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Magnetic resonance imaging of lung cancer

Finn Ole Larsen, Alice Markussen, Benny V Jensen, Anne L Fromm, Kirsten K Vistisen, Vibeke K Parner, Dorte Linnemann, Rasmus H Hansen, Helle H Johannesen, Jakob V Schou
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with rectum cancer T4 or T3 involving the mesorectal fascia was included in a prospective phase 2 trial. Liver or lung metastases were accepted if the surgeons found them resectable. The patients received 6 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy (CRT), continued capecitabine and oxaliplatin during radiotherapy, and received 4 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin after CRT...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Jabadurai Jayapaul, Susanne Arns, Matt Bunker, Marek Weiler, Sandra Rutherford, Peter Comba, Fabian Kiessling
: Riboflavin (Rf) receptors bind and translocate Rf and its phosphorylated forms (e.g. flavin mononucleotide, FMN) into cells where they mediate various cellular metabolic pathways. Previously, we showed that FMN-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (FLUSPIO) nanoparticles are suitable for labeling metabolically active cancer and endothelial cells in vitro. In this study, we focused on the in vivo application of FLUSPIO using prostate cancer xenografts. Size, charge, and chemical composition of FLUSPIO were evaluated...
2016: Nano Research
Hadi Fayad, Holger Schmidt, Thomas Kuestner, Dimitris Visvikis
: Respiratory motion may reduce accuracy in fusion of functional and anatomical images using combined Positron emission tomography / Magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems. Methodologies for the correction of respiratory motion in PET acquisitions using such systems are mostly based on the use of respiratory synchronized MR acquisitions to derive motion fields. Existing approaches based on tagging acquisitions may introduce artifacts in the MR images, while motion model approaches require the acquisition of training datasets...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Johan Lundberg, Emma Jussing, Zhenjiang Liu, Qingda Meng, Martin Rao, Erik Samén, Rikard Grankvist, Peter Damberg, Ernest Dodoo, Markus Maeurer, Staffan Holmin
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most severe form of malignant gliomas. The prognosis is poor with current combinations of pharmaceutical-, radio- and surgical therapy. A continuous search for new treatments has therefore been ongoing for many years. Therapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is a clinically promising strategy to treat various cancers, including GBM. An endovascular intra-arterial injection of TIL as a method of delivery may, instead of intravenous infusion, result in better retention of effector cells within the tumor...
October 7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
E Coche
Lung tumor response to therapy may be evaluated in most instances by morphological criteria such as RECIST 1.1 on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, those criteria are limited because they are based on tumoral dimensional changes and do not take into account other morphologic criteria such as density evaluation, functional or metabolic changes that may occur following conventional or targeted chemotherapy. New techniques such as dual-energy CT, PET-CT, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI has to be considered into the new technical armamentarium for tumor response evaluation...
October 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
A Khalil, M Majlath, V Gounant, A Hess, J P Laissy, M P Debray
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prognosis and treatment outcomes are known to be related to the disease stage at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the extent of disease is critical to determine the most appropriate therapy. Currently available imaging modalities for diagnosis and follow-up consist of morphological and functional imaging. Morphological investigations are mainly performed with CT-scan and in some cases with MRI. In this review, we describe the contribution of MRI in lung cancer staging focusing on solid pulmonary nodule characterization and TNM staging assessment using chest and whole-body MRI examinations, detailing in each chapter current recommendations and future developments...
October 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
W V Vogel, M G E H Lam, F A Pameijer, U A van der Heide, J B van de Kamer, M E Philippens, M van Vulpen, M Verheij
AIMS: Functional imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMR) is increasingly applied for radiotherapy purposes. However, evidence and experience are still limited, and this may lead to clinically relevant differences in accessibility, interpretation and decision making. We investigated the current patterns of care in functional imaging for radiotherapy in the Netherlands in a care evaluation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The availability of functional imaging in radiotherapy centres in the Netherlands was evaluated; features available in >80% of academic and >80% of non-academic centres were considered standard of care...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Saeid Zanganeh, Gregor Hutter, Ryan Spitler, Olga Lenkov, Morteza Mahmoudi, Aubie Shaw, Jukka Sakari Pajarinen, Hossein Nejadnik, Stuart Goodman, Michael Moseley, Lisa Marie Coussens, Heike Elisabeth Daldrup-Link
Until now, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved iron supplement ferumoxytol and other iron oxide nanoparticles have been used for treating iron deficiency, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and as drug carriers. Here, we show an intrinsic therapeutic effect of ferumoxytol on the growth of early mammary cancers, and lung cancer metastases in liver and lungs. In vitro, adenocarcinoma cells co-incubated with ferumoxytol and macrophages showed increased caspase-3 activity. Macrophages exposed to ferumoxytol displayed increased mRNA associated with pro-inflammatory Th1-type responses...
