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Evapotranspiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156568/assessing-crop-coefficients-for-natural-vegetated-areas-using-satellite-data-and-eddy-covariance-stations
#1
Chiara Corbari, Giovanni Ravazzani, Marta Galvagno, Edoardo Cremonese, Marco Mancini
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156230/transport-of-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-thiamethoxam-from-artificial-seed-coatings
#2
Jesse Radolinski, Junxue Wu, Kang Xia, Ryan Stewart
Neonicotinoid insecticides coat the seeds of major crops worldwide; however, the high solubility of these compounds, combined with their toxicity to non-target organisms, makes it critical to decipher the processes by which they are transported through soils and into aquatic environments. Transport and distribution of a neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam, TMX) were investigated by growing TMX-coated corn seeds in coarse-textured and fine-textured soil columns (20 and 60cm lengths). To understand the influence of living plants, corn plants were terminated in half of the columns (no plant treatment) and allowed to grow to the V5 growth stage (33days of growth) in the other half (with plant treatment)...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138468/increasing-frequency-and-spatial-extent-of-concurrent-meteorological-droughts-and-heatwaves-in-india
#3
Shailza Sharma, Pradeep Mujumdar
The impacts of concurrent droughts and heatwaves could be more serious compared to their individual occurrence. Meteorological drought condition is generally characterized by low rainfall, but impact of such an event is amplified with simultaneous occurrence of heatwaves. Positive feedback between these two extremes can worsen the rainfall deficit situation to serious soil moisture depletion due to enhanced evapotranspiration. In this study, the concurrence of meteorological droughts and heatwaves is investigated in India using Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) high resolution gridded data over a period of 60 years...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#4
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136532/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-rainfall-and-drought-characteristics-across-the-pearl-river-basin
#5
Shulin Deng, Tan Chen, Ni Yang, Lean Qu, Manchun Li, Dong Chen
Understanding rainfall trends as well as drought characteristics plays a key role in watershed development and management. In this study, the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall and drought based on temperature and precipitation data observed in 48 meteorological stations from 1959 to 2012 across the Pearl River Basin in China were analyzed. The possible influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and El Nino Modoki (ENSO_M) events on seasonal drought based on the Standardized Precipitation-evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were also investigated...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136323/increasing-canopy-photosynthesis-in-rice-can-be-achieved-without-a-large-increase-in-water-use-a-model-based-on-free-air-co2-enrichment
#6
Hiroki Ikawa, Charles P Chen, Martin Sikma, Mayumi Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu Sakai, Takeshi Tokida, Yasuhiro Usui, Hirofumi Nakamura, Keisuke Ono, Atsushi Maruyama, Tsutomu Watanabe, Tsuneo Kuwagata, Toshihiro Hasegawa
Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]). Here we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133901/a-mesic-maximum-in-biological-water-use-demarcates-biome-sensitivity-to-aridity-shifts
#7
Stephen P Good, Georgianne W Moore, Diego G Miralles
Biome function is largely governed by how efficiently available resources can be used and yet for water, the ratio of direct biological resource use (transpiration, E T) to total supply (annual precipitation, P) at ecosystem scales remains poorly characterized. Here, we synthesize field, remote sensing and ecohydrological modelling estimates to show that the biological water use fraction (E T/P) reaches a maximum under mesic conditions; that is, when evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration, E P) slightly exceeds supplied precipitation...
November 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133837/contrasting-runoff-trends-between-dry-and-wet-parts-of-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#8
Yuanyuan Wang, Yongqiang Zhang, Francis H S Chiew, Tim R McVicar, Lu Zhang, Hongxia Li, Guanghua Qin
As the "Asian Water Tower", the Tibetan Plateau (TP) provides water resources for more than 1.4 billion people, but suffers from climatic and environmental changes, followed by the changes in water balance components. We used state-of-the-art satellite-based products to estimate spatial and temporal variations and trends in annual precipitation, evapotranspiration and total water storage change across eastern TP, which were then used to reconstruct an annual runoff variability series for 2003-2014. The basin-scale reconstructed streamflow variability matched well with gauge observations for five large rivers...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121058/estimating-future-temperature-maxima-in-lakes-across-the-united-states-using-a-surrogate-modeling-approach
#9
Jonathan B Butcher, Tan Zi, Michelle Schmidt, Thomas E Johnson, Daniel M Nover, Christopher M Clark
A warming climate increases thermal inputs to lakes with potential implications for water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In a previous study, we used a dynamic water column temperature and mixing simulation model to simulate chronic (7-day average) maximum temperatures under a range of potential future climate projections at selected sites representative of different U.S. regions. Here, to extend results to lakes where dynamic models have not been developed, we apply a novel machine learning approach that uses Gaussian Process regression to describe the model response surface as a function of simplified lake characteristics (depth, surface area, water clarity) and climate forcing (winter and summer air temperatures and potential evapotranspiration)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#10
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107781/drought-evolution-severity-and-trends-in-mainland-china-over-1961-2013
#11
Ning Yao, Yi Li, Tianjie Lei, Lingling Peng
Droughts have destructive impacts on crop yields and water supplies, and researching droughts is vital for societal stability and human life. This work aimed to assess the spatiotemporal evolution of droughts in mainland China over 1961-2013 using four drought indices. These indices were the percentage of precipitation anomaly (Pa), standard precipitation index (SPI), standard precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and evaporative demand drought index (EDDI) at multiple timescales ranging from 1-week to 24-month...
