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Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Xiaolin Zhang, Penghui Zhai, Jianhui Huang, Xiang Zhao, Kuanhu Dong
Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator of ecosystem functioning but how ecosystem WUE responds to climate change including precipitation and nitrogen (N) deposition increases is still unknown. To investigate such responses, an experiment with a randomized block design with water (spring snowfall or summer water addition) and nitrogen addition was conducted in a temperate steppe of northern China. We investigated net ecosystem CO2 production (NEP), gross ecosystem production (GEP) and evapotranspiration (ET) to calculate ecosystem WUE (WUEnep = NEP/ET or WUEgep = GEP/ET) under spring snow and summer water addition with or without N addition from 2011 to 2013...
2018: PloS One
Xuexin Xu, Yinghua Zhang, Jinpeng Li, Meng Zhang, Xiaonan Zhou, Shunli Zhou, Zhimin Wang
Improving winter wheat grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) with minimum irrigation is very important for ensuring agricultural and ecological sustainability in the Northern China Plain (NCP). A three-year field experiment was conducted to determine how single irrigation can improve grain yield and WUE by manipulating the "sink-source" relationships. To achieve this, no-irrigation after sowing (W0) as a control, and five single irrigation treatments after sowing (75 mm of each irrigation) were established...
2018: PloS One
Tracie R Jackson, Keith J Halford, Philip M Gardner
Groundwater availability studies in the arid southwestern United States traditionally have assumed that groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (ETg ) from desert playas is a significant component of the groundwater budget. However, desert playa ETg rates are poorly constrained by Bowen Ratio energy budget (BREB) and eddy-covariance (EC) micrometeorological measurement approaches. Best attempts by previous studies to constrain ETg from desert playas have resulted in ETg rates that are within the measurement error of micrometeorological approaches...
March 6, 2018: Ground Water
Lingbin Yang, Guoqing Sun, Lu Zhi, Jianjun Zhao
Soil moisture-precipitation (SM-P) feedback significantly influences the terrestrial water and energy cycles. However, the sign of the feedback and the associated physical mechanism have been debated, leaving a research gap regarding global water and climate changes. Based on Koster's framework, we estimate SM-P feedback using satellite remote sensing and ground observation data sets. Methodologically, the sign of the feedback is identified by the correlation between monthly soil moisture and next-month precipitation...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christopher Power, Murugan Ramasamy, Martin Mkandawire
Cover systems are commonly applied to mine waste rock piles (WRPs) to control acid mine drainage (AMD). Single-layer covers utilize the moisture "store-and-release" concept to first store and then release moisture back to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration. Although more commonly used in semi-arid and arid climates, store-and-release covers remain an attractive option in humid climates due to the low cost and relative simplicity of installation. However, knowledge of their performance in these climates is limited...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Alice Ruckert, L Niel Allen, Ricardo A Ramirez
Spider mites, a cosmopolitan pest of agricultural and landscape plants, thrive under hot and dry conditions, which could become more frequent and extreme due to climate change. Recent work has shown that neonicotinoids, a widely used class of systemic insecticides that have come under scrutiny for non-target effects, can elevate spider mite populations. Both water-stress and neonicotinoids independently alter plant resistance against herbivores. Yet, the interaction between these two factors on spider mites is unclear, particularly for Banks grass mite (Oligonychus pratensis; BGM)...
2018: PloS One
Junqiang Yao, Yong Zhao, Yaning Chen, Xiaojing Yu, Ruibo Zhang
Understanding the multi-scale variation of drought is essentially important in drought assessment. Now, a comprehensive assessment is still lacking on the meteorological, ecological and hydrological drought perspectives. In order to better investigate multi-scale droughts, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of their long-term variation based on the two drought indices and observation data in Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2015. The two indices are the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)...
February 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mariem Saâdi, Adel Zghibi, Sabri Kanzari
In semi-arid areas like the Kairouan region, salinization has become an increasing concern because of the constant irrigation with saline water and over use of groundwater resources, soils, and aquifers. In this study, a methodology has been developed to evaluate groundwater contamination risk based on the unsaturated zone hydraulic properties. Two soil profiles with different ranges of salinity, one located in the north of the plain and another one in the south of plain (each 30 m deep) and both characterized by direct recharge of the aquifer, were chosen...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Abdulaziz R Al-Harbi, Abdulrasoul M Al-Omran, Khadiga Alharbi
Water scarcity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Grafting elite commercial cultivars onto selected vigorous rootstocks is considered as a useful strategy to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using grafting to improve fruit yield and quality of cucumber under water stress conditions. Alosama F1 cucumber cultivar ( Cucumis sativus L.) was grafted onto Affyne ( Cucumis sativus L.) and Shintoza A90 ( Cucurbitamaxima × C...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Mingxuan Du, Olivier Fouché, Elodie Zavattero, Qiang Ma, Olivier Delestre, Philippe Gourbesville
Integrated hydrodynamic modelling is an efficient approach for making semi-quantitative scenarios reliable enough for groundwater management, provided that the numerical simulations are from a validated model. The model set-up, however, involves many inputs due to the complexity of both the hydrological system and the land use. The case study of a Mediterranean alluvial unconfined aquifer in the lower Var valley (Southern France) is useful to test a method to estimate lacking data on water abstraction by small farms in urban context...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Loïc D'Orangeville, Justin Maxwell, Daniel Kneeshaw, Neil Pederson, Louis Duchesne, Travis Logan, Daniel Houle, Dominique Arseneault, Colin M Beier, Daniel A Bishop, Daniel Druckenbrod, Shawn Fraver, François Girard, Joshua Halman, Chris Hansen, Justin L Hart, Henrik Hartmann, Margot Kaye, David Leblanc, Stefano Manzoni, Rock Ouimet, Shelly Rayback, Christine R Rollinson, Richard P Phillips
Projected changes in temperature and drought regime are likely to reduce carbon (C) storage in forests, thereby amplifying rates of climate change. While such reductions are often presumed to be greatest in semi-arid forests that experience widespread tree mortality, the consequences of drought may also be important in temperate mesic forests of Eastern North America (ENA) if tree growth is significantly curtailed by drought. Investigations of the environmental conditions that determine drought sensitivity are critically needed to accurately predict ecosystem feedbacks to climate change...
