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Evapotranspiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345058/nonrainfall-water-origins-and-formation-mechanisms
#1
Kudzai Farai Kaseke, Lixin Wang, Mary K Seely
Dryland ecosystems cover 40% of the total land surface on Earth and are defined broadly as zones where precipitation is considerably less than the potential evapotranspiration. Nonrainfall waters (for example, fog and dew) are the least-studied and least-characterized components of the hydrological cycle, although they supply critical amounts of water for dryland ecosystems. The sources of nonrainfall waters are largely unknown for most systems. In addition, most field and modeling studies tend to consider all nonrainfall inputs as a single category because of technical constraints, which hinders prediction of dryland responses to future warming conditions...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343362/climate-controls-over-ecosystem-metabolism-insights-from-a-fifteen-year-inductive-artificial-neural-network-synthesis-for-a-subalpine-forest
#2
REVIEW
Loren P Albert, Trevor F Keenan, Sean P Burns, Travis E Huxman, Russell K Monson
Eddy covariance (EC) datasets have provided insight into climate determinants of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (ET) in natural ecosystems for decades, but most EC studies were published in serial fashion such that one study's result became the following study's hypothesis. This approach reflects the hypothetico-deductive process by focusing on previously derived hypotheses. A synthesis of this type of sequential inference reiterates subjective biases and may amplify past assumptions about the role, and relative importance, of controls over ecosystem metabolism...
March 25, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341465/influences-of-removing-linear-and-nonlinear-trends-from-climatic-variables-on-temporal-variations-of-annual-reference-crop-evapotranspiration-in-xinjiang-china
#3
Yi Li, Ning Yao, Henry Wai Chau
Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key parameter in field irrigation scheduling, drought assessment and climate change research. ETo uses key prescribed (or fixed or reference) land surface parameters for crops. The linear and nonlinear trends in different climatic variables (CVs) affect ETo change. This research aims to reveal how ETo responds after the related CVs were linearly and nonlinearly detrended over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China. The ETo-related CVs included minimum (Tmin), average (Tave), and maximum air temperatures (Tmax), wind speed at 2m (U2), relative humidity (RH) and sunshine hour (n)...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341053/water-use-on-nonirrigated-pasture-based-dairy-farms-combining-detailed-monitoring-and-modeling-to-set-benchmarks
#4
C D Higham, D Horne, R Singh, B Kuhn-Sherlock, M R Scarsbrook
Water use in intensively managed, confinement dairy systems has been widely studied, but few reports exist regarding water use on pasture-based dairy farms. The objective of this study was to quantify the seasonal pattern of water use to develop a prediction model of water use for pasture-based dairy farms. Stock drinking, milking parlor, and total water use was measured on 35 pasture-based, seasonal calving dairy farms in New Zealand over 2 yr. Average stock drinking water was 60 L/cow per day, with peak use in summer...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335534/a-networked-sensor-system-for-the-analysis-of-plot-scale-hydrology
#5
German Villalba, Fernando Plaza, Xiaoyang Zhong, Tyler W Davis, Miguel Navarro, Yimei Li, Thomas A Slater, Yao Liang, Xu Liang
This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP) testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors...
March 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334161/elevated-co2-and-warming-effects-on-grassland-plant-mortality-are-determined-by-the-timing-of-rainfall
#6
Mark J Hovenden, Paul C D Newton, Meagan Porter
Background and aims: Global warming is expected to increase the mortality rate of established plants in water-limited systems because of its effect on evapotranspiration. The rising CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]), however, should have the opposite effect because it reduces plant transpiration, delaying the onset of drought. This potential for elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) to modify the warming effect on mortality should be related to prevailing moisture conditions. This study aimed to determine the impacts of warming by 2 °C and eCO 2 (550 μmol mol -1 ) on plant mortality in an Australian temperate grassland over a 6-year period and to test how interannual variation in rainfall influenced treatment effects...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321518/identification-and-characterization-of-durum-wheat-micrornas-in-leaf-and-root-tissues
#7
Veronica Fileccia, Edoardo Bertolini, Paolo Ruisi, Dario Giambalvo, Alfonso Salvatore Frenda, Gina Cannarozzi, Zerihun Tadele, Cristina Crosatti, Federico Martinelli
MicroRNAs are a class of post-transcriptional regulators of plant developmental and physiological processes and responses to environmental stresses. Here, we present the study regarding the annotation and characterization of MIR genes conducted in durum wheat. We characterized the miRNAome of leaf and root tissues at tillering stage under two environmental conditions: irrigated with 100% (control) and 55% of evapotranspiration (early water stress). In total, 90 microRNAs were identified, of which 32 were classified as putative novel and species-specific miRNAs...
