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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431371/past-present-and-future-land-use-changes-and-their-impact-on-water-balance
#1
Sananda Kundu, Deepak Khare, Arun Mondal
Landuse change influences the water balance of a region affecting the available water along with the change in the evapotranspiration (ET). The major objectives of this study are to assess the landuse change and its impact on the water balance of the study area, which is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh, India. Landuse changes of 1990, 2000 and 2011 have been analyzed and the Markov Chain model has been used to predict decadal change of 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 landuse. The influence of the past, present and future landuse change on water balance has been analyzed with the SWAT (Soil and Water Analysis Tool) model in the study area...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421270/climate-variability-impacts-on-rainfed-cereal-yields-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#2
Milad Nouri, Mehdi Homaee, Mohammad Bannayan
In order to assess the response of wheat and barley to climate variability, the correlation between variations of yields with local and global climate variables was investigated in west and northwest Iran over 1982-2013. The global climate variables were the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signals. Further, minimum (T min), maximum (T max), and mean (T mean) temperature, diurnal temperature range (DTR), precipitation, and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) was used as local weather factors...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418005/simulated-climate-effects-of-desert-irrigation-geoengineering
#3
Wei Cheng, John C Moore, Long Cao, Duoying Ji, Liyun Zhao
Geoengineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of earth's energy balance to counteract global warming, is an attractive proposition for sparsely populated deserts. We use the BNU and UVic Earth system models to simulate the effects of irrigating deserts under the RCP8.5 scenario. Previous studies focused on increasing desert albedo to reduce global warming; in contrast we examine how extending afforestation and ecological projects, that successfully improve regional environments, fair for geoengineering purposes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405299/multifunctionality-is-affected-by-interactions-between-green-roof-plant-species-substrate-depth-and-substrate-type
#4
Yann Dusza, Sébastien Barot, Yvan Kraepiel, Jean-Christophe Lata, Luc Abbadie, Xavier Raynaud
Green roofs provide ecosystem services through evapotranspiration and nutrient cycling that depend, among others, on plant species, substrate type, and substrate depth. However, no study has assessed thoroughly how interactions between these factors alter ecosystem functions and multifunctionality of green roofs. We simulated some green roof conditions in a pot experiment. We planted 20 plant species from 10 genera and five families (Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) on two substrate types (natural vs...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399174/estimations-of-evapotranspiration-in-an-age-sequence-of-eucalyptus-plantations-in-subtropical-china
#5
Wenfei Liu, Jianping Wu, Houbao Fan, Honglang Duan, Qiang Li, Yinghong Yuan, Hao Zhang
Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384575/temporal-and-spatial-evolution-of-the-standardized-precipitation-evapotranspiration-index-spei-in-the-loess-plateau-under-climate-change-from-2001-to-2050
#6
Xuerui Gao, Qi Zhao, Xining Zhao, Pute Wu, Wenxiang Pan, Xiaodong Gao, Miao Sun
Loess Plateau has great uncertainty on drought occurrence due to climate change. This paper analyzes the evolution of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) based on the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and regional downscaling model (RegCM4.0). Results indicate that, under RCP2.6 Scenario, the precipitation will increase significantly (5% confidence level) at the rate of 16.40mm/10a. However, the potential evapotranspiration is showing non-significant decreasing trend at the rate of 2...
