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Knowledge representation

Marta Ponari, Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Armand Rotaru, Alessandro Lenci, Gabriella Vigliocco
Some explanations of abstract word learning suggest that these words are learnt primarily from the linguistic input, using statistical co-occurrences of words in language, whereas concrete words can also rely on non-linguistic, experiential information. According to this hypothesis, we expect that, if the learner is not able to fully exploit the information in the linguistic input, abstract words should be affected more than concrete ones. Embodied approaches instead argue that both abstract and concrete words can rely on experiential information and, therefore, there might not be any linguistic primacy...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Gary Lupyan, Bodo Winter
How abstract is language? We show that abstractness pervades every corner of language, going far beyond the usual examples of freedom and justice In the light of the ubiquity of abstract words, the need to understand where abstract meanings come from becomes ever more acute. We argue that the best source of knowledge about abstract meanings may be language itself. We then consider a seemingly unrelated question: Why isn't language more iconic? Iconicity-a resemblance between the form of words and their meanings-can be immensely useful in language learning and communication...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Grace E Rice, Paul Hoffman, Richard J Binney, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) play a key role in conceptual knowledge representation. The hub-and-spoke theory suggests that the contribution of the ATLs to semantic representation is (a) transmodal, i.e. integrating information from multiple sensorimotor and verbal modalities, and (b) pan-categorical, representing concepts from all categories. Another literature, however, suggests that this region's responses are modality- and category-selective; prominent examples include category selectivity for socially relevant concepts and face recognition...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The problem of representation of abstract concepts, such as 'freedom' and 'justice', has become particularly crucial in recent years, owing to the increased success of embodied and grounded views of cognition. We will present a novel view on abstract concepts and abstract words. Since abstract concepts do not have single objects as referents, children and adults might rely more on input from others to learn them; we, therefore, suggest that linguistic and social experience play an important role for abstract concepts...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Martin H Fischer, Samuel Shaki
Numerical knowledge, including number concepts and arithmetic procedures, seems to be a clear-cut case for abstract symbol manipulation. Yet, evidence from perceptual and motor behaviour reveals that natural number knowledge and simple arithmetic also remain closely associated with modal experiences. Following a review of behavioural, animal and neuroscience studies of number processing, we propose a revised understanding of psychological number concepts as grounded in physical constraints, embodied in experience and situated through task-specific intentions...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
E Hoyau, A Roux-Sibilon, N Boudiaf, C Pichat, E Cousin, A Krainik, A Jaillard, C Peyrin, M Baciu
In this dynamic causal modeling (DCM) study, we evaluated the effect of age on the effective connectivity of a cerebral network involved in lexical production. Younger and older adults performed an object naming task during fMRI. The DCM was used to explore the interactions between four regions of interest: the occipital cortex, OC; the lateral temporal cortex, LTC; the medial temporal cortex, MTC; and the inferior frontal cortex, IFC. We mainly focused on the modulation of the fronto-temporal interaction, according to the hypothesis that aging requires strategies that modulate the access to the semantic knowledge, either through a neural reserve mechanism (increased MTC-LTC connectivity) or through a neural compensation mechanism (supplementary IFC-MTC connectivity)...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Language
Irit Zohar, Tamar Dayan, Menachem Goren, Dani Nadel, Israel Hershkovitz
Analysis of ca. 17,000 fish remains recovered from the late Upper Paleolithic/early Epi-Paleolithic (LGM; 23,000 BP) waterlogged site of Ohalo II (Rift Valley, Israel) provides new insights into the role of wetland habitats and the fish inhabiting them during the evolution of economic strategies prior to the agricultural evolution. Of the current 19 native fish species in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), eight species were identified at Ohalo II, belonging to two freshwater families: Cyprinidae (carps) and Cichlidae (St...
