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Evapotranspiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073772/a-water-availability-gradient-reveals-the-deficit-level-required-to-affect-traits-in-potted-juvenile-eucalyptus-globulus
#1
Adam B McKiernan, Brad M Potts, Mark J Hovenden, Timothy J Brodribb, Noel W Davies, Thomas Rodemann, Scott A M McAdam, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Drought leading to soil water deficit can have severe impacts on plants. Water deficit may lead to plant water stress and affect growth and chemical traits. Plant secondary metabolite (PSM) responses to water deficit vary between compounds and studies, with inconsistent reports of changes to PSM concentrations even within a single species. This disparity may result from experimental water deficit variation among studies, and so multiple water deficit treatments are used to fully assess PSM responses in a single species...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069301/future-water-availability-in-the-largest-freshwater-mediterranean-lake-is-at-great-risk-as-evidenced-from-simulations-with-the-swat-model
#2
Tuba Bucak, Dennis Trolle, Hans Estrup Andersen, Hans Thodsen, Şeyda Erdoğan, Eti E Levi, Nur Filiz, Erik Jeppesen, Meryem Beklioğlu
Inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and changes in water flow regime are intrinsic characteristics of Mediterranean lakes. Additionally, considering climate change projections for the water-limited Mediterranean region, increased air temperatures and decreased precipitation are anticipated, leading to dramatic declines in lake water levels as well as severe water scarcity problems. The study site, Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in the Mediterranean basin, is - like other Mediterranean lakes - threatened by climatic changes and over-abstraction of water for irrigated crop farming...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068392/vegetation-changes-in-the-permafrost-regions-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-from-1982-2012-different-responses-related-to-geographical-locations-and-vegetation-types-in-high-altitude-areas
#3
Zhiwei Wang, Qian Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Lin Zhao, Guangyang Yue, Zhuotong Nan, Puchang Wang, Shuhua Yi, Defu Zou, Yu Qin, Tonghua Wu, Jianzong Shi
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067276/flip-flop-of-day-night-and-summer-winter-surface-urban-heat-island-intensity-in-india
#4
Hiteshri Shastri, Beas Barik, Subimal Ghosh, Chandra Venkataraman, Pankaj Sadavarte
The difference in land surface temperature (LST) between an urban region and its nearby non-urban region, known as surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII), is usually positive as reported in earlier studies. India has experienced unprecedented urbanization over recent decades with an urban population of 380 million. Here, we present the first study of the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of SUHII in India. We found negative SUHII over a majority of urban areas during daytime in pre-monsoon summer (MAM), contrary to the expected impacts of urbanization...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054976/an-improved-approach-for-estimating-daily-net-radiation-over-the-heihe-river-basin
#5
Bingfang Wu, Shufu Liu, Weiwei Zhu, Nana Yan, Qiang Xing, Shen Tan
Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D) cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China...
January 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052502/ecophysiological-variation-of-transpiration-of-pine-forests-synthesis-of-new-and-published-results
#6
Pantana Tor-Ngern, Ram Oren, Andrew C Oishi, Joshua M Uebelherr, Sari Palmroth, Lasse Tarvainen, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Sune Linder, Jean-Christophe Domec, Torgny Näsholm
Canopy transpiration (EC ) is a large fraction of evapotranspiration, integrating physical and biological processes within the energy, water, and carbon cycles of forests. Quantifying EC is of both scientific and practical importance, providing information relevant to questions ranging from energy partitioning to ecosystem services, such as primary productivity and water yield. We estimated EC of four pine stands differing in age and growing on sandy soils. The stands consisted of two wide-ranging conifer species: Pinus taeda and Pinus sylvestris, in temperate and boreal zones, respectively...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030646/tree-circumference-dynamics-in-four-forests-characterized-using-automated-dendrometer-bands
#7
Valentine Herrmann, Sean M McMahon, Matteo Detto, James A Lutz, Stuart J Davies, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira
Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12-40 trees at four different forested sites-two temperate broadleaf deciduous, one temperate conifer, and one tropical broadleaf semi-deciduous-to understand how tree circumference varies on time scales of hours to months, how these dynamics relate to environmental conditions, and whether the structure of these variations might introduce substantive error into estimates of woody growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012660/including-hydrological-self-regulating-processes-in-peatland-models-effects-on-peatmoss-drought-projections
#8
Jelmer J Nijp, Klaas Metselaar, Juul Limpens, Claudia Teutschbein, Matthias Peichl, Mats B Nilsson, Frank Berendse, Sjoerd E A T M van der Zee
The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008960/precipitation-and-carbon-water-coupling-jointly-control-the-interannual-variability-of-global-land-gross-primary-production
#9
Yao Zhang, Xiangming Xiao, Luis Guanter, Sha Zhou, Philippe Ciais, Joanna Joiner, Stephen Sitch, Xiaocui Wu, Julia Nabel, Jinwei Dong, Etsushi Kato, Atul K Jain, Andy Wiltshire, Benjamin D Stocker
Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004823/paclobutrazol-induces-tolerance-in-tomato-to-deficit-irrigation-through-diversified-effects-on-plant-morphology-physiology-and-metabolism
#10
