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Evapotranspiration irrigation

Inmaculada Garrido, David Uriarte, Marcos Hernández, José Luis Llerena, María Esperanza Valdés, Francisco Espinosa
A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jannik Heusinger, Stephan Weber
Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m(2) extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
M A Marwein, B U Choudhury, D Chakraborty, M Kumar, A Das, D J Rajkhowa
Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Eric Adee, Kraig Roozeboom, Guillermo R Balboa, Alan Schlegel, Ignacio A Ciampitti
The potential benefit of drought-tolerant (DT) corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids may depend on drought intensity, duration, crop growth stage (timing), and the array of drought tolerance mechanisms present in selected hybrids. We hypothesized that corn hybrids containing DT traits would produce more consistent yields compared to non-DT hybrids in the presence of drought stress. The objective of this study was to define types of production environments where DT hybrids have a yield advantage compared to non-DT hybrids...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Miko U F Kirschbaum, Louis A Schipper, Paul L Mudge, Susanna Rutledge, Nicolas J B Puche, David I Campbell
A possible agricultural climate change mitigation option is to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). Conversely, some factors might lead to inadvertent losses of SOC. Here, we explore the effect of various management options and environmental changes on SOC storage and milk production of dairy pastures in New Zealand. We used CenW 4.1, a process-based ecophysiological model, to run a range of scenarios to assess the effects of changes in management options, plant properties and environmental factors on SOC and milk production...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Huanyuan Wang, Jichang Han, Wei Tong, Jie Cheng, Haiou Zhang
BACKGROUND: Maize was grown on compound soils constituted from mixtures of soft rock and sand at different ratios, and water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) were quantified. This was used to assist designing strategies for optimizing water and nitrogen management practices for maize on the substrates used. Maize was sown in composite soil which was prepared in three ratios of soft rock and sand (1:1, 1:2 and 1:5) in Mu Us Sandy land, Yuyang district, Yulin city, China...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Balwinder-Singh, E Humphreys, D S Gaydon, P L Eberbach
Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions...
October 2016: Field Crops Research
J McL Bennett, A Marchuk, S R Raine, S A Dalzell, D C Macfarlane
Coal seam (CS) gas operations coproduce water with gas from confined CS aquifers. This CS water represents a potential agricultural resource if the water is able to be chemically amended to comply with management guidelines. Stoichiometric quantities of sulphur and gypsum amendments can be used to neutralise the alkalinity and reduce the sodicity of CS water respectively. These amendments can either be mixed in-line at a water treatment plant or applied directly to land prior to the application of CS water (a practice termed land amendment irrigation - LAI)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Emma Li Johansson, Marianela Fader, Jonathan W Seaquist, Kimberly A Nicholas
In the last decade, more than 22 million ha of land have been contracted to large-scale land acquisitions in Africa, leading to increased pressures, competition, and conflicts over freshwater resources. Currently, 3% of contracted land is in production, for which we model site-specific water demands to indicate where freshwater appropriation might pose high socioenvironmental challenges. We use the dynamic global vegetation model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land to simulate green (precipitation stored in soils and consumed by plants through evapotranspiration) and blue (extracted from rivers, lakes, aquifers, and dams) water demand and crop yields for seven irrigation scenarios, and compare these data with two baseline scenarios of staple crops representing previous water demand...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
N S Abeysingha, Man Singh, Adlul Islam, V K Sehgal
Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin...
2016: SpringerPlus
Zied Haj-Amor, Mohamed-Khaled Ibrahimi, Nissma Feki, Jean-Paul Lhomme, Salem Bouri
The continuance of agricultural production in regions of the world with chronic water shortages depends upon understanding how soil salinity is impacted by irrigation practises such as water salinity, irrigation frequency and amount of irrigation. A two-year field study was conducted in a Saharan oasis of Tunisia (Lazala Oasis) to determine how the soil electrical conductivity was affected by irrigation of date palms with high saline water. The study area lacked a saline shallow water table. Field results indicate that, under current irrigation practises, soil electrical conductivity can build up to levels which exceed the salt tolerance of date palm trees...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
D H Fleisher, B Condori, R Quiroz, A Alva, S Asseng, C Barreda, M Bindi, K J Boote, R Ferrise, A C Franke, P M Govindakrishnan, D Harahagazwe, G Hoogenboom, S Naresh Kumar, P Merante, C Nendel, J E Olesen, P S Parker, D Raes, R Raymundo, A C Ruane, C Stockle, I Supit, E Vanuytrecht, J Wolf, P Woli
A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States) input management sites. Two calibration stages were explored, partial (P1), where experimental dry matter data were not provided, and full (P2). The median model ensemble response outperformed any single model in terms of replicating observed yield across all locations...
