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Piotr Sowa, Hanne F Harbo, Nathan S White, Elisabeth G Celius, Hauke Bartsch, Pål Berg-Hansen, Stine M Moen, Atle Bjørnerud, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Mona K Beyer
BACKGROUND: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a recently introduced magnetic resonance imaging diffusion technique. The utility of RSI in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between RSI-derived parameters and neurological disability in MS. METHODS: Seventy-seven relapsing-remitting MS patients were scanned with RSI on a 3-T scanner. RSI-derived parameters: fast and slow apparent diffusion coefficient (sADC), fractional anisotropy, restricted fractional anisotropy, neurite density (ND), cellularity, extracellular water fraction, and free water fraction, were obtained in white matter lesions (WML) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Mathew A Cherian, Sydney Olson, Hemalatha Sundaramoorthi, Kitra Cates, Xiaogang Cheng, John Harding, Andrew Martens, Grant A Challen, Manoj Tyagi, Lee Ratner, Daniel Rauch
The human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax drives cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis early in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Subsequently, likely as a result of specific immuno-editing, Tax expression is downregulated and functionally replaced by somatic driver mutations of the host genome. Both amplification and point mutations of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) have been previously detected in ATL, and the K59R mutation is the most common single-nucleotide variation in IRF4 and is found exclusively in ATL...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stephanie F Polites, Rachel M Nygaard, Pooja N Reddy, Martin D Zielinski, Chad J Richardson, Terri A Elsbernd, Branden M Petrun, Sean L Weinberg, Sherrie Murphy, Donald D Potter, Denise B Klinkner, Christopher R Moir
BACKGROUND: The 9th edition of ATLS recommends up to three crystalloid boluses in pediatric trauma patients with consideration of transfusion after the second bolus however this approach is debated. We aimed to determine if requirement of more than one fluid bolus predicts the need for transfusion. METHODS: 2010-2016 highest tier activation patients <15 years of age from two ACS Level I pediatric trauma centers were identified from prospectively maintained trauma databases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Firas Bannout, Sheri Harder, Michael Lee, Alexander Zouros, Ravi Raghavan, Travis Fogel, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Travis Losey
The neurosurgical treatment of skull base temporal encephalocele for patients with epilepsy is variable. We describe two adult cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with spheno-temporal encephalocele, currently seizure-free for more than two years after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and lesionectomy sparing the hippocampus without long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Encephaloceles were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by maxillofacial head computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
Letícia Sayuri Murase, João Vítor Perez de Souza, Quirino Alves de Lima Neto, Tatiane França Perles de Mello, Bruna Muller Cardoso, Daniele Stéfanie Sara Lopes Lera-Nonose, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Izabel Galhardo Demarchi
This is a systematic review on the role of metalloproteases in the pathogenicity of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by New World Leishmania species. The review followed the PRISMA method, searching for articles in PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS and ISI Web of Science, by employing the following terms: 'leishmaniasis', 'cutaneous leishmaniasis', 'mucocutaneous leishmaniasis', 'diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis', 'Leishmania' and 'metalloproteases'. GP63 of New World Leishmania species is a parasite metalloproteases involved in the degradation and cleavage of many biological molecules as kappa-B nuclear factor, fibronectin, tyrosine phosphatases...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology
Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Janaína de Moura Freire, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Elizabeth Castro Moreno, Raquel Carvalho Gontijo, Felipe Dutra Rego, Joaquim Edemilson Diniz, Maria Norma Melo, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) samples obtained from the lesions of patients with typical (n = 25, 29%), atypical (n = 60, 69%) or both (n = 2%) clinical manifestations were analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, hsp70 restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), hsp70 sequencing and phylogenetics methods. The hsp70 PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two different profiles whose the most samples differed from those expected for Leishmania braziliensis and the other Leishmania species tested: of 39 samples evaluated, two (5%) had a restriction profile corresponding to L...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology
Yoshitaka Inoue, Shigeo Fuji, Ryuji Tanosaki, Yoshihiro Inamoto, Takashi Tanaka, Ayumu Ito, Keiji Okinaka, Saiko Kurosawa, Sung-Won Kim, Hitoshi Nakagama, Takahiro Fukuda
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive T cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can be a curative treatment for ATL, a significant proportion of allo-HSCT recipients suffer from relapse/progression of ATL. Here we aimed to clarify the risk factors for and outcomes after posttransplant relapse/progression. We retrospectively reviewed 76 patients with ATL who received allo-HSCT at our institute. At the time of allo-HSCT, disease status was complete response in 17 patients, partial response in 29, stable disease (SD) in 18, and progressive disease (PD) in 12...
