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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148566/factors-that-influence-the-provision-of-intrapartum-and-postnatal-care-by-skilled-birth-attendants-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-qualitative-evidence-synthesis
#1
REVIEW
Susan Munabi-Babigumira, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Atle Fretheim, Harriet Nabudere
BACKGROUND: In many low- and middle-income countries women are encouraged to give birth in clinics and hospitals so that they can receive care from skilled birth attendants. A skilled birth attendant (SBA) is a health worker such as a midwife, doctor, or nurse who is trained to manage normal pregnancy and childbirth. (S)he is also trained to identify, manage, and refer any health problems that arise for mother and baby. The skills, attitudes and behaviour of SBAs, and the extent to which they work in an enabling working environment, impact on the quality of care provided...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146995/gaba-concentrations-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-predict-human-semantic-processing
#2
JeYoung Jung, Stephen R Williams, Faezeh Sanaei Nezhad, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
There is now considerable convergent evidence from multiple methodologies and clinical studies that the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is a semantic representational hub. However, the neurochemical nature of the ATL in the semantic processing remains unclear. The current study investigated the neurochemical mechanism underlying semantic processing in the ATL. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure task-related blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during sematic processing and resting-state GABA concentrations in the ATL...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145175/antimicrobial-activity-of-galangin-and-its-effects-on-murein-hydrolases-of-vancomycin-intermediate-staphylococcus-aureus-visa-strain-mu50
#3
Jing Ouyang, Fengjun Sun, Wei Feng, Yonghong Xie, Lijuan Ren, Yongchuan Chen
Backgroud: Antibiotic treatment for infections caused by vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains is challenging, and only a few effective and curative methods have been developed to combat these strains. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of galangin against S. aureus and its effects on the murein hydrolases of VISA strain Mu50. This is the first report on these effects of galangin, and it may help to improve the treatment for VISA infections by demonstrating the effective use of galangin...
November 17, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137701/the-correlation-between-atls-and-junior-doctors-anatomical-knowledge-of-central-venous-catheter-insertion-at-a-major-trauma-service-in-south-africa
#4
V Y Kong, J J Odendaal, R Weale, M Liu, C M Keene, B Sartorius, D L Clarke
OBJECTIVE: To review the ability of junior doctors (JDs) in identifying the correct anatomical site for central venous catheterization (CVC) and whether prior Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training influences this. DESIGN: We performed a prospective, observational study using a structured survey and asked a group of JDs (postgraduate year 1 [PGY1] or year 2 [PGY2]) to indicate on a photograph the exact site for CVC insertion via the internal jugular (IJV) and the subclavian (SCV) approach...
November 7, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137496/preoperative-quantitative-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-and-diffusion-weighted-imaging-predict-aggressive-disease-in-endometrial-cancer
#5
Kristine E Fasmer, Atle Bjørnerud, Sigmund Ytre-Hauge, Renate Grüner, Ingvild L Tangen, Henrica Mj Werner, Line Bjørge, Øyvind O Salvesen, Jone Trovik, Camilla Krakstad, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
Background Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) may yield preoperative tumor biomarkers relevant for prognosis and therapy in cancer. Purpose To explore the value of preoperative DCE-MRI and DWI for the prediction of aggressive disease in endometrial cancer patients. Material and Methods Preoperative MRI (1.5-T) from 177 patients were analyzed and imaging parameters reflecting tumor microvasculature (from DCE-MRI) and tumor microstructure (from DWI) were estimated...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134449/iohexol-plasma-clearance-in-children-validation-of-multiple-formulas-and-single-point-sampling-times
#6
Camilla Tøndel, Cathrin Lytomt Salvador, Karl Ove Hufthammer, Bjørn Bolann, Damien Brackman, Anna Bjerre, Einar Svarstad, Atle Brun
BACKGROUND: The non-ionic agent iohexol is increasingly used as the marker of choice for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Estimates of GFR in children have low accuracy and limiting the number of blood-draws in this patient population is especially relevant. We have performed a study to evaluate different formulas for calculating measured GFR based on plasma iohexol clearance with blood sampling at only one time point (GFR1p) and to determine the optimal sampling time point...
