keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Evapotranspiration

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222817/livestock-and-feed-water-productivity-in-the-mixed-crop-livestock-system
#1
M Bekele, A Mengistu, B Tamir
Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP)...
February 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220874/modeling-contribution-of-shallow-groundwater-to-evapotranspiration-and-yield-of-maize-in-an-arid-area
#2
Xiaoyu Gao, Zailin Huo, Zhongyi Qu, Xu Xu, Guanhua Huang, Tammo S Steenhuis
Capillary rise from shallow groundwater can decrease the need for irrigation water. However, simple techniques do not exist to quantify the contribution of capillary flux to crop water use. In this study we develop the Agricultural Water Productivity Model for Shallow Groundwater (AWPM-SG) for calculating capillary fluxes from shallow groundwater using readily available data. The model combines an analytical solution of upward flux from groundwater with the EPIC crop growth model. AWPM-SG was calibrated and validated with 2-year lysimetric experiment with maize...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220832/water-use-efficiency-of-an-old-growth-forest-in-lower-subtropical-china
#3
Xiaodong Liu, Xiuzhi Chen, Ronghua Li, Fengling Long, Lu Zhang, Qianmei Zhang, Jiyue Li
Carbon and water fluxes are key properties of ecosystem processes and functions. A better understanding of their temporal dynamics and coupling mechanism between these fluxes will help us improve ecosystem management for mitigation as well as adaption to future climatic change. From 2003 to 2009, carbon and water flux data were obtained by the eddy covariance method over an old-growth forest in the lower subtropical China. The 7 years of observational data indicated that the water-use efficiency (WUE) of the old-growth forest exhibited weak inter-annual variability...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216656/water-use-efficiency-in-a-primary-subtropical-evergreen-forest-in-southwest-china
#4
Qing-Hai Song, Xue-Hai Fei, Yi-Ping Zhang, Li-Qing Sha, Yun-Tong Liu, Wen-Jun Zhou, Chuan-Sheng Wu, Zhi-Yun Lu, Kang Luo, Jin-Bo Gao, Yu-Hong Liu
We calculated water use efficiency (WUE) using measures of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) from five years of continuous eddy covariance measurements (2009-2013) obtained over a primary subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in southwestern China. Annual mean WUE exhibited a decreasing trend from 2009 to 2013, varying from ~2.28 to 2.68 g C kg H2O(-1). The multiyear average WUE was 2.48 ± 0.17 (mean ± standard deviation) g C kg H2O(-1). WUE increased greatly in the driest year (2009), due to a larger decline in ET than in GPP...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195575/a-land-data-assimilation-system-for-sub-saharan-africa-food-and-water-security-applications
#5
Amy McNally, Kristi Arsenault, Sujay Kumar, Shraddhanand Shukla, Pete Peterson, Shugong Wang, Chris Funk, Christa D Peters-Lidard, James P Verdin
Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164338/the-response-of-ecosystem-water-use-efficiency-to-rising-atmospheric-co2-concentrations-sensitivity-and-large-scale-biogeochemical-implications
#6
Jürgen Knauer, Sönke Zaehle, Markus Reichstein, Belinda E Medlyn, Matthias Forkel, Stefan Hagemann, Christiane Werner
Ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) is an important metric linking the global land carbon and water cycles. Eddy covariance-based estimates of WUE in temperate/boreal forests have recently been found to show a strong and unexpected increase over the 1992-2010 period, which has been attributed to the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations on plant physiology. To test this hypothesis, we forced the observed trend in the process-based land surface model JSBACH by increasing the sensitivity of stomatal conductance (gs ) to atmospheric CO2 concentration...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161043/utilising-green-and-bluespace-to-mitigate-urban-heat-island-intensity
#7
K R Gunawardena, M J Wells, T Kershaw
It has long been recognised that cities exhibit their own microclimate and are typically warmer than the surrounding rural areas. This 'mesoscale' influence is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect and results largely from modification of surface properties leading to greater absorption of solar radiation, reduced convective cooling and lower water evaporation rates. Cities typically contain less vegetation and bodies of water than rural areas, and existing green and bluespace is often under threat from increasing population densities...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158204/atmospheric-co2-concentration-effects-on-rice-water-use-and-biomass-production
