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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055202/tio2-nanoparticles-in-seawater-aggregation-and-interactions-with-the-green-alga-dunaliella-tertiolecta
#1
Elisabetta Morelli, Edi Gabellieri, Alessandra Bonomini, Danika Tognotti, Giacomo Grassi, Ilaria Corsi
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely employed in industrial applications, thus rising concern about their impact in the aquatic environment. In this study we investigated the chemical behaviour of TiO2 NPs in the culture medium and its effect on the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, in terms of growth inhibition, oxidative stress, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) accumulation and chlorophyll content. In addition, the influence of exopolymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the microalgae on the stability of NPs has been evaluated...
October 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055021/meercat-multiplexed-efficient-cell-free-expression-of-recombinant-qconcats-for-large-scale-absolute-proteome-quantification
#2
Nobuaki Takemori, Ayako Takemori, Yuki Tanaka, Yaeta Endo, Jane L Hurst, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Victoria M Harman, Robert J Beynon
A major challenge in proteomics is the absolute accurate quantification of large numbers of proteins. QconCATs, artificial proteins that are concatenations of multiple standard peptides, are well established as an efficient means to generate standards for proteome quantification. Previously, QconCATs have been expressed in bacteria, but we now describe QconCAT expression in a robust, cell-free system. The new expression approach rescues QconCATs that previously were unable to be expressed in bacteria and can reduce the incidence of proteolytic damage to QconCATs...
October 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055020/subtype-specific-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-uterine-leiomyoma
#3
Xin Wu, Vanida Ann Serna, Justin Thomas, Wenan Qiang, Michael L Blumenfeld, Takeshi Kurita
Recent genomic studies have identified subtypes of uterine leiomyoma (LM) with distinctive genetic alterations. Here we report the elucidation of the biological characteristics of the two most prevalent LM subtypes, MED12 mutant (MED12-LM) and HMGA2-overexpressing (HMGA2-LM) LM. Since each tumor carries only one genetic alteration, both subtypes are considered to be monoclonal. Approximately 90% of cells in HMGA2-LM were smooth muscle cells (SMC) with HMGA2 overexpression. In contrast, MED12-LM consisted of similar numbers of SMC and non-SMC, which were mostly tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF)...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055001/listeria-monocytogenes-replicate-in-bone-marrow-derived-cd11c-cells-but-not-in-dendritic-cells-isolated-from-the-murine-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
Grant S Jones, Victoria C Smith, Sarah E F D'Orazio
Recent fate-mapping studies and gene-expression profiles suggest that commonly used protocols to generate bone marrow-derived cultured dendritic cells yield a heterogeneous mixture, including some CD11c(hi) cells that may not have a bona fide counterpart in vivo. In this study, we provide further evidence of the discordance between ex vivo-isolated and in vitro-cultured CD11c(+) cells by analyzing an additional phenotype, the ability to support cytosolic growth of the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes Two days after foodborne infection of mice with GFP-expressing L...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054969/%C3%AE-mangostin-protects-against-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#5
Yanli Luo, Minxiang Lei
Diabetic vascular complications result from high glucose -induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. There is an emerging need for novel drugs with vascular endothelial cell -protective effects for the treatment of diabetic vascular complications. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of α-mangostin against high-glucose-induced apoptosis of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were treated with glucose to induce apoptosis. The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins, Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, were detected by Western blotting...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054940/rare-presentation-of-an-old-bug
#6
Hasan Ahmad Hasan Albitar, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Kaiser G Lim
We highlight a rare presentation of Legionella infection in a 77-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of giant cell arteritis 2 months prior to presentation. She was started on 60 mg prednisone that was tapered to 10 mg after 4 weeks following her diagnosis. She presented with a 1-month progressive dyspnoea in the absence of any other symptoms. Her exposure history was significant only for a recent trip to Florida where she stayed at a hotel. Initial laboratory workup was significant for hyponatraemia (127 mmol/L)...