March 20, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#8
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301603/drought-risk-assessment-under-climate-change-is-sensitive-to-methodological-choices-for-the-estimation-of-evaporative-demand
#9
Candida F Dewes, Imtiaz Rangwala, Joseph J Barsugli, Michael T Hobbins, Sanjiv Kumar
Several studies have projected increases in drought severity, extent and duration in many parts of the world under climate change. We examine sources of uncertainty arising from the methodological choices for the assessment of future drought risk in the continental US (CONUS). One such uncertainty is in the climate models' expression of evaporative demand (E0), which is not a direct climate model output but has been traditionally estimated using several different formulations. Here we analyze daily output from two CMIP5 GCMs to evaluate how differences in E0 formulation, treatment of meteorological driving data, choice of GCM, and standardization of time series influence the estimation of E0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301482/forest-biomass-density-across-large-climate-gradients-in-northern-south-america-is-related-to-water-availability-but-not-with-temperature
#10
Esteban Álvarez-Dávila, Luis Cayuela, Sebastián González-Caro, Ana M Aldana, Pablo R Stevenson, Oliver Phillips, Álvaro Cogollo, Maria C Peñuela, Patricio von Hildebrand, Eliana Jiménez, Omar Melo, Ana Catalina Londoño-Vega, Irina Mendoza, Oswaldo Velásquez, Fernando Fernández, Marcela Serna, Cesar Velázquez-Rua, Doris Benítez, José M Rey-Benayas
Understanding and predicting the likely response of ecosystems to climate change are crucial challenges for ecology and for conservation biology. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in the tropics as these forests store more than half the total atmospheric carbon stock in their biomass. Biomass is determined by the balance between biomass inputs (i.e., growth) and outputs (mortality). We can expect therefore that conditions that favor high growth rates, such as abundant water supply, warmth, and nutrient-rich soils will tend to correlate with high biomass stocks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295911/co2-exchange-and-evapotranspiration-across-dryland-ecosystems-of-southwestern-north-america
#11
Joel A Biederman, Russell L Scott, Tom W Bell, David R Bowling, Sabina Dore, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Thomas E Kolb, Praveena Krishnan, Dan J Krofcheck, Marcy E Litvak, Gregory E Maurer, Tilden P Meyers, Walter C Oechel, Shirley A Papuga, Guillermo E Ponce-Campos, Julio C Rodriguez, William K Smith, Rodrigo Vargas, Christopher J Watts, Enrico A Yepez, Michael L Goulden
Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in drylands. Here we address this observation gap with eddy covariance data from 25 sites in the water-limited Southwest region of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years (150 site-years in total)...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285214/domestic-wastewaters-reuse-reclaimed-by-an-improved-horizontal-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetland-a-case-study-in-the-southeast-of-spain
#12
Pedro Andreo-Martínez, Nuria García-Martínez, Joaquín Quesada-Medina, Luis Almela
The aim of this case study was to assess the performance of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HF-CW) located in southeastern Spain, filled with blast furnace slags (BFS), planted with Phragmites australis and designed to treat artificially aerated domestic wastewater to produce effluents suitable for agriculture reuse. The water quality parameters, included in the Spanish regulations for reclaimed wastewater reuse as agricultural quality 2.1, were monitored for one year. Data for all studied parameters, except electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), met the Spanish standards for reclaimed wastewater reuse due to the high evapotranspiration (ET) during the summer...