#8
Uttam Kumar, William Paul Quick, Marilou Barrios, Pompe C Sta Cruz, Michael Dingkuhn
Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET) is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo) is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131455/removal-of-heavy-metals-from-synthetic-landfill-leachate-in-lab-scale-vertical-flow-constructed-wetlands
#9
Dan A, Masao Oka, Yuta Fujii, Satoshi Soda, Tomonori Ishigaki, Takashi Machimura, Michihiko Ike
Synthetic landfill leachate was treated using lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (CWs) in sequencing batch modes to assess heavy metal removal efficiencies. The CWs filled with loamy soil and pumice stone were unplanted or planted with common reed (Phragmites australis) (Reed-CW) or common rush (Juncus effusus) (Rush-CW). Synthetic leachate contained acetate, propionate, humate, ammonium, and heavy metals. Common reed grew almost vigorously but common rush partly withered during the 8-month experiment...
January 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122124/predicting-trait-environment-relationships-for-venation-networks-along-an-andes-amazon-elevation-gradient
#10
Benjamin Blonder, Norma Salinas, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Percy Orlando Chambi Porroa, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Cyrille Violle, Nikolaos M Fyllas, Gregory R Goldsmith, Roberta Martin, Gregory P Asner, Sandra Díaz, Brian J Enquist, Yadvinder Malhi
Understanding functional trait-environment relationships (TERs) may improve predictions of community assembly. However, many empirical TERs have been weak or lacking conceptual foundation. TERs based on leaf venation networks may better link individuals and communities via hydraulic constraints. We report measurements of vein density, vein radius, and leaf thickness for more than 100 dominant species occurring in ten forest communities spanning a 3300 m Andes-Amazon elevation gradient in Peru. We use these data to measure the strength of TERs at community scale and to determine whether observed TERs are similar to those predicted by physiological theory...
January 25, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121057/drought-causes-reduced-growth-of-trembling-aspen-in-western-canada
#11
Lei Chen, Jian-Guo Huang, Syed Ashraful Alam, Lihong Zhai, Andria Dawson, Kenneth J Stadt, Philip G Comeau
Adequate and advance knowledge of the response of forest ecosystems to temperature-induced drought is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function. Recent massive decline in aspen-dominated forests and an increased aspen mortality in boreal forests have been associated with global warming, but it is still uncertain whether the decline and mortality are driven by drought. We used a series of ring-width chronologies from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
January 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120928/a-deforestation-induced-tipping-point-for-the-south-american-monsoon-system
#12
Niklas Boers, Norbert Marwan, Henrique M J Barbosa, Jürgen Kurths
The Amazon rainforest has been proposed as a tipping element of the earth system, with the possibility of a dieback of the entire ecosystem due to deforestation only of parts of the rainforest. Possible physical mechanisms behind such a transition are still subject to ongoing debates. Here, we use a specifically designed model to analyse the nonlinear couplings between the Amazon rainforest and the atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the South American continent. These couplings are associated with a westward cascade of precipitation and evapotranspiration across the Amazon...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073772/a-water-availability-gradient-reveals-the-deficit-level-required-to-affect-traits-in-potted-juvenile-eucalyptus-globulus
#13
Adam B McKiernan, Brad M Potts, Mark J Hovenden, Timothy J Brodribb, Noel W Davies, Thomas Rodemann, Scott A M McAdam, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Drought leading to soil water deficit can have severe impacts on plants. Water deficit may lead to plant water stress and affect growth and chemical traits. Plant secondary metabolite (PSM) responses to water deficit vary between compounds and studies, with inconsistent reports of changes to PSM concentrations even within a single species. This disparity may result from experimental water deficit variation among studies, and so multiple water deficit treatments are used to fully assess PSM responses in a single species...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069301/future-water-availability-in-the-largest-freshwater-mediterranean-lake-is-at-great-risk-as-evidenced-from-simulations-with-the-swat-model
