy
#3
Enrico Pellegrini, Gavin Robertson, Tom MacGillivray, Jano van Hemert, Graeme Houston, Emanuele Trucco
The classification of blood vessels into arterioles and venules is a fundamental step in the automatic investigation of retinal biomarkers for systemic diseases. In this paper we present a novel technique for vessel classification on ultra-wide-fieldof- view images of the retinal fundus acquired with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that a fully automated artery/vein classification technique for this type of retinal imaging with no manual intervention has been presented...
October 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034813/a-review-of-medical-terminology-standards-and-structured-reporting
#4
Abdullah Awaysheh, Jeffrey Wilcke, François Elvinger, Loren Rees, Weiguo Fan, Kurt Zimmerman
Much effort has been invested in standardizing medical terminology for representation of medical knowledge, storage in electronic medical records, retrieval, reuse for evidence-based decision making, and for efficient messaging between users. We only focus on those efforts related to the representation of clinical medical knowledge required for capturing diagnoses and findings from a wide range of general to specialty clinical perspectives (e.g., internists to pathologists). Standardized medical terminology and the usage of structured reporting have been shown to improve the usage of medical information in secondary activities, such as research, public health, and case studies...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033874/testing-the-motor-simulation-account-of-source-errors-for-actions-in-recall
#5
Nicholas Lange, Timothy J Hollins, Patric Bach
Observing someone else perform an action can lead to false memories of self-performance - the observation inflation effect. One explanation is that action simulation via mirror neuron activation during action observation is responsible for observation inflation by enriching memories of observed actions with motor representations. In three experiments we investigated this account of source memory failures, using a novel paradigm that minimized influences of verbalization and prior object knowledge. Participants worked in pairs to take turns acting out geometric shapes and letters...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030801/deep-arm-ear-ecg-image-learning-for-highly-wearable-biometric-human-identification
#6
Qingxue Zhang, Dian Zhou
In this study, to advance smart health applications which have increasing security/privacy requirements, we propose a novel highly wearable ECG-based user identification system, empowered by both non-standard convenient ECG lead configurations and deep learning techniques. Specifically, to achieve a super wearability, we suggest situating all the ECG electrodes on the left upper-arm, or behind the ears, and successfully obtain weak but distinguishable ECG waveforms. Afterwards, to identify individuals from weak ECG, we further present a two-stage framework, including ECG imaging and deep feature learning/identification...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029598/a-method-for-named-entity-normalization-in-biomedical-articles-application-to-diseases-and-plants
#7
Hyejin Cho, Wonjun Choi, Hyunju Lee
BACKGROUND: In biomedical articles, a named entity recognition (NER) technique that identifies entity names from texts is an important element for extracting biological knowledge from articles. After NER is applied to articles, the next step is to normalize the identified names into standard concepts (i.e., disease names are mapped to the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings disease terms). In biomedical articles, many entity normalization methods rely on domain-specific dictionaries for resolving synonyms and abbreviations...
October 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028901/a-collaborative-filtering-based-approach-to-biomedical-knowledge-discovery
#8
Jake Lever, Sitanshu Gakkhar, Michael Gottlieb, Tahereh Rashnavadi, Santina Lin, Celia Siu, Maia Smith, Martin Jones, Martin Krzywinski, Steven J Jones
Motivation: The increase in publication rates makes it challenging for an individual researcher to stay abreast of all relevant research in order to find novel research hypotheses. Literature-based discovery methods make use of knowledge graphs built using text mining and can infer future associations between biomedical concepts that will likely occur in new publications. These predictions are a valuable resource for researchers to explore a research topic. Current methods for prediction are based on the local structure of the knowledge graph...
September 26, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027672/inside-out-representational-ethics-and-diverse-communities
#9
Miryam Haarlammert, Dina Birman, Ashmeet Oberoi, Wendy Jordana Moore
The purpose of this paper is to write about insights and special considerations for researchers who are, to some degree, "insiders" to the communities they study by expanding on the concept of representational ethics as applied to research in community psychology with diverse and marginalized groups. Representational ethics refers to the ways that researchers, artists, or corporations represent the identities of the people they portray in their communications. As community psychologists we generate and disseminate knowledge about the communities we work with, and in that process, create narratives about the people who participate in our studies...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024463/ichem-a-versatile-toolkit-for-detecting-comparing-and-predicting-protein-ligand-interactions
#10
Franck Da Silva, Jérémy Desaphy, Didier Rognan
Structure-based ligand design requires to exactly describing the topology of molecular entities under scrutiny. IChem is a software wrapping up the many contributions of our group in this area over the last decade. It facilitates and automates many tasks (e.g. ligand/co-factor atom typing, identification of key water molecules) usually let to the modeler's choice. It therefore permits the detection of molecular interactions between two molecules, whatever their nature, in a very precise and flexible manner...
October 11, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019606/-medicine-is-a-joke-humorous-depictions-of-physicians-in-the-santu%C3%A3-rio-da-trindade-newspaper
#11
Andréia Márcia de Castro Galvão, Eliézer Cardoso de Oliveira
This article analyzes representations of medical knowledge in Goiás in the early decades of the twentieth century through anecdotes and articles in the Catholic newspaper Santuário da Trindade, which circulated from 1922 to 1931. The anecdotes reflect a certain distancing from the modernization of medicine and ridicule medical science, demonstrating what Bakhtin characterized as the irreverence of popular culture in relation to serious institutions. On the other hand, medical knowledge was greatly esteemed in the paper's articles, and served to legitimize the moralizing discourse of its editors...