September 26, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Juergen Biederer, Yoshiharu Ohno, Hiroto Hatabu, Mark L Schiebler, Edwin J R van Beek, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor
While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3-4mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60-90% for lesions of 5-8mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8mm or larger...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Stergios Boussios, Ioannis Zerdes, Ourania Batsi, Vasilios P Papakostas, Esmeralda Seraj, George Pentheroudakis, George K Glantzounis
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic metastases are uncommon and only found in a minority of patients with widespread metastatic disease at autopsy. The most common primary cancer site resulting in pancreatic metastases is the kidney, followed by colorectal cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, lung carcinoma and sarcoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Herein, we report a 63-year-old male patient who presented -3.5 years after radical nephrectomy performed for renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-with a well-defined lobular, round mass at the body of the pancreas demonstrated by abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
R H Ireland, B A Tahir, J M Wild, C E Lee, M Q Hatton
For patients with lung cancer undergoing curative intent radiotherapy, functional lung imaging can be incorporated into treatment planning to modify the dose distribution within non-target volume lung by differentiation of lung regions that are functionally defective or viable. This concept of functional image-guided lung avoidance treatment planning has been investigated with several imaging modalities, primarily single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), but also hyperpolarised gas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT)-based measures of lung biomechanics...
November 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Alvin J X Lee, Rachel Benamore, Monika Hofer, Meenali Chitnis
A 60-year-old male was diagnosed with T3, N3, M1b epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Five months later he developed significant headaches, weakness and numbness of the left leg, and unsteadiness of gait. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain demonstrated subtle gyral enhancement indicative of early leptomeningeal infiltration. He was commenced on second-line erlotinib which improved his lower limb symptoms. Three months later he developed increased urinary frequency and redeveloped leg symptoms...
September 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Jochen Fleckenstein, Michael Jelden, Stephanie Kremp, Philippe Jagoda, Jonas Stroeder, Fadi Khreish, Samer Ezziddin, Arno Buecker, Christian Rübe, Guenther K Schneider
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) vs. PET-CT of the thorax in the determination of gross tumor volume (GTV) in radiotherapy planning of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with NSCLC who were supposed to receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy were prospectively recruited. For MRI, a respiratory gated T2-weighted sequence in axial orientation and non-gated DWI (b = 0, 800, 1,400 and apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC]) were acquired on a 1...
2016: PloS One
Michal Rivlin, Gil Navon
The efficacy of glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) as agents for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance molecular imaging of tumors is demonstrated. Both agents reflect the metabolic activity and malignancy of the tumors. The method was tested in two types of tumors implanted orthotopically in mice: 4T1 (mouse mammary cancer cells) and MCF7 (human mammary cancer cells). 4T1 is a more aggressive type of tumor than MCF7 and exhibited a larger CEST effect. Two methods of administration of the agents, intravenous (IV) and oral (PO), gave similar results...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nina F Schwenzer, Ferdinand Seith, Sergios Gatidis, Cornelia Brendle, Holger Schmidt, Christina A Pfannenberg, Christian laFougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Christina Schraml
OBJECTIVE: First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Alexandra E Bourque, Stéphane Bedwani, Édith Filion, Jean-François Carrier
PURPOSE: This study introduces a novel autocontouring algorithm based on particle filter for lung tumors. It is validated on dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) images and is developed in the context of MR-linac treatments. METHODS: A sequential Monte Carlo method called particle filter is used as the main structure of the algorithm and is combined with Otsu's thresholding technique to contour lung tumors on dynamic MR images. Four non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were imaged with a 1...
September 2016: Medical Physics
Andrew A Fanous, Andrew J Fabiano
BACKGROUND: Adverse radiation effect (ARE) is one of the complications of stereotactic radiosurgery. Its treatment with conventional medications, such as corticosteroids, vitamin E, and pentoxifylline carries a high risk of failure, with up to 20% of lesions refractory to such medications. In addition, deep lesions and those occurring in patients with significant medical comorbidities may not be suitable for surgical resection. Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, a known mediator of cerebral edema...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Kazuhiko Ikeuchi, Yusuke Okuma, Taku Tabata
Immune checkpoint inhibitor is a verified standard of care as a second-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Management of immune-related adverse effects (irAEs) is crucial for ensuring patient safety. However, less frequent irAEs may result in complications. Here, we report a patient with recurrent lung adenocarcinoma who was treated with nivolumab and developed immune-related pancreatitis. A 66-year-old Japanese female with recurrent lung adenocarcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes presented with anorexia, vomiting, and back pain on day 18 of two cycles of nivolumab...
September 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Yan Xu, Wei Zhong, Jing Zhao, Minjiang Chen, Longyun Li, Mengzhao Wang
BACKGROUND: Intradural extramedullary spinal cord metastases in lung cancer is rare, and it leads to severe neurological damage. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical features of intradural extramedullary spinal cord metastases in primary lung cancer patients. METHODS: The 8 cases of lung cancer with intradural extramedullary metastases, who were hospitalized in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during May 2013 to May 2016, were enrolled in the retrospective study...
August 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Min Zhu, Yanhong Ren, Yan Liu, Chengjun Ban, Hua Gu, Zheng Wang, Yuhui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) is one of the most serious complications of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to the lower quality of life and poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with LM from NSCLC (NSCLC-LM). METHODS: Clinical data of 3 patients with NSCLC-LM collected from January 2015 to June 2016 were analyzed with a brief review. RESULTS: All 3 patients had adenocarcinoma histology harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 21 point mutations (m)...
August 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
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