March 9, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Davit L Aghayan, Egidijus Pelanis, Åsmund Avdem Fretland, Airazat M Kazaryan, Mushegh A Sahakyan, Bård I Røsok, Leonid Barkhatov, Bjørn Atle Bjørnbeth, Ole Jakob Elle, Bjørn Edwin
Background: Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) is increasingly performed in specialized centers. While there is a trend towards a parenchyma-sparing strategy in multimodal treatment for CLM, its role is yet unclear. In this study we present short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic parenchyma-sparing liver resection (LPSLR) at a single center. Patients and methods: LLR were performed in 951 procedures between August 1998 and March 2017 at Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Stefania Fochi, Simona Mutascio, Umberto Bertazzoni, Donato Zipeto, Maria G Romanelli
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive CD4+ /CD25+ T-cell malignancy and of a severe neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The chronic activation or deregulation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. The HTLV-1 Tax-1 oncoprotein is a potent activator of the NF-κB transcription factors and the NF-κB response is required for promoting the development of HTLV-1 transformed cell lines...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Succora Olivia Nordin, Hilde Mjell Donkor, Vegard Bruun Wyller, Teresa Farstad, Arne Borthne, Atle Moen, Anne Lee Solevåg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Xun Wang, Yu-Long Lan, Jin-Shan Xing, Xiao-Qiang Lan, Li-Tao Wang, Bo Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common disease associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Secondary brain injury following TBI triggers pathological, physiological, and biological reactions that lead to neurological dysfunctions. Alantolactone (ATL) is a well-known Chinese medicine that possesses strong anti-inflammatory properties, but its role in TBI remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of ATL in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Lisa Flem Kalheim, Tormod Fladby, Christopher Coello, Atle Bjrnerud, Per Selnes
Flutemetamol (18F-Flut) is an [18F]-labelled amyloid PET tracer with increasing availability. The main objectives of this study were to investigate 1) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) concentrations associated with regional 18F-Flut uptake, 2) associations between cortical 18F-Flut and [18F]-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET, and 3) the potential use of 18F-Flut in WM pathology. Cognitively impaired, nondemented subjects were recruited (n = 44). CSF was drawn, and 18F-Flut-PET, 18F-FDG-PET, and MRI performed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Xiaoqing Gao, Francesco Gentile, Bruno Rossion
Defining the neural basis of perceptual categorization in a rapidly changing natural environment with low-temporal resolution methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is challenging. Here, we present a novel fast periodic stimulation (FPS)-fMRI approach to define face-selective brain regions with natural images. Human observers are presented with a dynamic stream of widely variable natural object images alternating at a fast rate (6 images/s). Every 9 s, a short burst of variable face images contrasting with object images in pairs induces an objective face-selective neural response at 0...