2018: PloS One
William Z Bernstein, Thomas D Hedberg, Moneer Helu, Allison Barnard Feeney
Recent advances enable data from manufacturing systems to be captured and contextualised relative to other phases of the product lifecycle, a necessary step toward understanding system behaviour and satisfying traceability requirements. Significant challenges remain for integrating information across the lifecycle and enabling efficient decision-making. In this paper, we explore opportunities for mapping standard data representations, such as the Standard for the Exchange of Product Data (STEP), MTConnect, and the Quality Information Framework (QIF) to integrate information silos existing across the lifecycle...
2018: International journal of product lifecycle management
K L Knopp, C Stenfors, C Baastrup, A W Bannon, M Calvo, O Caspani, G Currie, N B Finnerup, W Huang, J D Kennedy, I Lefevre, I Machin, M Macleod, H Rees, A S C Rice, K Rutten, M Segerdahl, J Serra, R Wodarski, O-G Berge, R-D Treedef
Background and aims Pain is a subjective experience, and as such, pre-clinical models of human pain are highly simplified representations of clinical features. These models are nevertheless critical for the delivery of novel analgesics for human pain, providing pharmacodynamic measurements of activity and, where possible, on-target confirmation of that activity. It has, however, been suggested that at least 50% of all pre-clinical data, independent of discipline, cannot be replicated. Additionally, the paucity of "negative" data in the public domain indicates a publication bias, and significantly impacts the interpretation of failed attempts to replicate published findings...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Davide Lazzeri, Fabio Nicoli
Introduction: George Salting was an art collector, who bequeathed his collection of paintings to the National Gallery of London. The present investigation has revealed five portraits of five different artists belonging to this collection in which the Holy Mother holding the child has been portrayed with a variable grade of thyroid gland enlargement. The name Salting, applied to the Madonnas with child by Antonello da Messina, Robert Campin, Dirk Bouts, Cima da Conegliano, and Andrea del Verrocchio, denotes George Salting, the collector who donated the masterworks to the gallery in 1910...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Agnès Le Masle, Sandra Santin, Léa Marlot, Ludovic Chahen, Nadège Charon
Biomass fast pyrolysis oils contain molecules having a large variety of chemical functions and a wide range of molecular weights (from several tens to several thousand grams per mole). The good knowledge of their complex composition is essential for optimizing the conversion of bio-oils to biofuels, thereby requiring powerful separation techniques. In this work, we investigate the interest of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) as a first dimension for the analysis of a bio-oil. A CPC method is proposed to separate oxygen containing compounds according to their partition coefficients in the solvent system...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
J Kyle Medley, Kiri Choi, Matthias König, Lucian Smith, Stanley Gu, Joseph Hellerstein, Stuart C Sealfon, Herbert M Sauro
The considerable difficulty encountered in reproducing the results of published dynamical models limits validation, exploration and reuse of this increasingly large biomedical research resource. To address this problem, we have developed Tellurium Notebook, a software system for model authoring, simulation, and teaching that facilitates building reproducible dynamical models and reusing models by 1) providing a notebook environment which allows models, Python code, and narrative to be intermixed, 2) supporting the COMBINE archive format during model development for capturing model information in an exchangeable format and 3) enabling users to easily simulate and edit public COMBINE-compliant models from public repositories to facilitate studying model dynamics, variants and test cases...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
S M Ali Eslami, Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Frederic Besse, Fabio Viola, Ari S Morcos, Marta Garnelo, Avraham Ruderman, Andrei A Rusu, Ivo Danihelka, Karol Gregor, David P Reichert, Lars Buesing, Theophane Weber, Oriol Vinyals, Dan Rosenbaum, Neil Rabinowitz, Helen King, Chloe Hillier, Matt Botvinick, Daan Wierstra, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis
Scene representation-the process of converting visual sensory data into concise descriptions-is a requirement for intelligent behavior. Recent work has shown that neural networks excel at this task when provided with large, labeled datasets. However, removing the reliance on human labeling remains an important open problem. To this end, we introduce the Generative Query Network (GQN), a framework within which machines learn to represent scenes using only their own sensors. The GQN takes as input images of a scene taken from different viewpoints, constructs an internal representation, and uses this representation to predict the appearance of that scene from previously unobserved viewpoints...