October 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054869/estimating-population-turnover-rates-from-relative-quantification-methods-reveals-microbial-dynamics-in-marine-sediment
#7
Richard Kevorkian, Jordan T Bird, Alexander Shumaker, Karen G Lloyd
Difficulty quantifying biogeochemically significant microbes in marine sediments limits our ability to assess interspecific interactions, population turnover times, and niches of uncultured taxa. We incubated surface sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina USA, anoxically at 21°C for 122 days. Sulfate decreased until day 68, after which methane increased, with hydrogen concentration consistent with predicted values of an electron donor exerting thermodynamic control. We measured turnover times using two relative quantification methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the product of 16S gene read abundance and total cell abundance (FRAxC, for fraction of read abundance times cells), to estimate population turnover rates of uncultured clades...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054868/conditional-function-of-autoaggregative-protein-cah-and-common-cah-mutations-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#8
Michelle Qiu Carter, Maria T Brandl, Indira T Kudva, Robab Katani, Matthew R Moreau, Vivek Kapur
Cah is a calcium-binding autotransporter protein involved in autoaggregation and biofilm formation. Although cah is widespread in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), we detected mutations in cah at a frequency of 31.3% in this pathogen. In STEC O157:H7 super-shedder strain SS17, a large deletion results in a smaller coding sequence, lacking the C-terminal 71 amino acids compared with Cah in STEC O157:H7 strain EDL933. We examined the function of Cah in biofilm formation and host colonization to better understand selective pressures for cah mutations...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054856/levels-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-regulate-cellular-susceptibility-to-toxicity-from-%C3%AE-synuclein-oligomers
#9
Dafina M Angelova, Hannah B L Jones, David R Brown
α-Synuclein (α-syn) is associated with a range of diseases, including Parkinson disease. In disease, α-syn is known to aggregate and has the potential to be neurotoxic. The association between copper and α-syn results in the formation of stellate toxic oligomers that are highly toxic to cultured neurons. We further investigated the mechanism of toxicity of α-syn oligomers. Cells that overexpress α-syn showed increased susceptibility to the toxicity of the oligomers, while those that overexpressed β-syn showed increased resistance to the toxic oligomers...
October 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054798/the-antimicrobial-peptide-nisin-z-induces-selective-toxicity-and-apoptotic-cell-death-in-cultured-melanoma-cells
#10
Angélique Lewies, Johannes Frederik Wentzel, Hayley van Dyk, Lissinda Hester Du Plessis
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells present with altered energy metabolism which is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This is also evident for melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer related deaths. Altered mechanisms affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics pose attractive targets for novel anti-cancer therapies...
October 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054768/a-branching-process-model-of-heterogeneous-dna-damages-caused-by-radiotherapy-in-in-vitro-cell-cultures
#11
T Bastogne, J-L Marchand, S Pinel, P Vallois
This paper deals with the dynamic modeling and simulation of cell damage heterogeneity and associated mutant cell phenotypes in the therapeutic responses of cancer cell populations submitted to a radiotherapy session during in vitro assays. Each cell is described by a finite number of phenotypic states with possible transitions between them. The population dynamics is then given by an age-dependent multi-type branching process. From this representation, we obtain formulas for the average size of the global survival population as well as the one of subpopulations associated with 10 mutation phenotypes...
October 17, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054688/collagenous-matrix-supported-by-a-3d-printed-scaffold-for-osteogenic-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-cells
#12
Farahnaz Fahimipour, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Morteza Rasoulianboroujeni, Mostafa Yazdimamaghani, Kimia Khoshroo, Mohammadreza Tahriri, Amir Yadegari, Jose A Gonzalez, Daryoosh Vashaee, Douglas C Lobner, Tahereh S Jafarzadeh Kashi, Lobat Tayebi
OBJECTIVE: A systematic characterization of hybrid scaffolds, fabricated based on combinatorial additive manufacturing technique and freeze-drying method, is presented as a new platform for osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). METHODS: The scaffolds were consisted of a collagenous matrix embedded in a 3D-printed beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the mineral phase. The developed construct design was intended to achieve mechanical robustness owing to 3D-printed β-TCP scaffold, and biologically active 3D cell culture matrix pertaining to the Collagen extracellular matrix...