#14
Tuba Bucak, Dennis Trolle, Hans Estrup Andersen, Hans Thodsen, Şeyda Erdoğan, Eti E Levi, Nur Filiz, Erik Jeppesen, Meryem Beklioğlu
Inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and changes in water flow regime are intrinsic characteristics of Mediterranean lakes. Additionally, considering climate change projections for the water-limited Mediterranean region, increased air temperatures and decreased precipitation are anticipated, leading to dramatic declines in lake water levels as well as severe water scarcity problems. The study site, Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in the Mediterranean basin, is - like other Mediterranean lakes - threatened by climatic changes and over-abstraction of water for irrigated crop farming...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068392/vegetation-changes-in-the-permafrost-regions-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-from-1982-2012-different-responses-related-to-geographical-locations-and-vegetation-types-in-high-altitude-areas
#15
Zhiwei Wang, Qian Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Lin Zhao, Guangyang Yue, Zhuotong Nan, Puchang Wang, Shuhua Yi, Defu Zou, Yu Qin, Tonghua Wu, Jianzong Shi
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067276/flip-flop-of-day-night-and-summer-winter-surface-urban-heat-island-intensity-in-india
#16
Hiteshri Shastri, Beas Barik, Subimal Ghosh, Chandra Venkataraman, Pankaj Sadavarte
The difference in land surface temperature (LST) between an urban region and its nearby non-urban region, known as surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII), is usually positive as reported in earlier studies. India has experienced unprecedented urbanization over recent decades with an urban population of 380 million. Here, we present the first study of the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of SUHII in India. We found negative SUHII over a majority of urban areas during daytime in pre-monsoon summer (MAM), contrary to the expected impacts of urbanization...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054976/an-improved-approach-for-estimating-daily-net-radiation-over-the-heihe-river-basin
#17
Bingfang Wu, Shufu Liu, Weiwei Zhu, Nana Yan, Qiang Xing, Shen Tan
Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D) cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China...
January 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052502/ecophysiological-variation-of-transpiration-of-pine-forests-synthesis-of-new-and-published-results
#18
Pantana Tor-Ngern, Ram Oren, Andrew C Oishi, Joshua M Uebelherr, Sari Palmroth, Lasse Tarvainen, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Sune Linder, Jean-Christophe Domec, Torgny Näsholm
Canopy transpiration (EC ) is a large fraction of evapotranspiration, integrating physical and biological processes within the energy, water, and carbon cycles of forests. Quantifying EC is of both scientific and practical importance, providing information relevant to questions ranging from energy partitioning to ecosystem services, such as primary productivity and water yield. We estimated EC of four pine stands differing in age and growing on sandy soils. The stands consisted of two wide-ranging conifer species: Pinus taeda and Pinus sylvestris, in temperate and boreal zones, respectively...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030646/tree-circumference-dynamics-in-four-forests-characterized-using-automated-dendrometer-bands
#19
Valentine Herrmann, Sean M McMahon, Matteo Detto, James A Lutz, Stuart J Davies, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira
Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12-40 trees at four different forested sites-two temperate broadleaf deciduous, one temperate conifer, and one tropical broadleaf semi-deciduous-to understand how tree circumference varies on time scales of hours to months, how these dynamics relate to environmental conditions, and whether the structure of these variations might introduce substantive error into estimates of woody growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012660/including-hydrological-self-regulating-processes-in-peatland-models-effects-on-peatmoss-drought-projections
#20
Jelmer J Nijp, Klaas Metselaar, Juul Limpens, Claudia Teutschbein, Matthias Peichl, Mats B Nilsson, Frank Berendse, Sjoerd E A T M van der Zee
The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
keyword
keyword
52556
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"