November 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107367/under-which-climate-and-soil-conditions-the-plant-productivity-precipitation-relationship-is-linear-or-nonlinear
#12
Jian-Sheng Ye, Jiu-Ying Pei, Chao Fang
Understanding under which climate and soil conditions the plant productivity-precipitation relationship is linear or nonlinear is useful for accurately predicting the response of ecosystem function to global environmental change. Using long-term (2000-2016) net primary productivity (NPP)-precipitation datasets derived from satellite observations, we identify >5600pixels in the North Hemisphere landmass that fit either linear or nonlinear temporal NPP-precipitation relationships. Differences in climate (precipitation, radiation, ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration, temperature) and soil factors (nitrogen, phosphorous, organic carbon, field capacity) between the linear and nonlinear types are evaluated...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103393/water-footprinting-of-pasture-based-farms-beef-and-sheep
#13
E Murphy, T P Curran, N M Holden, D O'Brien, J Upton
In the context of water use for agricultural production, water footprints (WFs) have become an important sustainability indicator. To understand better the water demand for beef and sheep meat produced on pasture-based systems, a WF of individual farms is required. The main objective of this study was to determine the primary contributors to freshwater consumption up to the farm gate expressed as a volumetric WF and associated impacts for the production of 1 kg of beef and 1 kg of sheep meat from a selection of pasture-based farms for 2 consecutive years, 2014 and 2015...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100696/long-term-trend-and-correlation-between-vegetation-greenness-and-climate-variables-in-asia-based-on-satellite-data
#14
Munkhnasan Lamchin, Woo-Kyun Lee, Seong Woo Jeon, Sonam Wangyel Wang, Chul Hee Lim, Cholho Song, Minjun Sung
Satellite data has been used to ascertain trends and correlations between climate change and vegetation greenness in Asia. Our study utilized 33-year (1982-2014) AVHRR-GIMMS (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies) NDVI3g and CRU TS (Climatic Research Unit Time Series) climate variable (temperature, rainfall, and potential evapotranspiration) time series. First, we estimated the overall trends for vegetation greenness, climate variables and analyzed trends during summer (April to October), winter (November to March), and the entire year...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099842/assessing-the-combined-effects-of-climatic-factors-on-spring-wheat-phenophase-and-grain-yield-in-inner-mongolia-china
#15
Junfang Zhao, Feiyu Pu, Yunpeng Li, Jingwen Xu, Ning Li, Yi Zhang, Jianping Guo, Zhihua Pan
Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091108/three-decades-of-reference-evapotranspiration-estimates-for-a-tropical-watershed-in-the-eastern-amazon
#16
Renato O DA Silva, Everaldo B DE Souza, Alexandra L Tavares, José A Mota, Douglas B S Ferreira, Pedro W M Souza-Filho, Edson J P DA Rocha
This study estimated the reference evapotranspiration rate (ETo) for the Itacaiúnas River Watershed (IRW), Eastern Amazonia, and measured the accuracy of eight empirical equations: Penman-Monteith (PM), Priestley-Taylor (PT), Hargreaves and Samani (HS), Camargo (CAM), Thornthwaite (TH), Hamon (HM), Kharrufa (KF) and Turc (TC) using monthly data from 1980 to 2013. In addition, it verifies the regional applicability to the IRW using a for the Marabá-PA station. The methods TC and PM (FAO56) presented the best results, which demonstrate that radiation and higher temperatures are the dominant drivers in the Evapotranspiration process, while relative humidity and wind speed have a much smaller impact...
October 26, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081549/tundra-water-budget-and-implications-of-precipitation-underestimation
#17
Anna K Liljedahl, Larry D Hinzman, Douglas L Kane, Walter C Oechel, Craig E Tweedie, Donatella Zona
Difficulties in obtaining accurate precipitation measurements have limited meaningful hydrologic assessment for over a century due to performance challenges of conventional snowfall and rainfall gauges in windy environments. Here, we compare snowfall observations and bias adjusted snowfall to end-of-winter snow accumulation measurements on the ground for 16 years (1999-2014) and assess the implication of precipitation underestimation on the water balance for a low-gradient tundra wetland near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska (2007-2009)...
August 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072620/nutrient-content-and-nutritional-water-productivity-of-selected-grain-legumes-in-response-to-production-environment
#18
Tendai Polite Chibarabada, Albert Thembinkosi Modi, Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi
There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070800/observed-drought-indices-show-increasing-divergence-across-europe
#19
James H Stagge, Daniel G Kingston, Lena M Tallaksen, David M Hannah
Recent severe European droughts raise the vital question: are we already experiencing measurable changes in drought likelihood that agree with climate change projections? The plethora of drought definitions compounds this question, requiring instead that we ask: how have various types of drought changed, how do these changes compare with climate projections, and what are the causes of observed differences? To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal a regional divergence in drought likelihood as measured by the two most prominent meteorological drought indices: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) across Europe over the period 1958-2014...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069406/spatio-temporal-models-to-determine-association-between-campylobacter-cases-and-environment
#20
Roy A Sanderson, James A Maas, Alasdair P Blain, Russell Gorton, Jessica Ward, Sarah J O'Brien, Paul R Hunter, Stephen P Rushton
Background: Campylobacteriosis is a major cause of gastroenteritis in the UK, and although 70% of cases are associated with food sources, the remainder are probably associated with wider environmental exposure. Methods: In order to investigate wider environmental transmission, we conducted a spatio-temporal analysis of the association of human cases of Campylobacter in the Tyne catchment with weather, climate, hydrology and land use. A hydrological model was used to predict surface-water flow in the Tyne catchment over 5 years...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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