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Masako Ito
Structural property of bone includes micro- or nano-structural property of the trabecular and cortical bone, and macroscopic geometry. Radiological technique is useful to analyze the bone structural property;multi-detector row CT(MDCT)or high-resolution peripheral QCT(HR-pQCT)is available to analyze human bone in vivo . For the analysis of hip geometry, CT-based hip structure analysis(HSA)is available as well as DXA-based HSA. These structural parameters are related to biomechanical property, and these assessment tools provide information of pathological changes or the effects of anti-osteoporotic agents on bone...
2017: Clinical Calcium
Huafeng Zhuang, Yizhong Li, Jinkuang Lin, Donglu Cai, Siqing Cai, Lisheng Yan, Xuedong Yao
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the differences in femoral geometry and bone mineral density between femoral neck fragility fractures and trochanteric fractures. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen patients were divided into femoral neck and trochanteric fracture groups. There were 69 patients with femoral neck fractures, 20 men and 49 women with an average age of 75.1 ± 9.6 years and an average body mass index (BMI) value of 21.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2 . The trochanteric group consisted of 48 patients, 16 men and 32 women with an average age of 78...
July 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Alan R Barker, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ioannis G Fatouros, Karen M Knapp, Craig A Williams, Luis Gracia-Marco
Adolescence is a crucial period for bone development, and exercise can enhance bone acquisition during this period of life. However, it is not known how the different loading sports practiced can affect bone acquisition in adolescent male athletes. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the 1-year longitudinal bone acquisition among adolescent males involved in osteogenic (football) and non-osteogenic (swimming and cycling) sports and to compare with active controls. A total of 116 adolescent males aged 12 to 14 years at baseline were followed for 1 year: 37 swimmers, 37 footballers, 28 cyclists, and 14 active controls...
November 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Melanie Schorr, Dean A Marengi, Reitumetse L Pulumo, Elaine Yu, Kamryn T Eddy, Anne Klibanski, Karen K Miller, Elizabeth A Lawson
Context: Oxytocin (OXT), an anorexigenic hypothalamic hormone anabolic to bone, may reflect energy availability. Basal serum OXT levels are lower in anorexia nervosa (AN, state of energy deficit) than healthy controls (HC) and negatively associated with spine bone mineral density (BMD). Reports are conflicting regarding OXT levels in overweight/obesity (OB, state of energy excess). Relationships between OXT and BMD in OB and hip geometry across the weight spectrum are unknown. Objective: To determine whether overnight serum OXT levels are (1) elevated in OB and (2) associated with body composition, BMD, and hip geometry across the weight spectrum...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Clinten P Edmondson, Elliott N Schwartz
Hip fracture is one of the most serious complications of osteoporosis. More than 50% of hip and other fractures occur in patients without densitometric osteoporosis. Therefore, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) may not be the best way to assess fracture risk. In order to improve assessment of fracture risk, many other approaches have been taken. At the present time, the Fracture Risk Algorithm (FRAX©) is one of the most notable ways to improve assessment of fracture risk. However, since early in the initiation of the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) era, several non-BMD DXA approaches to the assessment of hip fracture risk have been proposed...
November 2017: Bone
Alex Ireland, Stella Muthuri, Joern Rittweger, Judith E Adams, Kate A Ward, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper
Later age at onset of independent walking is associated with lower leg bone strength in childhood and adolescence. However, it is unknown whether these associations persist into older age or whether they are evident at axial (central) or upper limb sites. Therefore, we examined walking age obtained at age 2 years and bone outcomes obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans at ages 60 to 64 years in a nationally representative cohort study of British people, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development...
June 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Darrell H S Tan, Janet Raboud, Leah Szadkowski, Eva Szabo, Hanxian Hu, Queenie Wong, Angela M Cheung, Sharon L Walmsley
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults have increased fracture risk. OBJECTIVES: To generate pilot data comparing bone density, structure, and strength between HIV-infected adults with and without a prior fracture. METHODS: Adults with and without a prior fracture after their HIV diagnosis were matched 1:1 based on age, sex, race, and smoking history. Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS), hip structural analyses (HSA), vertebral fracture assessment (VFA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative tomography (HR-pQCT) and measurement of bone turnover markers...
January 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
Fabio M Ulivieri, Renata Caudarella, Marzia Camisasca, Daniela M Cabrini, Ilaria Merli, Carmelo Messina, Luca P Piodi
Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry...
April 20, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
Rebecca J Mallinson, Nancy I Williams, Jenna C Gibbs, Karsten Koehler, Heather C M Allaway, Emily Southmayd, Mary Jane De Souza
UNLABELLED: Menstrual status, both past and current, has been established as an important determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) in young exercising women. However, little is known regarding the association between the cumulative effect of menstrual status and indices of bone health beyond BMD, such as bone geometry and estimated bone strength. PURPOSE: This study explores the association between cumulative menstrual status and indices of bone health assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), including femoral neck geometry and strength and areal BMD (aBMD), in exercising women...
July 2016: Bone
Melanie Schorr, Laura E Dichtel, Anu V Gerweck, Martin Torriani, Karen K Miller, Miriam A Bredella
OBJECTIVE: To determine body composition predictors of skeletal integrity in overweight/obese subjects using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We hypothesized that visceral adiposity would be negatively, and lean mass positively, associated with DXA measures of skeletal integrity in obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study was institutional review board (IRB)-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant and written informed consent was obtained...