October 17, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054683/the-anthelminthic-drug-praziquantel-is-a-selective-agonist-of-the-sensory-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-type-8-channel
#13
Ramona-Madalina Babes, Tudor Selescu, Dan Domocos, Alexandru Babes
Praziquantel is the most effective anthelminthic drug for the treatment of schistosomiasis, an infectious disease caused by the platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. While praziquantel is known to trigger calcium influx into schisostomes, followed by spastic paralysis of the worms and tegumental disruption, the mechanism of action of the drug is not completely understood. Although relatively well tolerated, praziquantel has been reported to cause mild adverse effects, including nausea, abdominal pain and headaches...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054664/characterization-of-nutrient-removing-microbial-communities-in-two-full-scale-wwtp-systems-using-a-new-qpcr-approach
#14
Tarik Abzazou, Humbert Salvadó, Yexenia Cardenas Youngs, Alberto Becerril Rodríguez, Eva Mª Ciriero Cebirán, Anna Huguet, Rosa Mª Araujo
Biological wastewater treatment processes involve very complex microbial communities. Culture-independent molecular methods are feasible tools used to analyze and control the structure of different microbial communities, such as bacterial communities that remove nutrients. Here, we used the gBlocks gene fragments method, a new real-time PCR approach for the development of DNA standards, to quantify total bacterial cells, AOB, NOB, and Archaeal genes at two different WWTPs. PAOs were also quantified using the FISH technique...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054608/a-sweet-spot-for-fluid-induced-oscillations-in-the-conditioning-of-stem-cell-based-engineered-heart-valve-tissues
#15
Alexander Williams, Sana Nasim, Manuel Salinas, Arash Moshkforoush, Nikolaos Tsoukias, Sharan Ramaswamy
Fluid-induced shear stresses are involved in the development of cardiovascular tissues. In a tissue engineering framework, this stimulus has also been considered as a mechanical regulator of stem cell differentiation. We recently demonstrated that the fluid-oscillating effect in combination with a physiologically-relevant shear stress magnitude contributes to the formation of stem cell-derived de novo heart valve tissues. However, the range of oscillations necessary to induce favorable gene expression and engineered tissue formation is unknown...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054551/-mycoplasma-hominis-bacteremia-an-underestimated-etiological-agent
#16
Tamara Posse, Monica Prieto, Lucia Cipolla, Sara Kaufman
Mycoplasma hominis is a fastidious bacterium, which usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and may cause systemic infections in neonates and genital infections in adults. It can also be the cause of serious extra-genital infections, mainly in immunosuppressed or predisposed subjects. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of bacteremia caused by M. hominis in a previously healthy woman after uterine curettage due to incomplete abortion. M. hominis could be an underestimated cause of bacteremia in immunocompetent patients...
October 17, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054525/development-of-a-tannic-acid-cross-linking-process-for-obtaining-3d-porous-cell-laden-collagen-structure
#17
JiUn Lee, Miji Yeo, WonJin Kim, YoungWon Koo, Geun Hyung Kim
Cell-printing is an emerging technique that enables to build a customized structure using biomaterials and living cells for various biomedical applications. In many biomaterials, alginate has been widely used for rapid gelation, low cost, and relatively high processability. However, biocompatibilities enhancing cell adhesion and proliferation were limited, so that, to overcome this problem, an outstanding alternative, collagen, has been extensively investigated. Many factors remain to be proven for cell-printing applications, such as printability, physical sustainability after printing, and applicability of in vitro cell culture...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054501/transcriptomic-discovery-and-comparative-analysis-of-neuropeptide-precursors-in-sea-cucumbers-holothuroidea
#18
Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Arada Chaiyamoon, Alzbeta Talarovicova, Ruchanok Tinikul, Yotsawan Tinikul, Tanes Poomtong, Maurice R Elphick, Scott F Cummins, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptides synthesized and released by neuronal cells play important roles in the regulation of many processes, e.g. growth, feeding, reproduction, and behavior. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing technologies have helped to facilitate the identification of multiple neuropeptide genes in a variety of taxa, including arthropods, molluscs and echinoderms. In this study, we extend these studies to Holothuria scabra, a sea cucumber species that is widely cultured for human consumption. In silico analysis of H...
October 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054464/improved-kinetic-model-of-escherichia-coli-central-carbon-metabolism-in-batch-and-continuous-cultures
#19
Hiroyuki Kurata, Yurie Sugimoto
Many kinetic models of Escherichiacoli central metabolism have been built, but few models accurately reproduced the dynamic behaviors of wild type and multiple genetic mutants. In 2016 our latest kinetic model improved problems of existing models to reproduce the cell growth and glucose uptake of wild type, ΔpykA:pykF and Δpgi in a batch culture, while it overestimated the glucose uptake and cell growth rates of Δppc and hardly captured the typical characteristics of the glyoxylate and TCA cycle fluxes for Δpgi and Δppc...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054455/dadle-enhances-viability-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-human-mscs-subjected-to-serum-free-apoptotic-condition-in-part-via-the-dor-pi3k-akt-pathway
#20
L Vinod Kumar Reddy, Dwaipayan Sen
AIM: Nutritional deprivation and inflammation-rich zones are the major causative reasons for poor survivability of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Therefore in the present study, we demonstrated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of activated delta (δ)-opioid receptor (DOR) with synthetic peptide [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]-enkephalin (DADLE) treatment on human MSCs cultured in serum-starved condition. MAIN METHODS: Cell viability was measured using MTT and Annexin V/PI assays...
October 17, 2017: Life Sciences
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