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Miko U F Kirschbaum, Louis A Schipper, Paul L Mudge, Susanna Rutledge, Nicolas J B Puche, David I Campbell
A possible agricultural climate change mitigation option is to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). Conversely, some factors might lead to inadvertent losses of SOC. Here, we explore the effect of various management options and environmental changes on SOC storage and milk production of dairy pastures in New Zealand. We used CenW 4.1, a process-based ecophysiological model, to run a range of scenarios to assess the effects of changes in management options, plant properties and environmental factors on SOC and milk production...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Antoine Adde, Emmanuel Roux, Morgan Mangeas, Nadine Dessay, Mathieu Nacher, Isabelle Dusfour, Romain Girod, Sébastien Briolant
Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria. Vector distribution is driven by environmental factors. Based on variables derived from satellite imagery and meteorological observations, this study aimed to dynamically model and map the densities of Anopheles darlingi in the municipality of Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (French Guiana). Longitudinal sampling sessions of An...
2016: PloS One
Michael Jacques Lathuillière, Cecile Bulle, Mark S Johnson
The incorporation of soil moisture regenerated by precipitation, or green water, into life cycle assessment has been of growing interest given the global importance of this resource for terrestrial ecosystems and food production. This paper proposes a new impact assessment model to relate land and water use in seasonally dry, semi-arid, and arid regions where precipitation and evapotranspiration are closely coupled. We introduce the Precipitation Reduction Potential mid-point impact representing the change in downwind precipitation as a result of a land transformation and occupation activity...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Huanyuan Wang, Jichang Han, Wei Tong, Jie Cheng, Haiou Zhang
BACKGROUND: Maize was grown on compound soils constituted from mixtures of soft rock and sand at different ratios, and water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) were quantified. This was used to assist designing strategies for optimizing water and nitrogen management practices for maize on the substrates used. Maize was sown in composite soil which was prepared in three ratios of soft rock and sand (1:1, 1:2 and 1:5) in Mu Us Sandy land, Yuyang district, Yulin city, China...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Tekalegn Ayele Woldesenbet, Nadir Ahmed Elagib, Lars Ribbe, Jürgen Heinrich
Understanding how changes in distinctive land use/land cover (LULC) types influence the basin hydrology would greatly improve the predictability of the hydrological consequences of LULC dynamics for sustainable water resource management. As the main flow contributor to the River Nile, quantifying the effect of LULC change on water resources in the source regions is very important for the assessment of water resources availability and management downstream in the riparian states in general and the study watersheds in particular...
October 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Balwinder-Singh, E Humphreys, D S Gaydon, P L Eberbach
Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions...
October 2016: Field Crops Research
J McL Bennett, A Marchuk, S R Raine, S A Dalzell, D C Macfarlane
Coal seam (CS) gas operations coproduce water with gas from confined CS aquifers. This CS water represents a potential agricultural resource if the water is able to be chemically amended to comply with management guidelines. Stoichiometric quantities of sulphur and gypsum amendments can be used to neutralise the alkalinity and reduce the sodicity of CS water respectively. These amendments can either be mixed in-line at a water treatment plant or applied directly to land prior to the application of CS water (a practice termed land amendment irrigation - LAI)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Simon Rusjan, Andrej Vidmar
During two consecutive years the monitoring of rainfall nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) concentrations, combined with high-frequency measurements of streamwater NO3(-) concentrations, provided insight into the mechanisms controlling the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) budgets of the forested Padež stream catchment in SW Slovenia. During both years, the catchment's annual wet atmospheric DIN deposition (12.6 and 13.8kg-N/ha) exceeded the annual DIN export (10.7kg-N/ha and 8.8kg-N/ha). The analysis of the monthly DIN budgets discloses seasonal patterns...
September 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jan-Peter George, Michael Grabner, Sandra Karanitsch-Ackerl, Konrad Mayer, Lambert Weißenbacher, Silvio Schueler
Assessing intra-specific variation in drought stress response is required to mitigate the consequences of climate change on forest ecosystems. Previous studies suggest that European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), an important European conifer in mountainous and alpine forests, is highly vulnerable to drought. In light of this, we estimated the genetic variation in drought sensitivity and its degree of genetic determination in a 50-year-old common garden experiment in the drought-prone northeastern Austria. Tree ring data from larch provenances originating from across the species' natural range were used to estimate the drought reaction in four consecutive drought events (1977, 1981, 1990-1994, and 2003) with extremely low standardized precipitation- and evapotranspiration-index values that affected growth in all provenances...
September 26, 2016: Tree Physiology
Emma Li Johansson, Marianela Fader, Jonathan W Seaquist, Kimberly A Nicholas
In the last decade, more than 22 million ha of land have been contracted to large-scale land acquisitions in Africa, leading to increased pressures, competition, and conflicts over freshwater resources. Currently, 3% of contracted land is in production, for which we model site-specific water demands to indicate where freshwater appropriation might pose high socioenvironmental challenges. We use the dynamic global vegetation model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land to simulate green (precipitation stored in soils and consumed by plants through evapotranspiration) and blue (extracted from rivers, lakes, aquifers, and dams) water demand and crop yields for seven irrigation scenarios, and compare these data with two baseline scenarios of staple crops representing previous water demand...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shixiong Cao, Junze Zhang, Li Chen, Tingyang Zhao
Land degradation is a global environmental problem that jeopardizes human safety and socioeconomic development. To alleviate severe soil erosion and desertification due to deforestation and overgrazing, China has implemented historically unprecedented large-scale afforestation. However, few studies have accounted for the resulting imbalance between water supply (primarily precipitation) and water consumption (evapotranspiration), which will affect ecosystem health and socioeconomic development. We compared the water balance results between restoration by means of afforestation and restoration using the potential natural vegetation to guide future ecological restoration planning and environmental policy development...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Rui Liu, Yun Chen, Jianping Wu, Lei Gao, Damian Barrett, Tingbao Xu, Xiaojuan Li, Linyi Li, Chang Huang, Jia Yu
Regional flood risk caused by intensive rainfall under extreme climate conditions has increasingly attracted global attention. Mapping and evaluation of flood hazard are vital parts in flood risk assessment. This study develops an integrated framework for estimating spatial likelihood of flood hazard by coupling weighted naïve Bayes (WNB), geographic information system, and remote sensing. The north part of Fitzroy River Basin in Queensland, Australia, was selected as a case study site. The environmental indices, including extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, net-water index, soil water retention, elevation, slope, drainage proximity, and density, were generated from spatial data representing climate, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and topography...
