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Evapotranspiration irrigation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215129/the-aquifer-recharge-an-overview-of-the-legislative-and-planning-aspect
#1
O De Giglio, G Caggiano, F Apollonio, A Marzella, S Brigida, E Ranieri, L Lucentini, V F Uricchio, M T Montagna
In most regions of the world, safeguarding groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly in coastal areas where groundwater is the main water source for drinking, irrigation and industry. Water availability depends on climate, topography and geology. The aim of this paper is to evaluate aquifer recharge as a possible strategy to relieve water resource scarcity. Natural aquifer recharge is defined as the downward flow of water reaching the water table, increasing the groundwater reservoir. Hydro-meteorological factors (rainfall, evapotranspiration and runoff) may alter natural recharge processes...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210466/influence-of-deficit-irrigation-and-crop-load-on-the-yield-and-fruit-quality-in-wonderful-and-mollar-de-elche-pomegranates
#2
M Cano-Lamadrid, A Galindo, J Collado-González, P Rodríguez, Z N Cruz, P Legua, F Burló, D Morales, A A Carbonell-Barrachina, F Hernández
BACKGROUND: The working hypothesis of this experiment was that by proper simultaneous control of irrigation (hydroSOStainable products) and crop load (thinning) is possible to promote bioactive compounds accumulation and improve fruit appearance (size and weight). The effects of (i) irrigation status [T0: 120% ETc (estimated crop evapotranspiration); T1: 60% ETc during fruit growth and ripening] and (ii) crop load (A0: no thinning; A1: thinning) on yield and fruit quality were evaluated in two pomegranate cultivars (Wonderful, Wond, and Mollar de Elche, ME)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156568/assessing-crop-coefficients-for-natural-vegetated-areas-using-satellite-data-and-eddy-covariance-stations
#3
Chiara Corbari, Giovanni Ravazzani, Marta Galvagno, Edoardo Cremonese, Marco Mancini
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066817/deficit-irrigation-and-planting-patterns-strategies-to-improve-maize-yield-and-water-productivity-at-different-plant-densities-in-semi-arid-regions
#4
Qianmin Jia, Lefeng Sun, Shahzad Ali, Donghua Liu, Yan Zhang, Xiaolong Ren, Peng Zhang, Zhikuan Jia
Field research was done in two consecutive years to optimize deficit irrigation under different crop densities (low, medium, and high) using the ridge and furrow rainfall harvesting (RFRH) system. We demonstrate that applying deficit irrigation (375 m(3) ha(-1)) at the flowering stage of maize grown at medium density (M: 75000 plant ha(-1)) under the RFRH system (MIF) can improve soil water storage (0-200 cm) at the bell, filling and flowering stages. MIF increased biomass by 10% and grain yield by 21%, thereby achieving a 17% increase in water use efficiency (WUE) and a 22% increase in precipitation use efficiency (PUE) compared with conventional flat planting (CKM)...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051767/combined-effects-of-irrigation-regime-genotype-and-harvest-stage-determine-tomato-fruit-quality-and-aptitude-for-processing-into-puree
#5
Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, David Page, Robert Giovinazzo, Nadia Bertin, Anne-Laure Fanciullino
Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036926/evaluation-of-sensible-heat-flux-and-evapotranspiration-estimates-using-a-surface-layer-scintillometer-and-a-large-weighing-lysimeter
#6
Jerry E Moorhead, Gary W Marek, Paul D Colaizzi, Prasanna H Gowda, Steven R Evett, David K Brauer, Thomas H Marek, Dana O Porter
Accurate estimates of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET) are important for optimal irrigation water management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Common ET sensing methods include Bowen Ratio, Eddy Covariance (EC), and scintillometers. Large weighing lysimeters are considered the ultimate standard for measurement of ET, however, they are expensive to install and maintain. Although EC and scintillometers are less costly and relatively portable, EC has known energy balance closure discrepancies. Previous scintillometer studies used EC for ground-truthing, but no studies considered weighing lysimeters...
