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Amanda M Schwantes, Jennifer J Swenson, Mariano González-Roglich, Daniel M Johnson, Jean-Christophe Domec, Robert B Jackson
Globally, trees are increasingly dying from extreme drought, a trend that is expected to increase with climate change. Loss of trees has significant ecological, biophysical, and biogeochemical consequences. In 2011, a record drought caused widespread tree mortality in Texas. Using remotely sensed imagery, we quantified canopy loss during and after the drought across the state at 30-m spatial resolution, from the eastern pine/hardwood forests to the western shrublands, a region that includes the boundaries of many species ranges...
June 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
Emanuela Olivieri, Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Fabrizia Veronesi, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Studies on the human-biting pathogen vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus have been scarce in southern Europe. The aims of the present study were to determine the abundance of these ticks in a peri-urban park in northern Italy, describe the seasonal activity of D. reticulatus and examine the correlation between tick occurrence and environmental factors. Ticks were collected monthly from April 2015 to May 2016 using both dragging and flagging techniques. Various climatic variables (mean temperature, relative humidity and evapotranspiration for the collection dates; and 30-day moving averages preceding each collection date were calculated for rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and saturation deficit) also were recorded...
June 15, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Scott J Ketcheson, Jonathan S Price, Owen Sutton, George Sutherland, Eric Kessel, Richard M Petrone
Mine reclamation requires the reconstruction of entire landforms and drainage systems. The hydrological regime of reclaimed landscapes will be a manifestation of the processes operating within the individual landforms that comprise it. Hydrology is the most important process regulating wetland function and development, via strong controls on chemical and biotic processes. Accordingly, this research addresses the growing and immediate need to understand the hydrological processes that operate within reconstructed landscapes following resource extraction...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xiao-Lin Yang, Yuan-Quan Chen, Tammo S Steenhuis, Steven Pacenka, Wang-Sheng Gao, Li Ma, Min Zhang, Peng Sui
In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle); peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle); ryegrass-cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle); and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Guofen Hua, Qiuwen Chen, Jun Kong, Man Li
Clogging is the most significant challenge limiting the application of constructed wetlands. Application of a forced resting period is a practical way to relieve clogging, particularly bioclogging. To reveal the alleviation mechanisms behind such a resting operation, evapotranspiration and oxygen flux were studied during a resting period in a laboratory vertical-flow constructed wetland model through physical simulation and numerical model analysis. In addition, the optimum theoretical resting duration was determined based on the time required for oxygen to completely fill the pores, i...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T G Pálfy, M Gerodolle, R Gourdon, D Meyer, S Troesch, P Molle
The performance of a vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow treatment (CSO CW) has been evaluated. The full-scale site has been monitored for 3 years for major pollutants and for two load events for a range of micropollutants (metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). Performance were predominantly high (97% for total suspended solids (TSS), 80% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 72% for NH4-N), even if several loads were extremely voluminous, pushing the filter to its limits...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Damiano Remorini, Elisa Pellegrini, Lucia Guidi, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini, Rossano Massai, Marco Landi
The predicted effects of global change (GC) will be exacerbated in the more densely populated cities of the future, especially in the Mediterranean basin where some environmental cues, such as drought and tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution, already mine seriously plant survival. Physiological and biochemical responses of a Mediterranean, evergreen, isohydric plant species (Quercus ilex) were compared to those of a sympatric, deciduous, anisohydric species (Q. pubescens) under severe drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration) and/or chronic O3 exposure (80 ppb for 5 h day(-1) for 28 consecutive days) to test which one was more successful in those highly limiting conditions...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tao Lv, Pedro N Carvalho, Mònica Escolà Casas, Ulla E Bollmann, Carlos A Arias, Hans Brix, Kai Bester
Phytoremediation of realistic environmental concentrations (10 μg L(-1)) of the chiral pesticides tebuconazole and imazalil by Phragmites australis was investigated. This study focussed on removal dynamics, enantioselective mechanisms and transformation products (TPs) in both hydroponic growth solutions and plant tissues. For the first time, we documented uptake, translocation and metabolisation of these pesticides inside wetland plants, using enantioselective analysis. Tebuconazole and imazalil removal efficiencies from water reached 96...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Rodolfo L B Nóbrega, Alphonce C Guzha, Gilmar N Torres, Kristof Kovacs, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S S Amorim, Eduardo Couto, Gerhard Gerold
Understanding the impacts of land-use change on landscape-hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Northern Brazilian Cerrado biome, where the Amazon agricultural frontier is located. Motivated by the gap in literature assessing these impacts, we characterized the soil hydro-physical properties and quantified surface water fluxes from catchments under contrasting land-use in this region. We used data from field measurements in two headwater micro-catchments with similar physical characteristics and different land use, i...