September 24, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Shu Wang, Hui Zheng, Shuhua Liu, Yucong Miao, Jing Li
The wheat production in midland China is under serious threat by frequent Dry-Hot Wind (DHW) episodes with high temperature, low moisture and specific wind as well as intensive heat transfer and evapotranspiration. The numerical simulations of these episodes are important for monitoring grain yield and estimating agricultural water demand. However, uncertainties still remain despite that enormous experiments and modeling studies have been conducted concerning this issue, due to either inaccurate synoptic situation derived from mesoscale weather models or unrealistic parameterizations of stomatal physiology in land surface models...
2016: PloS One
Robbie A Hember, Werner A Kurz, Nicholas C Coops
Accounting for water stress-induced tree mortality in forest productivity models remains a challenge due to uncertainty in stress tolerance of tree populations. In this study, logistic regression models were developed to assess species-specific relationships between probability of mortality (Pm ) and drought, drawing on 8.1 million observations of change in vital status (m) of individual trees across North America. Drought was defined by standardized (relative) values of soil water content (Ws,z ) and reference evapotranspiration (ETr,z ) at each field plot...
September 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
Santosh Kumar, Yonat Milstein, Yaniv Brami, Michael Elbaum, Rivka Elbaum
Grasses take up silicic acid from soil and deposit it in their leaves as solid silica. This mineral, comprising 1-10% of the grass dry weight, improves plants' tolerance to various stresses. The mechanisms promoting stress tolerance are mostly unknown, and even the mineralization process is poorly understood. To study leaf mineralization in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), we followed silica deposition in epidermal silica cells by in situ charring and air-scanning electron microscopy. Our findings were correlated to the viability of silica cells tested by fluorescein diacetate staining...
September 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Jorge L Martinez, Matthias Raiber, Dioni I Cendón
The influence of mountain front recharge on the water balance of alluvial valley aquifers located in upland catchments of the Condamine River basin in Queensland, Australia, is investigated through the development of an integrated hydrogeological framework. A combination of three-dimensional (3D) geological modelling, hydraulic gradient maps, multivariate statistical analyses and hydrochemical mixing calculations is proposed for the identification of hydrochemical end-members and quantification of the relative contributions of each end-member to alluvial aquifer recharge...
September 9, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Samuli Launiainen, Gabriel G Katul, Pasi Kolari, Anders Lindroth, Annalea Lohila, Mika Aurela, Andrej Varlagin, Achim Grelle, Timo Vesala
Earth observing systems are now routinely used to infer leaf area index (LAI) given its significance in spatial aggregation of land surface fluxes. Whether LAI is an appropriate scaling parameter for daytime growing season energy budget, surface conductance (Gs ), water- and light-use efficiency and surface-atmosphere coupling of European boreal coniferous forests was explored using eddy-covariance (EC) energy and CO2 fluxes. The observed scaling relations were then explained using a biophysical multilayer soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model as well as by a bulk Gs representation...
September 10, 2016: Global Change Biology
Edoardo Borgomeo, Georg Pflug, Jim W Hall, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler
Global climate models suggest an increase in evapotranspiration, changing storm tracks, and moisture delivery in many parts of the world, which are likely to cause more prolonged and severe drought, yet the weakness of climate models in modeling persistence of hydroclimatic variables and the uncertainties associated with regional climate projections mean that impact assessments based on climate model output may underestimate the risk of multiyear droughts. In this paper, we propose a vulnerability-based approach to test water resource system response to drought...
November 2015: Water Resources Research
Junfang Zhao, Yanhong Zhang, Yonglan Qian, Zhihua Pan, Yujie Zhu, Yi Zhang, Jianping Guo, Lingling Xu
Understanding the effects of climate change on crops is vital for food security. We aimed to characterise the coincidence of yield variations with weather variable for potato in northern China using long-term datasets. Daily climate variables obtained from 607 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2014, detailed field experimental data for the period of 1982 to 2012 in northern China, and multivariate linear statistical model were used in this study. In particular, the first difference method was used to disentangle the contributions of climate change to potato yield...
September 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Abigail L S Swann, Forrest M Hoffman, Charles D Koven, James T Randerson
Rising atmospheric CO2 will make Earth warmer, and many studies have inferred that this warming will cause droughts to become more widespread and severe. However, rising atmospheric CO2 also modifies stomatal conductance and plant water use, processes that are often are overlooked in impact analysis. We find that plant physiological responses to CO2 reduce predictions of future drought stress, and that this reduction is captured by using plant-centric rather than atmosphere-centric metrics from Earth system models (ESMs)...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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