October 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033960/evaluation-of-the-cropsyst-model-during-wheat-maize-rotations-on-the-north-china-plain-for-identifying-soil-evaporation-losses
#7
Muhammad Umair, Yanjun Shen, Yongqing Qi, Yucui Zhang, Ayesha Ahmad, Hongwei Pei, Meiying Liu
The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production zone that plays a critical role in ensuring China's food supply. Irrigation is commonly used during grain production; however, the high annual water deficit [precipitation (P) minus evapotranspiration (ET)] in typical irrigated cropland does not support double cropping systems (such as maize and wheat) and this has resulted in the steep decline in the water table (~0.8 m year(-1) at the Luancheng station) that has taken place since the 1970s. The current study aimed to adapt and check the ability of the CropSyst model (Suite-4) to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ETa), biomass, and grain yield, and to identify major evaporation (E) losses from winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) rotations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026512/the-phyllochron-of-well-watered-and-water-deficit-mature-peach-trees-varies-with-shoot-type-and-vigour
#8
Anna Davidson, David Da Silva, Theodore M DeJong
The branch construction of trees is based on phytomers, repetitive subunits defined as node + leaf + axillary meristem + internode. The rate at which phytomers are added to a shoot is termed the phyllochron, which is determined by genetics, endogenous regulation and environmental conditions. The phyllochron is fundamental to understanding the growth of plants. Most phyllochron studies on woody species are of young plants under controlled conditions without consideration for different types of shoots that are present in mature trees...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899081/-bending-models-of-halotropism-incorporating-protein-phosphatase-2a-abcb-transporters-and-auxin-metabolism
#9
Eun Hyang Han, Dominic P Petrella, Joshua J Blakeslee
Salt stress causes worldwide reductions in agricultural yields, a problem that is exacerbated by the depletion of global freshwater reserves and the use of contaminated or recycled water (i.e. effluent water). Additionally, salt stress can occur as cultivated areas are subjected to frequent rounds of irrigation followed by periods of moderate to severe evapotranspiration, which can result in the heterogeneous aggregation of salts in agricultural soils. Our understanding of the later stages of salt stress and the mechanisms by which salt is transported out of cells and roots has greatly improved over the last decade...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878787/planting-patterns-and-deficit-irrigation-strategies-to-improve-wheat-production-and-water-use-efficiency-under-simulated-rainfall-conditions
#10
Shahzad Ali, Yueyue Xu, Xiangcheng Ma, Irshad Ahmad, Muhammad Kamran, Zhaoyun Dong, Tie Cai, Qianmin Jia, Xiaolong Ren, Peng Zhang, Zhikuan Jia
The ridge furrow (RF) rainwater harvesting system is an efficient way to enhance rainwater accessibility for crops and increase winter wheat productivity in semi-arid regions. However, the RF system has not been promoted widely in the semi-arid regions, which primarily exist in remote hilly areas. To exploit its efficiency on a large-scale, the RF system needs to be tested at different amounts of simulated precipitation combined with deficit irrigation. Therefore, in during the 2015-16 and 2016-17 winter wheat growing seasons, we examined the effects of two planting patterns: (1) the RF system and (2) traditional flat planting (TF) with three deficit irrigation levels (150, 75, 0 mm) under three simulated rainfall intensity (1: 275, 2: 200, 3: 125 mm), and determined soil water storage profile, evapotranspiration rate, grain filling rate, biomass, grain yield, and net economic return...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867871/mapping-regional-risks-from-climate-change-for-rainfed-rice-cultivation-in-india
#11
Kuntal Singh, Colin J McClean, Patrick Büker, Sue E Hartley, Jane K Hill
Global warming is predicted to increase in the future, with detrimental consequences for rainfed crops that are dependent on natural rainfall (i.e. non-irrigated). Given that many crops grown under rainfed conditions support the livelihoods of low-income farmers, it is important to highlight the vulnerability of rainfed areas to climate change in order to anticipate potential risks to food security. In this paper, we focus on India, where ~ 50% of rice is grown under rainfed conditions, and we employ statistical models (climate envelope models (CEMs) and boosted regression trees (BRTs)) to map changes in climate suitability for rainfed rice cultivation at a regional level (~ 18 × 18 km cell resolution) under projected future (2050) climate change (IPCC RCPs 2...
September 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862687/changes-in-tannin-composition-of-syrah-grape-skins-and-seeds-during-fruit-ripening-under-contrasting-water-conditions
#12
Maria Kyraleou, Stamatina Kallithraka, Nikolaos Theodorou, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Yorgos Kotseridis, Stefanos Koundouras
Tannin accumulation and composition were determined in skins and seeds isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah grapes submitted to contrasting water regimes under semiarid climatic conditions. Three irrigation treatments were conducted, starting at berry set through harvest of two growing seasons, 2011 and 2012: irrigation at 100% of crop evapotranspiration ETc (FI), irrigation at 50% of ETc (DI) and non-irrigated (NI). Seed total tannins did not vary with maturity but those of skins underwent a progressive decline (especially in 2011), expressed both on a fresh weight and on a per berry basis...