Sikander Pal, Jiangsan Zhao, Asif Khan, Narendra Singh Yadav, Albert Batushansky, Simon Barak, Boris Rewald, Aaron Fait, Naftali Lazarovitch, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Dwindling water resources combined with meeting the demands for food security require maximizing water use efficiency (WUE) both in rainfed and irrigated agriculture. In this regard, deficit irrigation (DI), defined as the administration of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is a valuable practice to contain irrigation water use. In this study, the mechanism of paclobutrazol (Pbz)-mediated improvement in tolerance to water deficit in tomato was thoroughly investigated. Tomato plants were subjected to normal irrigated and deficit irrigated conditions plus Pbz application (0...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991576/periodic-fluctuation-of-reference-evapotranspiration-during-the-past-five-decades-does-evaporation-paradox-really-exist-in-china
#11
Wanqiu Xing, Weiguang Wang, Quanxi Shao, Zhongbo Yu, Tao Yang, Jianyu Fu
Evidence that the pan evaporation or reference evapotranspiration (ET0) as the indicator of atmospheric evaporation capability have decreased along with the continuous increase in temperature over the past decades (coined as "evaporation paradox") has been reported worldwide. Here, we provide a nationwide investigation of spatiotemporal change of ET0 using meteorological data from 602 stations with the updated data (1961-2011). In addition, we explore the trigger mechanism by quantitative assessment on the contribution of climatic factors to ET0 change based on a differential equation method...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951494/the-long-term-resistance-mechanisms-critical-irrigation-threshold-and-relief-capacity-shown-by-eugenia-myrtifolia-plants-in-response-to-saline-reclaimed-water
#12
José Ramón Acosta-Motos, José Antonio Hernández, Sara Álvarez, Gregorio Barba-Espín, María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco
Salts present in irrigation water are serious problems for commercial horticulture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Reclaimed water (RW) typically contains, among others elements, high levels of salts, boron and heavy metal. Phytotoxic ion accumulation in the substrate has been linked to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied...
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916300/seasonal-induced-changes-in-spinach-rhizosphere-microbial-community-structure-with-varying-salinity-and-drought
#13
A Mark Ibekwe, Selda Ors, Jorge F S Ferreira, Xuan Liu, Donald L Suarez
Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914639/actual-et-modelling-based-on-the-budyko-framework-and-the-sustainability-of-vegetation-water-use-in-the-loess-plateau
#14
Xuerui Gao, Miao Sun, Qi Zhao, Pute Wu, Xining Zhao, Wenxiang Pan, Yubao Wang
Jointly influenced by the natural factors and the artificial protection measures, the ecological environment of Loess Plateau has been significantly improved in recent years, but which has already brought about some water-related problems. To maintain the balance between precipitation and water consumption is an important foundation for sustainable development of the ecology remediation. This study used Budyko Framework to simulate the actual water consumption of 161 sub-basins from 1990 to 2014. Based on the simulation results, the research also analyzed the evolution characteristics of water balance in Loess Plateau from 1990 to 2014...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912007/global-patterns-and-determinants-of-forest-canopy-height
#15
Shengli Tao, Qinghua Guo, Chao Li, Zhiheng Wang, Jingyun Fang
Forest canopy height is an important indicator of forest biomass, species diversity, and other ecosystem functions; however, the climatic determinants that underlie its global patterns have not been fully explored. Using satellite LiDAR-derived forest canopy heights and field measurements of the world's giant trees, combined with climate indices, we evaluated the global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height. The mean canopy height was highest in tropical regions, but tall forests (>50 m) occur at various latitudes...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#16
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904457/altering-conidial-dispersal-of-alternaria-solani-by-modifying-microclimate-in-tomato-crop-canopy
#17
Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad Jambhulkar, Madanlal Meghwal, Gauri Shankar Ameta
Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01) involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH) displayed significant (P < 0...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888338/a-comprehensively-quantitative-method-of-evaluating-the-impact-of-drought-on-crop-yield-using-daily-multi-scale-spei-and-crop-growth-process-model
#18
Qianfeng Wang, Jianjun Wu, Xiaohan Li, Hongkui Zhou, Jianhua Yang, Guangpo Geng, Xueli An, Leizhen Liu, Zhenghong Tang
The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885171/sapfluxnet-towards-a-global-database-of-sap-flow-measurements
#19
EDITORIAL
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Maurizio Mencuccini, Kathy Steppe, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world...
December 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876169/-bacillus-isolates-from-rhizosphere-of-cacti-improve-germination-and-bloom-in-mammillaria-spp-cactaceae
#20
Lluvia A Chávez-Ambriz, Alejandro Hernández-Morales, José A Cabrera-Luna, Laura Luna-Martínez, Juan R Pacheco-Aguilar
Cacti are the most representative vegetation of arid zones in Mexico where rainfall is scarce, evapotranspiration is high and soil fertility is low. Plants have developed physiological strategies such as the association with microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone to increase nutrient uptake. In the present work, four bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Mammillaria magnimamma and Coryphantha radians were obtained and named as QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 and QAP24, and were genetically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting in vitro biochemical properties such as phosphate solubilization, indoleacetic acid production and ACC deaminase activity related to plant growth promotion, which was tested by inoculating M...
October 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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