April 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365548/water-balance-assessment-of-different-substrates-on-potash-tailings-piles-using-non-weighable-lysimeters
#7
Carolina Bilibio, Christian Schellert, Stefanie Retz, Oliver Hensel, Helge Schmeisky, Daniel Uteau, Stephan Peth
Water balance is an important tool to evaluate water deficit or excess in crop systems. However, few studies have evaluated the water balance of vegetation grown on the residues from potash mining because the high sodium chloride levels of the residues hinder agricultural development. Therefore, this study aims to measure the water balance components in eight non-weighing lysimeters installed on a potash tailings pile in Heringen (Werra), Germany. These lysimeters were filled with different mixtures of household waste incineration slags and coal combustion residues, resulting in 4 different substrates with two repetitions...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361227/light-use-efficiency-of-a-warm-temperate-mixed-plantation-in-north-china
#8
Xiaojuan Tong, Jinsong Zhang, Ping Meng, Jun Li, Ning Zheng
Light use efficiency (LUE) is one of the important parameters on calculating terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP). Based on 5-year (2006-2010) carbon flux and climatic variable data of a mixed plantation in north China, the seasonal and interannual variation of LUE was investigated and the biophysical controls were examined. Our results show that LUE had a distinct seasonal course, and peaked in the vigorous growing season with a value of 0.92-1.27 g C MJ(-1). During the period of 2006-2010, annual mean LUE ranged between 0...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353205/earth-tide-induced-fluctuations-in-the-salinity-of-an-inland-river-new-south-wales-australia-a-short-term-study
#9
J F Jasonsmith, B C T Macdonald, I White
Wybong Creek discharges salts into the agriculturally and industrially important Hunter River in New South Wales, Australia. Abrupt increases in salinity occur periodically in the mid-Wybong Creek catchment. In order to understand the processes which cause these abrupt increases, changes in surface and groundwater were investigated. It is shown that salinity increases can be attributed to highly discrete groundwater discharge directly into the river from below. Hourly electrical conductivity data measured in the river showed regular, diurnal electrical conductivity fluctuations of up to 350 μS cm(-1)...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345058/nonrainfall-water-origins-and-formation-mechanisms
#10
Kudzai Farai Kaseke, Lixin Wang, Mary K Seely
Dryland ecosystems cover 40% of the total land surface on Earth and are defined broadly as zones where precipitation is considerably less than the potential evapotranspiration. Nonrainfall waters (for example, fog and dew) are the least-studied and least-characterized components of the hydrological cycle, although they supply critical amounts of water for dryland ecosystems. The sources of nonrainfall waters are largely unknown for most systems. In addition, most field and modeling studies tend to consider all nonrainfall inputs as a single category because of technical constraints, which hinders prediction of dryland responses to future warming conditions...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343362/climate-controls-over-ecosystem-metabolism-insights-from-a-fifteen-year-inductive-artificial-neural-network-synthesis-for-a-subalpine-forest
#11
REVIEW
Loren P Albert, Trevor F Keenan, Sean P Burns, Travis E Huxman, Russell K Monson
Eddy covariance (EC) datasets have provided insight into climate determinants of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (ET) in natural ecosystems for decades, but most EC studies were published in serial fashion such that one study's result became the following study's hypothesis. This approach reflects the hypothetico-deductive process by focusing on previously derived hypotheses. A synthesis of this type of sequential inference reiterates subjective biases and may amplify past assumptions about the role, and relative importance, of controls over ecosystem metabolism...
March 25, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341465/influences-of-removing-linear-and-nonlinear-trends-from-climatic-variables-on-temporal-variations-of-annual-reference-crop-evapotranspiration-in-xinjiang-china
#12
Yi Li, Ning Yao, Henry Wai Chau
Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key parameter in field irrigation scheduling, drought assessment and climate change research. ETo uses key prescribed (or fixed or reference) land surface parameters for crops. The linear and nonlinear trends in different climatic variables (CVs) affect ETo change. This research aims to reveal how ETo responds after the related CVs were linearly and nonlinearly detrended over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China. The ETo-related CVs included minimum (Tmin), average (Tave), and maximum air temperatures (Tmax), wind speed at 2m (U2), relative humidity (RH) and sunshine hour (n)...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341053/water-use-on-nonirrigated-pasture-based-dairy-farms-combining-detailed-monitoring-and-modeling-to-set-benchmarks
#13
C D Higham, D Horne, R Singh, B Kuhn-Sherlock, M R Scarsbrook
Water use in intensively managed, confinement dairy systems has been widely studied, but few reports exist regarding water use on pasture-based dairy farms. The objective of this study was to quantify the seasonal pattern of water use to develop a prediction model of water use for pasture-based dairy farms. Stock drinking, milking parlor, and total water use was measured on 35 pasture-based, seasonal calving dairy farms in New Zealand over 2 yr. Average stock drinking water was 60 L/cow per day, with peak use in summer...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335534/a-networked-sensor-system-for-the-analysis-of-plot-scale-hydrology
#14
German Villalba, Fernando Plaza, Xiaoyang Zhong, Tyler W Davis, Miguel Navarro, Yimei Li, Thomas A Slater, Yao Liang, Xu Liang
This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP) testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors...