June 15, 2018: Science
Reiko Ashida, Nadia L Cerminara, Jon Brooks, Richard Apps
In this chapter, we compare current understanding of the anatomy and functional compartmentation of the human cerebellum with detailed knowledge in nonhuman species. The anatomy of the cerebellum is highly conserved across mammals and comparison of functional data suggests that similar principles of organization also hold true for somatotopy. In particular, there is a dual representation of the limbs in the cerebellar cortex in rat, ferret, cat, monkey, and human. In animals, a key organizing principle of the cerebellum is its division into a series of longitudinally oriented olivocorticonuclear modules that are narrow in the mediolateral axis but extend across multiple cerebellar lobules in the rostrocaudal plane...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Stephanie D Drobny, Amy Snell, Lisa Morris, Cathy Harshbarger, Pat Village, Shelly A Fischer
BACKGROUND: Peer review is an essential element of professional nursing practice. LOCAL PROBLEM: Implementing nursing practice peer review is a challenge in any organization; some characteristics of small and rural hospitals can make the task especially daunting. METHODS: A team of nursing leaders and staff nurses from rural and critical access hospitals within 1 health care system was formed to make recommendations about implementing nursing practice peer review in the small rural facilities...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
Alex Butler, Wei Wei, Chi Yuan, Tian Kang, Yuqi Si, Chunhua Weng
Much effort has been devoted to leverage EHR data for matching patients into clinical trials. However, EHRs may not contain all important data elements for clinical research eligibility screening. To better design research-friendly EHRs, an important step is to identify data elements frequently used for eligibility screening but not yet available in EHRs. This study fills this knowledge gap. Using the Alzheimer's disease domain as an example, we performed text mining on the eligibility criteria text in Clinicaltrials...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Rubina F Rizvi, Terrence J Adam, Elizabeth A Lindemann, Jake Vasilakes, Serguei Vs Pakhomov, Jeffrey R Bishop, Genevieve B Melton, Rui Zhang
Dietary supplements, often considered as food, are widely consumed despite of limited knowledge around their safety/efficacy and any well-established regulatory policies, unlike their drug counterparts. Informatics methods may be useful in filling this knowledge gap, however, the lack of standardized representation of DS hinders this progress. In this pilot study, five electronic DS resources, i.e., NM, DSID & NHPID (ingredient level) and DSLD & LNHPD (product level), were evaluated and compared both quantitatively and qualitatively employing four phases...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Francesco Sella, Daniela Lucangeli, Marco Zorzi
The ability to compare the numerical magnitude of symbolic numbers represents a milestone in the development of numerical skills. However, it remains unclear how basic numerical abilities contribute to the understanding of symbolic magnitude and whether the impact of these abilities may vary when symbolic numbers are presented as number words (e.g., "six vs. eight") vs. Arabic numbers (e.g., 6 vs. 8). In the present study on preschool children, we show that comparison of number words is related to cardinality knowledge whereas the comparison of Arabic digits is related to both cardinality knowledge and the ability to spatially map numbers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jai Y Yu, Daniel F Liu, Adrianna Loback, Irene Grossrubatscher, Loren M Frank
Memories link information about specific experiences to more general knowledge that is abstracted from and contextualizes those experiences. Hippocampal-cortical activity patterns representing features of past experience are reinstated during awake memory reactivation events, but whether representations of both specific and general features of experience are simultaneously reinstated remains unknown. We examined hippocampal and prefrontal cortical firing patterns during memory reactivation in rats performing a well-learned foraging task with multiple spatial paths...
June 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Keming Mao, Duo Lu, Dazhi E, Zhenhua Tan
Heated metal mark is an important trace to identify the cause of fire. However, traditional methods mainly focus on the knowledge of physics and chemistry for qualitative analysis and make it still a challenging problem. This paper presents a case study on attribute recognition of the heated metal mark image using computer vision and machine learning technologies. The proposed work is composed of three parts. Material is first generated. According to national standards, actual needs and feasibility, seven attributes are selected for research...
June 7, 2018: Sensors
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