July 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019169/one-back-reinforcement-dissociates-implicit-procedural-and-explicit-declarative-category-learning
#12
J David Smith, Sonia Jamani, Joseph Boomer, Barbara A Church
The debate over unitary/multiple category-learning utilities is reminiscent of debates about multiple memory systems and unitary/dual codes in knowledge representation. In categorization, researchers continue to seek paradigms to dissociate explicit learning processes (yielding verbalizable rules) from implicit learning processes (yielding stimulus-response associations that remain outside awareness). We introduce a new dissociation here. Participants learned matched category tasks with a multidimensional, information-integration solution or a one-dimensional, rule-based solution...
October 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017445/protein-remote-homology-detection-based-on-bidirectional-long-short-term-memory
#13
Shumin Li, Junjie Chen, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Protein remote homology detection plays a vital role in studies of protein structures and functions. Almost all of the traditional machine leaning methods require fixed length features to represent the protein sequences. However, it is never an easy task to extract the discriminative features with limited knowledge of proteins. On the other hand, deep learning technique has demonstrated its advantage in automatically learning representations. It is worthwhile to explore the applications of deep learning techniques to the protein remote homology detection...
October 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017140/lifelong-learning-of-human-actions-with-deep-neural-network-self-organization
#14
German I Parisi, Jun Tani, Cornelius Weber, Stefan Wermter
Lifelong learning is fundamental in autonomous robotics for the acquisition and fine-tuning of knowledge through experience. However, conventional deep neural models for action recognition from videos do not account for lifelong learning but rather learn a batch of training data with a predefined number of action classes and samples. Thus, there is the need to develop learning systems with the ability to incrementally process available perceptual cues and to adapt their responses over time. We propose a self-organizing neural architecture for incrementally learning to classify human actions from video sequences...
September 20, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993744/more-stable-ties-or-better-structure-an-examination-of-the-impact-of-co-author-network-on-team-knowledge-creation
#15
Mingze Li, Xiaoli Zhuang, Wenxing Liu, Pengcheng Zhang
This study aims to explore the influence of co-author network on team knowledge creation. Integrating the two traditional perspectives of network relationship and network structure, we examine the direct and interactive effects of tie stability and structural holes on team knowledge creation. Tracking scientific articles published by 111 scholars in the research field of human resource management from the top 8 American universities, we analyze scholars' scientific co-author networks. The result indicates that tie stability changes the teams' information processing modes and, when graphed, results in an inverted U-shape relationship between tie stability and team knowledge creation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992611/co-viewing-supports-toddlers-word-learning-from-contingent-and-noncontingent-video
#16
Gabrielle A Strouse, Georgene L Troseth, Katherine D O'Doherty, Megan M Saylor
Social cues are one way young children determine that a situation is pedagogical in nature-containing information to be learned and generalized. However, some social cues (e.g., contingent gaze and responsiveness) are missing from prerecorded video, a potential reason why toddlers' language learning from video can be inefficient compared with their learning directly from a person. This study explored two methods for supporting children's word learning from video by adding social-communicative cues. A sample of 88 30-month-olds began their participation with a video training phase...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991742/a-physics-based-deep-learning-approach-to-shadow-invariant-representations-of-hyperspectral-images
#17
Lloyd Windrim, Rishi Ramakrishnan, Arman Melkumyan, Richard J Murphy
This paper proposes the Relit Spectral Angle- Stacked Autoencoder, a novel unsupervised feature learning approach for mapping pixel reflectances to illumination invariant encodings. This work extends the Spectral Angle-Stacked Autoencoder so that it can learn a shadow-invariant mapping. The method is inspired by a deep learning technique, Denoising Autoencoders, with the incorporation of a physics-based model for illumination such that the algorithm learns a shadow invariant mapping without the need for any labelled training data, additional sensors, a priori knowledge of the scene or the assumption of Planckian illumination...
October 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991154/self-taught-learning-based-on-sparse-autoencoder-for-e-nose-in-wound-infection-detection
#18
Peilin He, Pengfei Jia, Siqi Qiao, Shukai Duan
For an electronic nose (E-nose) in wound infection distinguishing, traditional learning methods have always needed large quantities of labeled wound infection samples, which are both limited and expensive; thus, we introduce self-taught learning combined with sparse autoencoder and radial basis function (RBF) into the field. Self-taught learning is a kind of transfer learning that can transfer knowledge from other fields to target fields, can solve such problems that labeled data (target fields) and unlabeled data (other fields) do not share the same class labels, even if they are from entirely different distribution...
October 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984426/caregiver-knowledge-and-skills-to-safely-care-for-pediatric-tracheostomy-ventilation-at-home
#19
Reshma Amin, Chris Parshuram, Jeannie Kelso, Audrey Lim, Dimas Mateos, Ian Mitchell, Hema Patel, Madan Roy, Faiza Syed, Rita Troini, David Wensley, Louise Rose
OBJECTIVE: Caregivers of children using home mechanical ventilation (HMV) via tracheostomy require appropriate knowledge and skills. Existing training curricula are locally developed and content variable. We sought to develop a competency checklist to inform initial training and subsequent assessment of knowledge and skills of family caregivers. METHODS: We used a 2-step process. Candidate items were generated by synthesis of a scoping review, existing checklists, with additional items suggested by an eight member inter-professional group representing pediatric HMV programs across Canada...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982311/-wtf-is-prep-attitudes-towards-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-new-york-city
#20
Matthew Thomann, Ashley Grosso, Richard Zapata, Mary Ann Chiasson
In the USA, gay and other men who have sex with men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV-negative individuals from seroconverting if exposed to HIV, by members of this population remains low, particularly among African-Americans. We conducted two focus groups to assess responses to an online social media campaign focusing on PrEP use in New York City. We designed, produced and disseminated the campaign to address knowledge of PrEP; its physical and psychological side effects; and psychosocial barriers related to PrEP adherence and sex shaming...
October 6, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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