November 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117207/perceptions-and-experiences-of-childhood-vaccination-communication-strategies-among-caregivers-and-health-workers-in-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#7
Afiong Oku, Angela Oyo-Ita, Claire Glenton, Atle Fretheim, Heather Ames, Artur Muloliwa, Jessica Kaufman, Sophie Hill, Julie Cliff, Yuri Cartier, Eme Owoaje, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Gabriel Rada, Simon Lewin
BACKGROUND: Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117115/glucosinolate-derived-isothiocyanates-inhibit-arabidopsis-growth-and-the-potency-depends-on-their-side-chain-structure
#8
János Urbancsok, Atle M Bones, Ralph Kissen
Isothiocyanates (ITCs), the biologically important glucosinolate breakdown products, can present health-promoting effects, play an important role in plant defense and affect plant cellular mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the biological effects of ITCs on Arabidopsis thaliana by assessing growth parameters after long-term exposure to low concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic ITCs, ranging from 1 to 1000 µM. Treatment with the aliphatic allylisothiocyanate (allyl-ITC) led to a significant reduction of root length and fresh weight in a dose-dependent manner and affected the formation of lateral roots...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095818/dynamics-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-in-a-highly-endemic-region-for-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-infection-in-northeast-brazil
#9
Juliana Silva, Adriano Queiroz, Izabella Moura, Rosana S Sousa, Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Marcus Lessa, Ednaldo Lago, Mary E Wilson, Albert Schriefer
BACKGROUND: American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. Most L. braziliensis infections manifest as localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Disseminated manifestations include mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), present at a low constant level for several decades, and newly emerging disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). Surprisingly, DL has recently surpassed ML in its spatial distribution. This led us to hypothesize that distinct forms of ATL might spread in different patterns through affected regions...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093165/sequences-flanking-the-transmembrane-segments-facilitate-mitochondrial-localization-and-membrane-fusion-by-mitofusin
#10
Xiaofang Huang, Xin Zhou, Xiaoyu Hu, Amit S Joshi, Xiangyang Guo, Yushan Zhu, Quan Chen, William A Prinz, Junjie Hu
Mitochondria constantly divide and fuse. Homotypic fusion of the outer mitochondrial membranes requires the mitofusin (MFN) proteins, a family of dynamin-like GTPases. MFNs are anchored in the membrane by transmembrane (TM) segments, exposing both the N-terminal GTPase domain and the C-terminal tail (CT) to the cytosol. This arrangement is very similar to that of the atlastin (ATL) GTPases, which mediate fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. We engineered various MFN-ATL chimeras to gain mechanistic insight into MFN-mediated fusion...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090417/long-term-clinical-remission-maintained-after-cessation-of-zidovudine-and-interferon-%C3%AE-therapy-in-chronic-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#11
Lucy B Cook, Aileen G Rowan, Maria A Demontis, Sophie Sagawe, Nicolas A Gillet, Anat Melamed, Claire Greiller, Aviva Witkover, Charles R M Bangham, Graham P Taylor
Globally, > 5-10 million people are estimated to be infected with Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), of whom ~ 5% develop adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Despite advances in chemotherapy, overall survival (OS) has not improved in the 35 years since HTLV-1 was first described. In Europe/USA, combination treatment with zidovudine and interferon-α (ZDV/IFN-α) has substantially changed the management of patients with the leukemic subtypes of ATL (acute or unfavorable chronic ATL) and is under clinical trial evaluation in Japan...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077243/dual-inhibition-of-the-mtorc1-and-mtorc2-signaling-pathways-is-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#12
Takahito Kawata, Kohei Tada, Masayuki Kobayashi, Takashi Sakamoto, Yoko Takiuchi, Fumie Iwai, Maki Sakurada, Masakatsu Hishizawa, Kotaro Shirakawa, Keisuke Shindo, Hironori Sato, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
ATL has a poor prognosis due to severe immunosuppression and rapid tumor progression with resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Recent integrated-genome analysis has revealed mutations in many genes involved in the T-cell signaling pathway, suggesting that the aberration of this pathway is an important factor in ATL pathogenesis and ATL-cell proliferation. We screened a siRNA library to examine signaling-pathway functionality and found that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is critical to ATL-cell proliferation...
October 27, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076947/left-versus-biventricular-assist-devices-in-cardiac-arrest
#13
Erik J S Packer, Grete Slettom, Atle Solholm, Arve Mongstad, Rune Haaverstad, Vegard Tuseth, Ketil Grong, Jan Erik Nordrehaug
Maintaining adequate organ perfusion during cardiac arrest remains a challenge, and various assist techniques have been evaluated. We assessed whether a right ventricular impeller assist device (RVAD) in adjunct to a left ventricular impeller assist device (LVAD) is beneficial. Twenty anesthetized pigs were randomized to maximized circulatory support by percutaneously implanted left- or biventricular assist device(s) during 30 minutes of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation followed by three attempts of cardioversion...
