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Gil Yosef, Robert Walko, Roni Avisar, Fedor Tatarinov, Eyal Rotenberg, Dan Yakir
Afforestation is an important approach to mitigate global warming. Its complex interactions with the climate system, however, makes it controversial. Afforestation is expected to be effective in the tropics where biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects act in concert; however, its potential in the large semi-arid regions remains insufficiently explored. Here, we use a Global Climate Model to provide a process-based demonstration that implementing measured characteristics of a successful semi-arid afforestation system (2000 ha, ~300 mm mean annual precipitation) over large areas (~200 million ha) of similar precipitation levels in the Sahel and North Australia leads to the weakening and shifting of regional low-level jets, enhancing moisture penetration and precipitation (+0...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roger C Bales, Michael L Goulden, Carolyn T Hunsaker, Martha H Conklin, Peter C Hartsough, Anthony T O'Geen, Jan W Hopmans, Mohammad Safeeq
Mountain runoff ultimately reflects the difference between precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET), as modulated by biogeophysical mechanisms that intensify or alleviate drought impacts. These modulating mechanisms are seldom measured and not fully understood. The impact of the warm 2012-15 California drought on the heavily instrumented Kings River basin provides an extraordinary opportunity to enumerate four mechanisms that controlled the impact of drought on mountain hydrology. Two mechanisms intensified the impact: (i) evaporative processes have first access to local precipitation, which decreased the fractional allocation of P to runoff in 2012-15 and reduced P-ET by 30% relative to previous years, and (ii) 2012-15 was 1 °C warmer than the previous decade, which increased ET relative to previous years and reduced P-ET by 5%...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiangying Xu, Ping Gao, Xinkai Zhu, Wenshan Guo, Jinfeng Ding, Chunyan Li
Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Leonardo Montagnani, Damiano Zanotelli, Massimo Tagliavini, Enrico Tomelleri
Model parameterization and validation of earth-atmosphere interactions are generally performed using a single timescale (e.g., nearly instantaneous, daily, and annual), although both delayed responses and hysteretic effects have been widely recognized. The lack of consideration of these effects hampers our capability to represent them in empirical- or process-based models. Here we explore, using an apple orchard ecosystem in the North of Italy as a simplified case study, how the considered timescale impacts the relative importance of the single environmental variables in explaining observed net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
John T Abatzoglou, Solomon Z Dobrowski, Sean A Parks, Katherine C Hegewisch
We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from 1958-2015. TerraClimate uses climatically aided interpolation, combining high-spatial resolution climatological normals from the WorldClim dataset, with coarser resolution time varying (i.e., monthly) data from other sources to produce a monthly dataset of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, vapor pressure, and solar radiation. TerraClimate additionally produces monthly surface water balance datasets using a water balance model that incorporates reference evapotranspiration, precipitation, temperature, and interpolated plant extractable soil water capacity...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Data
Ajay Ratna Bajracharya, Sagar Ratna Bajracharya, Arun Bhakta Shrestha, Sudan Bikash Maharjan
The Hindu Kush-Himalayan region is an important global freshwater resource. The hydrological regime of the region is vulnerable to climatic variations, especially precipitation and temperature. In our study, we modelled the impact of climate change on the water balance and hydrological regime of the snow dominated Kaligandaki Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used for a future projection of changes in the hydrological regime of the Kaligandaki basin based on Representative Concentration Pathways Scenarios (RCP 4...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rajendra M Panda, Mukunda Dev Behera, Partha S Roy, Chandrashekhar Biradar
Several factors describe the broad pattern of diversity in plant species distribution. We explore these determinants of species richness in Western Himalayas using high-resolution species data available for the area to energy, water, physiography and anthropogenic disturbance. The floral data involves 1279 species from 1178 spatial locations and 738 sample plots of a national database. We evaluated their correlation with 8-environmental variables, selected on the basis of correlation coefficients and principal component loadings, using both linear (structural equation model) and nonlinear (generalised additive model) techniques...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Jannis Epting, Rebecca M Page, Adrian Auckenthaler, Peter Huggenberger
The presented work illustrates to what extent field investigations as well as monitoring and modeling approaches are necessary to understand the high discharge dynamics and vulnerability of Karst springs. In complex settings the application of 3D geological models is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of Karst systems. They allow deriving information on catchment characteristics, as the geometry of aquifers and aquitards as well as their displacements along faults. A series of Karst springs in northwestern Switzerland were compared and Karst system dynamics with respect to qualitative and quantitative issues were evaluated...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yan-Lun Ju, Min Liu, Ting-Yao Tu, Xian-Fang Zhao, Xiao-Feng Yue, Jun-Xiang Zhang, Yu-Lin Fang, Jiang-Fei Meng
The effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wines was investigated during two growing seasons in the east foot of Mt. Helan, the semi-arid area. The vines received water with 60% (RDI-1), 70% (RDI-2), 80% (RDI-3), 100% (CK, traditional drip irrigation) of their estimated evapotranspiration (ETc) respectively. RDI treatments resulted in lower yield, berry weight and titratable acidity with higher total soluble solids. RDI-1 increased the content of unsaturated fatty acids in berries and decreased the level of alcohols and esters volatiles in wines...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Guang Yang, Lianqing Xue, Xinlin He, Cui Wang, Aihua Long
Widespread application of water-saving measures, especially advanced drip irrigation technologies, may significantly impact on the land use, and further potentially alter regional ecological environments in an arid area. In this study, the remote sensing and geographic information system technology were used to analyze the LANDSAT images (1976-2015) and the MOD16 evapotranspiration data (2000-2015) in the Manas River Basin (MRB), China where the water-saving technologies have experienced the past 40 years. Our results show that the area of the cultivated land was approximately doubled from 1976 to 2015 with a dynamic degree of cultivated land ranging from 1...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yaping Chang, Jie Wang, Dahe Qin, Yongjian Ding, Qiudong Zhao, Fengjing Liu, Shiqiang Zhang
Estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) for alpine meadow areas in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is essential for water resource management. However, observation data has been limited due to the extreme climates and complex terrain of this region. To address these issues, four representative methods, Penman-Monteith (PM), Priestley-Taylor (PT), Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Mahringer (MG) methods, were adopted to estimate ET, which were then compared with ET measured using Eddy Covariance (EC) for five alpine meadow sites during the growing seasons from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
Ye Tian, Yue-Ping Xu, Guoqing Wang
Drought can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and does harm to local economy. This study aims to analyze the relation between soil moisture and drought and predict agricultural drought in Xiangjiang River basin. The agriculture droughts are presented with the Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The Support Vector Regression (SVR) model incorporating climate indices is developed to predict the agricultural droughts. Analysis of climate forcing including El Niño Southern Oscillation and western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) are carried out to select climate indices...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
O De Giglio, G Caggiano, F Apollonio, A Marzella, S Brigida, E Ranieri, L Lucentini, V F Uricchio, M T Montagna
In most regions of the world, safeguarding groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly in coastal areas where groundwater is the main water source for drinking, irrigation and industry. Water availability depends on climate, topography and geology. The aim of this paper is to evaluate aquifer recharge as a possible strategy to relieve water resource scarcity. Natural aquifer recharge is defined as the downward flow of water reaching the water table, increasing the groundwater reservoir. Hydro-meteorological factors (rainfall, evapotranspiration and runoff) may alter natural recharge processes...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
M Cano-Lamadrid, A Galindo, J Collado-González, P Rodríguez, Z N Cruz, P Legua, F Burló, D Morales, A A Carbonell-Barrachina, F Hernández
BACKGROUND: The working hypothesis of this experiment was that by proper simultaneous control of irrigation (hydroSOStainable products) and crop load (thinning) is possible to promote bioactive compounds accumulation and improve fruit appearance (size and weight). The effects of (i) irrigation status [T0: 120% ETc (estimated crop evapotranspiration); T1: 60% ETc during fruit growth and ripening] and (ii) crop load (A0: no thinning; A1: thinning) on yield and fruit quality were evaluated in two pomegranate cultivars (Wonderful, Wond, and Mollar de Elche, ME)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yan Yu, Michael Notaro, Fuyao Wang, Jiafu Mao, Xiaoying Shi, Yaxing Wei
Classic, model-based theory of land-atmosphere interactions across the Sahel promote positive vegetation-rainfall feedbacks dominated by surface albedo mechanism. However, neither the proposed positive vegetation-rainfall feedback nor its underlying albedo mechanism has been convincingly demonstrated using observational data. Here, we present observational evidence for the region's proposed positive vegetation-rainfall feedback on the seasonal to interannual time scale, and find that it is associated with a moisture recycling mechanism, rather than the classic albedo-based mechanism...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
Saowanit Prabnakorn, Shreedhar Maskey, F X Suryadi, Charlotte de Fraiture
Rice yields in Thailand are among the lowest in Asia. In northeast Thailand where about 90% of rice cultivation is rain-fed, climate variability and change affect rice yields. Understanding climate characteristics and their impacts on the rice yield is important for establishing proper adaptation and mitigation measures to enhance productivity. In this paper, we investigate climatic conditions of the past 30years (1984-2013) and assess the impacts of the recent climate trends on rice yields in the Mun River Basin in northeast Thailand...
November 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rajkumar Dhakar, M A Sarath Chandran, Shivani Nagar, V Visha Kumari
A new methodology for crop-growth stage-specific assessment of agricultural drought risk under a variable sowing window is proposed for the soybean crop. It encompasses three drought indices, which include Crop-Specific Drought Index (CSDI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The unique features of crop-growth stage-specific nature and spatial and multi-scalar coverage provide a comprehensive assessment of agricultural drought risk. This study was conducted in 10 major soybean-growing districts of Madhya Pradesh state of India...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chiara Corbari, Giovanni Ravazzani, Marta Galvagno, Edoardo Cremonese, Marco Mancini
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
Jesse Radolinski, Junxue Wu, Kang Xia, Ryan Stewart
Neonicotinoid insecticides coat the seeds of major crops worldwide; however, the high solubility of these compounds, combined with their toxicity to non-target organisms, makes it critical to decipher the processes by which they are transported through soils and into aquatic environments. Transport and distribution of a neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam, TMX) were investigated by growing TMX-coated corn seeds in coarse-textured and fine-textured soil columns (20 and 60cm lengths). To understand the influence of living plants, corn plants were terminated in half of the columns (no plant treatment) and allowed to grow to the V5 growth stage (33days of growth) in the other half (with plant treatment)...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shailza Sharma, Pradeep Mujumdar
The impacts of concurrent droughts and heatwaves could be more serious compared to their individual occurrence. Meteorological drought condition is generally characterized by low rainfall, but impact of such an event is amplified with simultaneous occurrence of heatwaves. Positive feedback between these two extremes can worsen the rainfall deficit situation to serious soil moisture depletion due to enhanced evapotranspiration. In this study, the concurrence of meteorological droughts and heatwaves is investigated in India using Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) high resolution gridded data over a period of 60 years...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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