February 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
Alberto Pivato, Francesco Garbo, Marco Moretto, Maria Cristina Lavagnolo
The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
V E Johnston, A Borsato, S Frisia, C Spötl, Y Dublyansky, P Töchterle, J C Hellstrom, P Bajo, R L Edwards, H Cheng
Thermophilisation is the response of plants communities in mountainous areas to increasing temperatures, causing an upward migration of warm-adapted (thermophilic) species and consequently, the timberline. This greening, associated with warming, causes enhanced evapotranspiration that leads to intensification of the hydrological cycle, which is recorded by hydroclimate-sensitive archives, such as stalagmites and flowstones formed in caves. Understanding how hydroclimate manifests at high altitudes is important for predicting future water resources of many regions of Europe that rely on glaciers and snow accumulation...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hermano Melo Queiroz, Gabriel Nuto Nóbrega, Xose L Otero, Tiago Osório Ferreira
Acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) formation and its role on trace metals bioavailability were studied in semi-arid mangroves. The semi-arid climatic conditions at the studied sites, marked by low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates, clearly limited the AVS formation (AVS contents varied from 0.10 to 2.34μmolg-1) by favoring oxic conditions (Eh>+350mV). The AVS contents were strongly correlated with reactive iron and organic carbon (r=0.84; r=0.83 respectively), evidencing their dominant role for AVS formation under semi-arid conditions...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Christopher R Hain, Martha C Anderson
Observations of land surface temperature (LST) are crucial for the monitoring of surface energy fluxes from satellite. Methods that require high temporal resolution LST observations (e.g., from geostationary orbit) can be difficult to apply globally because several geostationary sensors are required to attain near-global coverage (60°N to 60°S). While these LST observations are available from polar-orbiting sensors, providing global coverage at higher spatial resolutions, the temporal sampling (twice daily observations) can pose significant limitations...
October 16, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
Jean Charles Isner, Afroza Begum, Thomas Nuehse, Alistair M Hetherington, Frans J M Maathuis
Stomata are leaf pores that regulate CO2 uptake and evapotranspirational water loss. By controlling CO2 uptake, stomata impact on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation. The regulation of evapotranspiration is equally important because it impacts on nutrient accumulation and leaf cooling and enables the plant to limit water loss during drought [1]. Our work centers on stomatal closure [2-6]. This involves loss of potassium from the guard cell by a two-step process. Salt is released across the plasma membrane via anion channels such as SLAC1 [7-9] and depolarization-activated channels such as GORK [10, 11], with the net result that cations and anions exit guard cells...
January 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ian R MacLachlan, Sam Yeaman, Sally N Aitken
Hybrid zones contain extensive standing genetic variation that facilitates rapid responses to selection. The Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone in western Canada is the focus of tree breeding programs that annually produce ~90 million reforestation seedlings. Understanding the direct and indirect effects of selective breeding on adaptive variation is necessary to implement assisted gene flow (AGF) polices in Alberta and British Columbia that match these seedlings with future climates. We decomposed relationships among hybrid ancestry, adaptive traits, and climate to understand the implications of selective breeding for climate adaptations and AGF strategies...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Brigitte Tenhumberg, Elizabeth E Crone, Satu Ramula, Andrew J Tyre
Temperature and precipitation determine the conditions where plant species can occur. Despite their significance, to date, surprisingly few demographic field studies have considered the effects of abiotic drivers. This is problematic because anticipating the effect of global climate change on plant population viability requires understanding how weather variables affect population dynamics. One possible reason for omitting the effect of weather variables in demographic studies is the difficulty in detecting tight associations between vital rates and environmental drivers...
January 30, 2018: Ecology
Rebecca L Tobin, Andrew Kulmatiski
Our goal was to describe stomatal conductance (gs) and the site-scale environmental parameters that best predict gs in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Dominant grass and woody species were measured over two growing seasons in each of four study sites that represented the natural factorial combination of mean annual precipitation [wet (750 mm) or dry (450 mm)] and soil type (clay or sand) found in KNP. A machine-learning (random forest) model was used to describe gs as a function of plant type (species or functional group) and site-level environmental parameters (CO2, season, shortwave radiation, soil type, soil moisture, time of day, vapor pressure deficit and wind speed)...
2018: PloS One
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