October 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073620/activation-of-erk-and-mutual-regulation-of-stat3-and-sp1-contribute-to-inhibition-of-pdk1-expression-by-atractylenolide-1-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#14
Qian Xiao, Fang Zheng, JingJing Wu, Qing Tang, Wei Wang, Swei Sunny Hann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atractylodes macrocephula Koidz is an important ingredient in traditional Chinese herbs. One major bioactive compound, atractylenolide-1 (ATL-1), was reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated to this has not been well elucidated. METHODS: Cell viability and cell cycle distribution were measured using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069202/association-of-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-with-coronary-microvascular-resistance-in-patients-with-cardiac-syndrome-x
#15
Ming Long, Zhibin Huang, Xiaodong Zhuang, Zena Huang, Yue Guo, Xinxue Liao, Chufan Luo
BACKGROUND: Although a proportion of CSX patients have impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in response to hyperemia, suggesting that endothelial dysfunction in these patients may be systemic and not just confined to the coronary circulation; the underlying mechanisms triggering endothelial dysfunction in these patients are still incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of the index of Microcirculatory Resistance (IMR) with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in patients with CSX...
October 19, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064339/the-neurobiology-of-agrammatic-sentence-comprehension-a-lesion-study
#16
Corianne Rogalsky, Arianna N LaCroix, Kuan-Hua Chen, Steven W Anderson, Hanna Damasio, Tracy Love, Gregory Hickok
Broca's area has long been implicated in sentence comprehension. Damage to this region is thought to be the central source of "agrammatic comprehension" in which performance is substantially worse (and near chance) on sentences with noncanonical word orders compared with canonical word order sentences (in English). This claim is supported by functional neuroimaging studies demonstrating greater activation in Broca's area for noncanonical versus canonical sentences. However, functional neuroimaging studies also have frequently implicated the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in sentence processing more broadly, and recent lesion-symptom mapping studies have implicated the ATL and mid temporal regions in agrammatic comprehension...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063391/degradation-of-atenolol-via-heterogeneous-activation-of-persulfate-by-using-biocl-fe3o4-catalyst-under-simulated-solar-light-irradiation
#17
Yahong Shi, Hongche Chen, Yanlin Wu, Wenbo Dong
Efficient oxidative degradation of pharmaceutical pollutants in aquatic environments is of great importance. This study used magnetic BiOCl@Fe3O4 catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) under simulated solar light irradiation. This degradation system was evaluated using atenolol (ATL) as target pollutant. Four reactive species were identified in the sunlight/BiOCl@Fe3O4/PS system. The decreasing order of the contribution of each reactive species on ATL degradation was as follows: h(+) ≈ HO(·) > O2(·-) > SO4(·-)...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052136/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-infection-and-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#18
Chi-Ping Chan, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the first retrovirus discovered to cause adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a highly aggressive blood cancer. HTLV-1 research in the past 35 years has been most revealing in the mechanisms of viral oncogenesis. HTLV-1 establishes a lifelong persistent infection in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The infection outcome is governed by host immunity. ATL develops in 2-5% of infected individuals 30-50 years after initial exposure. HTLV-1 encodes two oncoproteins Tax and HBZ, which are required for initiation of cellular transformation and maintenance of cell proliferation, respectively...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051528/induced-seismicity-closed-form-traffic-light-system-for-actuarial-decision-making-during-deep-fluid-injections
#19
A Mignan, M Broccardo, S Wiemer, D Giardini
The rise in the frequency of anthropogenic earthquakes due to deep fluid injections is posing serious economic, societal, and legal challenges to many geo-energy and waste-disposal projects. Existing tools to assess such problems are still inherently heuristic and mostly based on expert elicitation (so-called clinical judgment). We propose, as a complementary approach, an adaptive traffic light system (ATLS) that is function of a statistical model of induced seismicity. It offers an actuarial judgement of the risk, which is based on a mapping between earthquake magnitude and risk...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051196/mechanisms-of-phosphorus-acquisition-and-lipid-class-remodelling-under-p-limitation-in-a-marine-microalga
#20
Alice Mühlroth, Per Winge, Aimen El Assimi, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal, Martin F Hohmann-Marriott, Olav Vadstein, Atle M Bones
Molecular mechanisms of phosphorus (P) limitation are of great interest for understanding algal production in aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies point to P limitation induced changes in lipid composition. As in microalgae the molecular mechanisms of this specific P-stress adaptation remain unresolved, we reveal a detailed phospholipid-recycling scheme in Nannochloropsis oceanica and described important P acquisition genes based on highly corresponding transcriptome and lipidome data. Initial responses to P limitation showed increased expression of genes involved in P uptake and an expansion of P substrate spectrum based on purple acid phosphatases...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
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