February 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277076/carbon-dioxide-emission-in-relation-with-irrigation-and-organic-amendments-from-a-sweet-corn-field
#13
Ali Fares, Adam Bensley, Haimanote Bayabil, Ripendra Awal, Samira Fares, Hector Valenzuela, Farhat Abbas
Soil moisture and organic matter level affects soil respiration and microbial activities, which in turn impact greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation levels (75% [deficit], 100% [full], and 125% [excess] of reference crop evapotranspiration requirements), and organic amendments (OA) type (chicken manure [CM] and bone meal [BM]) and OA application rates (0,168, 336 and 672 kg total N ha(-1)) on (i) soil physical properties (bulk density, organic matter content and soil moisture content) and (ii) soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a highly weathered tropical Hawai'ian soil...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276519/biotic-and-abiotic-factors-predicting-the-global-distribution-and-population-density-of-an-invasive-large-mammal
#14
Jesse S Lewis, Matthew L Farnsworth, Chris L Burdett, David M Theobald, Miranda Gray, Ryan S Miller
Biotic and abiotic factors are increasingly acknowledged to synergistically shape broad-scale species distributions. However, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting species distributions is unclear. In particular, biotic factors, such as predation and vegetation, including those resulting from anthropogenic land-use change, are underrepresented in species distribution modeling, but could improve model predictions. Using generalized linear models and model selection techniques, we used 129 estimates of population density of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from 5 continents to evaluate the relative importance, magnitude, and direction of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting population density of an invasive large mammal with a global distribution...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272882/inside-story-of-gas-processes-within-stormwater-biofilters-does-greenhouse-gas-production-tarnish-the-benefits-of-nitrogen-removal
#15
Emily G I Payne, Tracey Pham, Perran L M Cook, Ana Deletic, Belinda E Hatt, Tim D Fletcher
Stormwater biofilters are dynamic environments, supporting diverse processes that act to capture and transform incoming pollutants. However, beneficial water treatment processes can be accompanied by undesirable greenhouse gas production. This study investigated the potential for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) generation in dissolved form at the base of laboratory-scale stormwater biofilter columns. The influence of plant presence, species, inflow frequency, and inclusion of a saturated zone and carbon source were studied...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262359/assessing-soil-biodiversity-potentials-in-europe
#16
Ece Aksoy, Geertrui Louwagie, Ciro Gardi, Mirko Gregor, Christoph Schröder, Manuel Löhnertz
Soil is important as a critical component for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The largest part of the terrestrial biodiversity relies, directly or indirectly, on soil. Furthermore, soil itself is habitat to a great diversity of organisms. The suitability of soil to host such a diversity is strongly related to its physico-chemical features and environmental properties. However, due to the complexity of both soil and biodiversity, it is difficult to identify a clear and unambiguous relationship between environmental parameters and soil biota...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261468/water-land-fire-and-forest-multi-scale-determinants-of-rainforests-in-the-australian-monsoon-tropics
#17
Stefania Ondei, Lynda D Prior, Grant J Williamson, Tom Vigilante, David M J S Bowman
The small rainforest fragments found in savanna landscapes are powerful, yet often overlooked, model systems to understand the controls of these contrasting ecosystems. We analyzed the relative effect of climatic variables on rainforest density at a subcontinental level, and employed high-resolution, regional-level analyses to assess the importance of landscape settings and fire activity in determining rainforest density in a frequently burnt Australian savanna landscape. Estimates of rainforest density (ha/km(2)) across the Northern Territory and Western Australia, derived from preexisting maps, were used to calculate the correlations between rainforest density and climatic variables...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258753/spatial-and-temporal-evolution-of-climatic-factors-and-its-impacts-on-potential-evapotranspiration-in-loess-plateau-of-northern-shaanxi-china
#18
C Li, P T Wu, X L Li, T W Zhou, S K Sun, Y B Wang, X B Luan, X Yu
Agriculture is very sensitive to climate change, and correct forecasting of climate change is a great help to accurate allocation of irrigation water. The use of irrigation water is influenced by crop water demand and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration (ET0) is a measure of the ability of the atmosphere to remove water from the surface through the processes of evaporation and transpiration, assuming no control on water supply. It plays an important role in assessing crop water requirements, regional dry-wet conditions, and other factors of water resource management...
March 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254943/precipitation-drives-global-variation-in-natural-selection
#19
Adam M Siepielski, Michael B Morrissey, Mathieu Buoro, Stephanie M Carlson, Christina M Caruso, Sonya M Clegg, Tim Coulson, Joseph DiBattista, Kiyoko M Gotanda, Clinton D Francis, Joe Hereford, Joel G Kingsolver, Kate E Augustine, Loeske E B Kruuk, Ryan A Martin, Ben C Sheldon, Nina Sletvold, Erik I Svensson, Michael J Wade, Andrew D C MacColl
Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation-natural selection-are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation...
March 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247284/cape-fear-monitoring-basic-hydrological-processes-in-an-outdoor-hillslope-plot
#20
Andrea Petroselli, Flavia Tauro
Cape Fear is an outdoor 7 × 7 m(2) hillslope laboratory located at the University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy, and is equipped with real-time monitoring sensors used to analyse runoff generation. In this paper, hydrological phenomena that occurred during Cape Fear's first 2 years of operation are reported to provide insight into the basic dynamics underlying the hydrological response at the hillslope scale. Based on our findings, surface and subsurface runoff are likely driven by rainfall-threshold phenomena, and evapotranspiration phenomena account for more than 70% of rainfall water input...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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