2017: PloS One
Xiuliang Yuan, Wenfeng Wang, Junjie Cui, Fanhao Meng, Alishir Kurban, Philippe De Maeyer
Vegetation changes play a vital role in modifying local temperatures although, until now, the climate feedback effects of vegetation changes are still poorly known and large uncertainties exist, especially over Central Asia. In this study, using remote sensing and re-analysis of existing data, we evaluated the impact of vegetation changes on local temperatures. Our results indicate that vegetation changes have a significant unidirectional causality relationship with regard to local temperature changes. We found that vegetation greening over Central Asia as a whole induced a cooling effect on the local temperatures...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhenci Xu, Ying Tang, Thomas Connor, Dapeng Li, Yunkai Li, Jianguo Liu
Climate variability and trends have significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Global challenges such as food security, biodiversity loss, water scarcity and human health are affected by reference evapotranspiration, temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation together, but nonlinear dynamics of these four climatic factors have not been assessed simultaneously at the national scale. This leads to unclear climatic dynamics and limited applications. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed the daily variability and trends of four climatic factors (reference evapotranspiration, temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation) in China simultaneously using high spatial resolution data from 1960 to 2013...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joanna A Horemans, Hanne Van Gaelen, Dirk Raes, Terenzio Zenone, Reinhart Ceulemans
We calibrated and evaluated the agricultural model AquaCrop for the simulation of water use and yield of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with poplar (Populus) in East Flanders (Belgium) during the second and the third rotation (first 2 years only). Differences in crop development and growth during the course of the rotations were taken into account during the model calibration. Overall, the AquaCrop model showed good performance for the daily simulation of soil water content (R(2) of 0.57-0.85), of green canopy cover (R(2) > 0...
June 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
Katherine M Ransom, Bernard T Nolan, Jonathan A Traum, Claudia C Faunt, Andrew M Bell, Jo Ann M Gronberg, David C Wheeler, Celia Z Rosecrans, Bryant Jurgens, Gregory E Schwarz, Kenneth Belitz, Sandra M Eberts, George Kourakos, Thomas Harter
Intense demand for water in the Central Valley of California and related increases in groundwater nitrate concentration threaten the sustainability of the groundwater resource. To assess contamination risk in the region, we developed a hybrid, non-linear, machine learning model within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500m below ground surface. A database of 145 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and landscape-scale nitrogen mass balances, historical and current land use, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area...
June 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ling Huang, Bin He, Le Han, Junjie Liu, Haiyan Wang, Ziyue Chen
Ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) plays an important role in carbon and water cycles. Currently, the response of WUE to drought disturbance remains controversial. Based on the global ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) product and the evapotranspiration product (ET), both of which were retrieved from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as the drought index, this study comprehensively examined the relationship between ecosystem WUE (WUE=GPP/ET) and drought at the global scale...
June 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tanzeelur Rahman, Xin Liu, Sajad Hussain, Shoaib Ahmed, Guopeng Chen, Feng Yang, Lilian Chen, Junbo Du, Weiguo Liu, Wenyu Yang
Optimum planting geometries have been shown to increase crop yields in maize-soybean intercrop systems. However, little is known about whether changes in planting geometry improve the seasonal water use of maize and soybean intercrops. We conducted two different field experiments in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of changes in planting geometry on water use efficiency (WUE) and evapotranspiration (ETc) of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] relay strip intercrop systems. Our results showed that the leaf area index of maize for both years where intercropping occurred was notably greater compared to sole maize, thus the soil water content (SWC), soil evaporation (E), and throughfall followed a decreasing trend in the following order: central row of maize strip (CRM) < adjacent row between maize and soybean strip (AR) < central row of soybean strip (CRS)...
2017: PloS One
Xingkai Zhao, Zengyao Li, Qingke Zhu, Danhong Zhu, Huifang Liu
The loess hilly-gully region is a focus region of the "Grain for Green" program in China. Drought is the main problem in the study region. Precipitation and temperature are two indicators that directly characterize climatic drought. A thorough analysis of the precipitation, temperature and drought characteristics of the loess hilly-gully region can clarify the current water and heat conditions in the region to improve regional water resource management and provide a reliable reference for effectively improving water use efficiency...
2017: PloS One
Jonas Nüchel, Jens-Christian Svenning
Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
Minmin Sun, Yuan Zhang, Jing Ma, Wenping Yuan, Xianglan Li, Xiao Cheng
The Sanjiang Plain (SJP), one of the major rice producing regions in China, is an important source of methane (CH4) emissions. However, there have been large uncertainties in the estimates of CH4 emissions from this area during the past few years. In this study, we estimated CH4 emissions using a process-based model derived by rice area, CH4 flux, land surface temperature (LST), and the ratio of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET) in rice paddies in the SJP during the rice growing seasons in 2000, 2006, and 2010, respectively...
2017: PloS One
Jin Fu, Rainer Gasche, Na Wang, Haiyan Lu, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ralf Kiese
In this study water balance components as well as nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon leaching were quantified by means of large weighable grassland lysimeters at three sites (860, 770 and 600 m a.s.l.) for both intensive and extensive management. Our results show that at E600, the site with highest air temperature (8.6 °C) and lowest precipitation (981.9 mm), evapotranspiration losses were 100.7 mm higher as at the site (E860) with lowest mean annual air temperature (6.5 °C) and highest precipitation (1359...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
S A Villeneuve, S L Barbour, M J Hendry, S K Carey
Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO3(-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-)) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period...
May 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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