September 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841645/the-dominant-role-of-climate-change-in-determining-changes-in-evapotranspiration-in-xinjiang-china-from-2001-to-2012
#13
Xiuliang Yuan, Jie Bai, Longhui Li, Alishir Kurban, Philippe De Maeyer
The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM) by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829809/hyperspectral-reflectance-sensing-to-assess-the-growth-and-photosynthetic-properties-of-wheat-cultivars-exposed-to-different-irrigation-rates-in-an-irrigated-arid-region
#14
Salah El-Hendawy, Nasser Al-Suhaibani, Wael Hassan, Mohammad Tahir, Urs Schmidhalter
Simultaneous indirect assessment of multiple and diverse plant parameters in an exact and expeditious manner is becoming imperative in irrigated arid regions, with a view toward creating drought-tolerant genotypes or for the management of precision irrigation. This study aimed to evaluate whether spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) in three parts of the electromagnetic spectrum ((visible-infrared (VIS), near-infrared (NIR)), and shortwave-infrared (SWIR)) could be used to track changes in morphophysiological parameters of wheat cultivars exposed to 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821792/the-contribution-of-human-agricultural-activities-to-increasing-evapotranspiration-is-significantly-greater-than-climate-change-effect-over-heihe-agricultural-region
#15
Minzhong Zou, Jun Niu, Shaozhong Kang, Xiaolin Li, Hongna Lu
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798391/radiation-interception-chlorophyll-fluorescence-and-senescence-of-flag-leaves-in-winter-wheat-under-supplemental-irrigation
#16
Jianguo Man, Zhenwen Yu, Yu Shi
Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in China, effective water-saving technologies urgently need to be developed. In this study, five treatments were conducted: rainfed (W0), a local supplemental irrigation (SI) practice (W1), and three treatments in which soil water content was tested prior to SI, specifically at 0-20 (W2), 0-40 (W3) and 0-60 cm (W4) soil layers. Soil water consumption in W3 had no differ with W2 but was higher than W1 and W4. Crop evapotranspiration in W1, W3 and W4 treatments were higher than that in W2...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775279/effects-of-irrigation-water-salinity-on-evapotranspiration-modified-by-leaching-fractions-in-hot-pepper-plants
#17
Rangjian Qiu, Chunwei Liu, Zhenchang Wang, Zaiqiang Yang, Yuanshu Jing
We investigated whether leaching fraction (LF) is able to modify the effects of irrigation water salinity (ECiw) on evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an experiment with a completely randomized block design using five levels of ECiw and two LFs. Results showed that the electrical conductivity of drainage water (ECdw) in an LF of 0.29 was considerably higher during the 21-36 days after transplanting (DAT), and considerably lower after 50 DAT than in an LF of 0.17. The hourly, nighttime, daily, cumulative and seasonal ET all decreased considerably as a result of an increase in the ECiw...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735207/nutrient-balancing-for-phytoremediation-enhancement-of-urea-manufacturing-raw-wastewater
#18
Sara Yavari, Amirhossein Malakahmad, Nasiman B Sapari, Saba Yavari, Eakalak Khan
Application of urea manufacturing wastewater to teak (Tectona grandis) trees, a fast growing tropical timber plants, is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative for treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater. However, the plant growth is strongly limited by lack of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) elements when the plants are irrigated with wastewater containing high concentration of nitrogen (N). A greenhouse experiment was conducted to optimize the efficiency of teak-based remediation systems in terms of nutrient balance...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733617/partitioning-evapotranspiration-into-green-and-blue-water-sources-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#19
Naga Manohar Velpuri, Gabriel B Senay
In this study, we combined two 1 km actual evapotranspiration datasets (ET), one obtained from a root zone water balance model and another from an energy balance model, to partition annual ET into green (rainfall-based) and blue (surface water/groundwater) sources. Time series maps of green water ET (GWET) and blue water ET (BWET) are produced for the conterminous United States (CONUS) over 2001-2015. Our results indicate that average green and blue water for all land cover types in CONUS accounts for nearly 70% and 30% of the total ET, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729701/a-model-based-estimate-of-regional-wheat-yield-gaps-and-water-use-efficiency-in-main-winter-wheat-production-regions-of-china
#20
Zunfu Lv, Xiaojun Liu, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu
Wheat production is of great importance for national food security and is greatly influenced by the spatial variation of climatic variables, soils, cultivars, etc. This study used WheatGrow and CERES-Wheat models integrated with a GIS to estimate winter wheat productivity, yield gap and water use in the main wheat production regions of China. The results showed that the potential wheat yield gradually increased from south to north and from west to east, with a spatial distribution consistent with the accumulated hours of sunshine...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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