March 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334161/elevated-co2-and-warming-effects-on-grassland-plant-mortality-are-determined-by-the-timing-of-rainfall
#15
Mark J Hovenden, Paul C D Newton, Meagan Porter
Background and aims: Global warming is expected to increase the mortality rate of established plants in water-limited systems because of its effect on evapotranspiration. The rising CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]), however, should have the opposite effect because it reduces plant transpiration, delaying the onset of drought. This potential for elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) to modify the warming effect on mortality should be related to prevailing moisture conditions. This study aimed to determine the impacts of warming by 2 °C and eCO 2 (550 μmol mol -1 ) on plant mortality in an Australian temperate grassland over a 6-year period and to test how interannual variation in rainfall influenced treatment effects...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321518/identification-and-characterization-of-durum-wheat-micrornas-in-leaf-and-root-tissues
#16
Veronica Fileccia, Edoardo Bertolini, Paolo Ruisi, Dario Giambalvo, Alfonso Salvatore Frenda, Gina Cannarozzi, Zerihun Tadele, Cristina Crosatti, Federico Martinelli
MicroRNAs are a class of post-transcriptional regulators of plant developmental and physiological processes and responses to environmental stresses. Here, we present the study regarding the annotation and characterization of MIR genes conducted in durum wheat. We characterized the miRNAome of leaf and root tissues at tillering stage under two environmental conditions: irrigated with 100% (control) and 55% of evapotranspiration (early water stress). In total, 90 microRNAs were identified, of which 32 were classified as putative novel and species-specific miRNAs...
March 20, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#17
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301603/drought-risk-assessment-under-climate-change-is-sensitive-to-methodological-choices-for-the-estimation-of-evaporative-demand
#18
Candida F Dewes, Imtiaz Rangwala, Joseph J Barsugli, Michael T Hobbins, Sanjiv Kumar
Several studies have projected increases in drought severity, extent and duration in many parts of the world under climate change. We examine sources of uncertainty arising from the methodological choices for the assessment of future drought risk in the continental US (CONUS). One such uncertainty is in the climate models' expression of evaporative demand (E0), which is not a direct climate model output but has been traditionally estimated using several different formulations. Here we analyze daily output from two CMIP5 GCMs to evaluate how differences in E0 formulation, treatment of meteorological driving data, choice of GCM, and standardization of time series influence the estimation of E0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301482/forest-biomass-density-across-large-climate-gradients-in-northern-south-america-is-related-to-water-availability-but-not-with-temperature
#19
Esteban Álvarez-Dávila, Luis Cayuela, Sebastián González-Caro, Ana M Aldana, Pablo R Stevenson, Oliver Phillips, Álvaro Cogollo, Maria C Peñuela, Patricio von Hildebrand, Eliana Jiménez, Omar Melo, Ana Catalina Londoño-Vega, Irina Mendoza, Oswaldo Velásquez, Fernando Fernández, Marcela Serna, Cesar Velázquez-Rua, Doris Benítez, José M Rey-Benayas
Understanding and predicting the likely response of ecosystems to climate change are crucial challenges for ecology and for conservation biology. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in the tropics as these forests store more than half the total atmospheric carbon stock in their biomass. Biomass is determined by the balance between biomass inputs (i.e., growth) and outputs (mortality). We can expect therefore that conditions that favor high growth rates, such as abundant water supply, warmth, and nutrient-rich soils will tend to correlate with high biomass stocks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295911/co2-exchange-and-evapotranspiration-across-dryland-ecosystems-of-southwestern-north-america
#20
Joel A Biederman, Russell L Scott, Tom W Bell, David R Bowling, Sabina Dore, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Thomas E Kolb, Praveena Krishnan, Dan J Krofcheck, Marcy E Litvak, Gregory E Maurer, Tilden P Meyers, Walter C Oechel, Shirley A Papuga, Guillermo E Ponce-Campos, Julio C Rodriguez, William K Smith, Rodrigo Vargas, Christopher J Watts, Enrico A Yepez, Michael L Goulden
Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in drylands. Here we address this observation gap with eddy covariance data from 25 sites in the water-limited Southwest region of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years (150 site-years in total)...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
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