March 3, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ichiro Takajo, Kunihiko Umekita, Yoshihiko Ikei, Koichi Oshima, Akihiko Okayama
The patient was a 74-year-old Japanese woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed generalized lymphadenopathy with elevated levels of lactase dehydrogenase (LD), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). She was found to be positive for anti-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies. Her symptoms and laboratory abnormalities spontaneously regressed after the cessation of methotrexate (MTX), suggesting that she had an MTX-associated lymphoproliferative disorder; however, her lymphadenopathy appeared again approximately 14 months later with LD and sIL-2R elevation...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Andrea Oliveira Dias Temponi, Mariana Gontijo de Brito, Marcela Lencine Ferraz, Soraia de Araújo Diniz, Marcos Xavier Silva, Tarcísio Neves da Cunha
The aim of this study was to explain the association between social-environmental factors and major land uses and the occurrence of cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the spatial circuits of production in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This was an analytical-type ecological study based on secondary data on ATL divided by three-year period from 2007 to 2011, in which the analytical units were municipalities belonging to the spatial circuits. Two distinct stages were performed. The first was the elaboration of thematic maps with identification of the circuits...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Onanong Kritpetcharat, Lertchai Charerntanyarak, Usa Lek-Uthai, Peerapol Sukon, Suttiphan Kitcharoen, Panutas Kritpetcharat
Objectives: This study is aimed to assess the possible genotoxicity and mutagenicity of silk dyes on silk weavers. Methods: Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from 24 silk weavers and 24 age- and sex-matched controls in northeastern Thailand. After mitogen stimulation in culture, chromosome abnormalities were examined using Giemsa banding and the absolute telomere length (aTL) was measured with SYBR green qRT-PCR. To confirm genotoxic and mutagenic effects of silk dyes, leukocytes from one each of healthy male and female volunteers were cultured with various concentrations of 3 dark red silk dyes under the presence of mitogen...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Yangwen Xu, Xiaosha Wang, Xiaoying Wang, Weiwei Men, Jia-Hong Gao, Yanchao Bi
Concepts can be related in many ways. They can belong to the same taxonomic category (e.g., "doctor" and "teacher," both in the category of people) or be associated with the same event context (e.g., "doctor" and "stethoscope," both associated with medical scenarios). How are these two major types of semantic relations coded in the brain? We constructed stimuli representing three taxonomic categories (people, manmade objects, and locations) and three thematic categories (school, medicine, and sports) and investigated the neural representations of these two dimensions using representational similarity analyses in human participants (10 men and 9 women)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The left and right ventral anterior temporal lobes (vATL) have been implicated as key regions for the representation of conceptual knowledge. However, the nature and degree of hemispheric specialisation in their function is unclear. To address this issue, we investigated hemispheric specialisation in the ventral temporal lobes using a distortion-corrected spin-echo fMRI protocol that enhanced signal in vATL. We employed an orthogonal manipulation of stimulus (written words vs pictured objects) and task (naming vs recognition)...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Leila Alipanah, Per Winge, Jens Rohloff, Javad Najafi, Tore Brembu, Atle M Bones
Phosphorus, an essential element for all living organisms, is a limiting nutrient in many regions of the ocean due to its fast recycling. Changes in phosphate (Pi) availability in aquatic systems affect diatom growth and productivity. We investigated the early adaptive mechanisms in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to P deprivation using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics, physiological and biochemical experiments. Our analysis revealed strong induction of gene expression for proteins involved in phosphate acquisition and scavenging, and down-regulation of processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nucleic acid and ribosome biosynthesis...
2018: PloS One
Takahisa Suzuki, Shoichi Fukui, Kunihiko Umekita, Junya Miyamoto, Masataka Umeda, Ayako Nishino, Akitomo Okada, Tomohiro Koga, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Naoki Iwamoto, Kunihiro Ichinose, Mami Tamai, Keita Fujikawa, Toshiyuki Aramaki, Akinari Mizokami, Naoki Matsuoka, Yukitaka Ueki, Katsumi Eguchi, Shuntaro Sato, Toshihiko Hidaka, Tomoki Origuchi, Akihiko Okayama, Atsushi Kawakami, Hideki Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors for the treatment of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in an HTLV-I endemic area. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of 585 RA patients for whom TNF inhibitors were newly introduced as a first biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) in an HTLV-I endemic area in southwestern Japan. RESULTS: Fifty patients (8...
February 22, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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