July 7, 2016: Global Change Biology
Andrew Manoba Limantol, Bruce Edward Keith, Bismark Atiayure Azabre, Bernd Lennartz
BACKGROUND: Rain-fed agriculture remains the source of employment for a majority of Ghana's population, particularly in northern Ghana where annual rainfall is low. The purpose of this study is to examine farmers' perceptions and adaptation practices to climate change and variability in accordance with actual recorded weather data of the Vea catchment in Upper East Region of northern Ghana during the time interval from 1972 to 2012. METHODS: Climatic data over 41-years (1972-2012) from four stations in vicinity of the catchment was evaluated to identify actual weather outcomes...
2016: SpringerPlus
Vanessa F Oliveira, Emerson A Silva, Maria A M Carvalho
Chrysolaena obovata stores inulin in the rhizophores, associated with drought tolerance. While crop plants are widely studied concerning the interactive effects of high [CO2] and drought, few studies reported these effects in native species. Here, we evaluated the combined effects of these factors on water status and fructan metabolism in C. obovata, a native Cerrado species. Two lots of plants were kept at 380 and 760 ppm CO2 in open-top chambers. In each, [CO2] plants were divided into four groups and cultivated under different water availability: irrigation with 100 (control), 75 (low), 50 (medium), and 25% (severe drought) of the water evapotranspirated in the last 48 h...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hosam O Elansary, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Ian W King
Seaweed extracts (SWE) might play an important role in enhancing growth and phytochemical composition of medicinal shrubs. In this study, we investigate the morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of irrigation levels (100% and 50% of the evapotranspiration rate) coupled with a weekly treatment of SWE of Ascophyllum nodosum at 5 and 7 mL L(-1) as a soil drench or foliar spray on Spiraea nipponica "Snowmound" and Pittosporum eugenioides "Variegatum" grown in containers under controlled greenhouse conditions...
August 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Soumaya Dbara, Matthew Haworth, Giovani Emiliani, Mehdi Ben Mimoun, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Mauro Centritto
The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE)...
2016: PloS One
Timothy M Bowles, Felipe H Barrios-Masias, Eli A Carlisle, Timothy R Cavagnaro, Louise E Jackson
Plant strategies to cope with future droughts may be enhanced by associations between roots and soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. But how AM fungi affect crop growth and yield, together with plant physiology and soil carbon (C) dynamics, under water stress in actual field conditions is not well understood. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant nonmycorrhizal tomato genotype rmc were grown in an organic farm with a deficit irrigation regime and control regime that replaced evapotranspiration...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Liwen Zhao, Zhibin He, Wenzhi Zhao, Qiyue Yang
A better understanding of the sap flow characteristics of maize plants is critical for improving irrigation water-use efficiency, especially for regions facing water resource shortages. In this study, sap flow rates, related soil-physics and plant-growth parameters, and meteorological factors, were simultaneously monitored in a maize field in two consecutive years, 2011 and 2012, and the sap flow rates of the maize plants were extensively analyzed based on the monitored data. Seasonal and daily variational characteristics were identified at different growth stages and under different weather conditions, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Plant Research
María E Peña-Estévez, Francisco Artés-Hernández, Francisco Artés, Encarna Aguayo, Ginés Benito Martínez-Hernández, Alejandro Galindo, Perla A Gómez
This study investigated the influence of sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 78% less water supply than the reference evapotranspiration, ET0) compared to a control (100% ET0) on the physicochemical and sensory qualities and health-promoting compounds of pomegranate arils stored for 14days at 5°C. Prior to processing, the fruits were stored for 0, 30, 60 or 90days at 5°C. The effect of the pre-processing storage duration was also examined. Physicochemical and sensory qualities were kept during the storage period...
October 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Chathurika Wijewardana, W Brien Henry, Wei Gao, K Raja Reddy
Crop growth and development are highly responsive to global climate change components such as elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), drought, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Plant tolerance to these environmental stresses comprises its genetic potential, physiological changes, metabolism, and signaling pathways. An inclusive understanding of morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses to these abiotic stresses is imperative for the development of stress tolerant varieties for future environments. The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes in vegetative and physiological traits in maize hybrids in their response to multiple environmental factors of (CO2) [400 and 750μmolmol(-1) (+(CO2)], irrigation treatments based evapotranspiration (ET) [100 and 50% (-ET)], and UV-B radiation [0 and 10kJm(-2)d(-1) (+UV-B)] and to identify the multiple stress tolerant hybrids aid in mitigating projected climate change for shaping future agriculture...
July 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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