June 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Licheng Zhang, Houchen Lv, Hailiang Zheng, Ming Li, Pengbin Yin, Ye Peng, Yuan Gao, Lihai Zhang, Peifu Tang
BACKGROUND: Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS), which is used in the evaluation of osteoporosis, is believed to be intimately associated with the characteristics of the proximal femur. However, the specific associations of calcaneal QUS with characteristics of the hip sub-regions remain unclear. DESIGN: A cross-sectional assessment of 53 osteoporotic patients was performed for the skeletal status of the heel and hip. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 53 female osteoporotic patients with femoral fractures...
2015: PloS One
Carolina Medina-Gomez, Denise Hm Heppe, Jia-Lian Yin, Katerina Trajanoska, André G Uitterlinden, Thomas J Beck, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Fernando Rivadeneira
Bone strength, a key determinant of fracture risk, has been shown to display clear sexual dimorphism after puberty. We sought to determine whether sex differences in bone mass and hip bone geometry as an index of strength exist in school-age prepubertal children and the degree to which the differences are independent of body size and lean mass. We studied 3514 children whose whole-body and hip scans were measured using the same densitometer (GE-Lunar iDXA) at a mean age of 6.2 years. Hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans underwent hip structural analyses (HSA) with derivation of bone strength indices...
May 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
A E Litwic, M Clynes, H J Denison, K A Jameson, M H Edwards, A A Sayer, P Taylor, C Cooper, E M Dennison
Hip fracture is the most significant complication of osteoporosis in terms of mortality, long-term disability and decreased quality of life. In the recent years, different techniques have been developed to assess lower limb strength and ultimately fracture risk. Here we examine relationships between two measures of lower limb bone geometry and strength; proximal femoral geometry and tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We studied a sample of 431 women and 488 men aged in the range 59-71 years...
February 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Jian Gong, Min Tang, Bin Guo, JingJie Shang, Yongjin Tang, Hao Xu
We investigated age-related changes in estimated bone strength and cross-sectional structure of the femoral neck (FN) in mainland Chinese men and women (according to age and sex) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 3855 healthy adults (2713 women, 1142 men; ages 25-91years) were analyzed by FN bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and hip structural/strength analysis (HSA), including cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus (Z), periosteal diameter (PD), endocortical diameter (ED), and cortical thickness (CT) using DXA...
February 2016: Bone
B C C Khoo, J R Lewis, K Brown, R L Prince
UNLABELLED: Many attempts have been made to improve the predictive ability of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) which integrates bone mass and area. The addition of an extra variable derived from the hip dual-energy X-ray (DXA) image TR_σ, which describes distribution of mass within the scanned area of the trochanter, improved prediction of 15-year hip fracture probability in elderly women. INTRODUCTION: Two-dimensional DXA imaging of the proximal femur to produce an aBMD is a clinically useful predictor of future fracture risk...
January 2016: Osteoporosis International
Giovanni Iolascon, Antimo Moretti, Giovanni Cannaviello, Giuseppina Resmini, Francesca Gimigliano
INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of hip fracture, proximal femur geometry plays a key role as well as decreased bone density. The hip structural analysis (HSA) processes dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images containing information on the geometry closely related to the strength of the proximal femur. The objective of this study was to investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of the proximal femur in a group of women with a previous contralateral hip fragility fracture compared to women without history of hip fracture...
October 2015: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Thomas J Beck, Thomas Fuerst, Kenneth W Gaither, Santosh Sutradhar, Amy B Levine, Teresa Hines, Ching-Ray Yu, Robert Williams, Sebastian Mirkin, Arkadi A Chines
Bazedoxifene (BZA) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been shown to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Hip structure analysis (HSA) can be used to extract bone structural properties related to strength from hip bone mineral density (BMD) scans. This exploratory analysis used HSA to evaluate changes in hip structural geometry in postmenopausal women enrolled in a phase 3 osteoporosis treatment study who were treated with BZA 20mg or placebo for 2 years. This analysis cohort included women at increased fracture risk based on known skeletal risk factors (n = 521); 1 or more moderate or severe fractures or 2 or more mild vertebral fractures and/or femoral neck BMD T-score ≤ -3...
August 2015: Bone
Rawad El Hage, Eddy Zakhem, Gautier Zunquin, Denis Theunynck
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to compare geometric indices of hip bone strength in male professional soccer players and controls. METHODS: Twenty-three male professional soccer players and 21 male sedentary subjects whose ages range between 18 and 30 years participated in this study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Daily calcium intake and physical activity were evaluated using validated questionnaires. Hip bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
October 2014: Le Journal Médical Libanais. the Lebanese Medical Journal
Rawad El Hage, Denis Theunynck, Emilie Rocher, Rafic Baddoura
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to compare geometric indices of hip bone strength in overweight and control elderly men. METHODS & RESULTS: This study included 16 overweight (Body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2) elderly men (aged 65-84 years) and 38 age-matched controls (BMI < 25 kg/m2). Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To evaluate hip bone geometry, DXA scans were analyzed at the femoral neck, the intertrochanteric region, and the femoral shaft by the Hip Structure Analysis (HSA) program...
July 2014: Le Journal Médical Libanais. the Lebanese Medical Journal
Lang Yang, Lisa Palermo, Dennis M Black, Richard Eastell
A bone fractures only when loaded beyond its strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, with incident hip fracture in comparison to hip bone mineral density (BMD), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and hip structure analysis (HSA) variables. This prospective case-cohort study included a random sample of 1941 women and 668 incident hip fracture cases (295 in the random sample) during a mean ± SD follow-up of 12...
December 2014: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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