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Magnetic resonance imaging of lung cancer

Rui Ma, Shao-Kuan Fang, Shuai Hou, Xue Wang, Hong-Mei Meng
RATIONALE: Hemorrhage rarely occurs in a solitary brain metastasis from lung carcinoma. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report on a 54-year-old man who presented with a severe headache for 4 days. DIAGNOSES: Based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging enhancement, the patient was diagnosed with a suspected hemorrhagic brain metastasis from lung carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: The patient's family rejected a pathological examination...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Satoshi Fukai, Naoyuki Okabe, Hayato Mine, Hironori Takagi, Hiroyuki Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Garcin syndrome, which consists of unilateral palsies of almost all cranial nerves without either sensory or motor long-tract disturbances or intracranial hypertension, can be caused by malignant tumors at the skull base. The case of a patient with lung cancer that metastasized to the sphenoid bone and resulted in Garcin syndrome is presented. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old woman was diagnosed as having non-small cell lung cancer with pericardial and diaphragmatic infiltration, cT4N1M0, stage 3A...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Nydia A Lorenzana-Mendoza, Gervith Reyes-Soto, Allan Hernández-Estrada, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Paola Guraieb-Chahin, David Cantu-de-León
This study aimed to establish the prognostic utility of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neoplastic meningitis (NM). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of NM at a cancer referral center were included. Data on demographic and oncological background, clinical symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatment, and survival were analyzed. In total, 119 patients were included, 74% of whom were females. The mean age was 44.2 years at the time of cancer diagnosis and 46.6 years at the time between NM diagnosis...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Kyle M Jones, Carol A Stuehm, Charles C Hsu, Phillip H Kuo, Mark D Pagel, Edward A Randtke
Performing chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in lung tissue is difficult because of motion artifacts. We, therefore, developed a CEST MRI acquisition and analysis method that performs retrospective respiration gating. Our method used an acquisition scheme with a short 200-millisecond saturation pulse that can accommodate the timing of the breathing cycle, and with saturation applied at frequencies in 0.03-ppm intervals. The Fourier transform of each image was used to calculate the difference in phase angle between adjacent pixels in the longitudinal direction of the respiratory motion...
December 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Antonin Levy, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Baktiar Hasan, Eleonora De Maio, Anna S Berghoff, Nicolas Girard, Laurent Greillier, Sylvie Lantuéjoul, Mary O'Brien, Martin Reck, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Silvia Novello, Thierry Berghmans, Benjamin Besse, Lizza Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) are frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but there is a lack of evidence-based management of this patient group. We aimed to capture a snapshot of routine BM management in Europe to identify relevant research questions for future clinical trials. METHODS: An EORTC Lung Cancer Group (LCG) online survey containing questions on NSCLC BM screening and treatment was distributed between 16/02/17 and 15/06/17 to worldwide EORTC LCG members, and through several European scientific societies in the thoracic oncology field...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Markus Leitinger, Mihael V Varosanec, Slaven Pikija, Romana E Wass, Dave Bandke, Serge Weis, Michael Studnicka, Susanne Grinzinger, Mark R McCoy, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies, which enhance cellular and humoral immune responses and are approved for the treatment of various tumors. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) involving different organs and systems are, however, among the side-effects. Recent reports of severe persistent neurological deficits and even fatal cases underpin the need for better understanding of the exact pathomechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. To our knowledge, we report the first biopsy-proven case of fatal necrotizing encephalopathy after treatment with nivolumab...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
P Niviere, J-P Sculier, A-P Meert, T Berghmans
INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases are a common complication of bronchial carcinoma (BC). There is no consensus as to the need to undertake a systematic search for these lesions during the initial assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of brain imaging in the initial evaluation of patients with CB. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients treated in the Thoracic Oncology Clinic at the Institute Jules-Bordet between 01/09/2008 and 31/08/2013, who were treatment-naïve and were having a full diagnostic work-up including brain imaging...
January 31, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Yoshiharu Ohno, Yuji Kishida, Shinichiro Seki, Hisanobu Koyama, Masao Yui, Kota Aoyagi, Takeshi Yoshikawa
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the interobserver agreements and diagnostic accuracies for IASLC/ITMIG (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group) thymic epithelial tumor staging of co-registered fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (FDG-PET/MRI), MRI, integrated fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), and conventional imaging examination...
January 22, 2018: Academic Radiology
Fei-Ting Hsu, Hua-Shan Liu, Ahmed Atef Ahmed Ali, Ping-Huei Tsai, Yu-Chieh Kao, Chia-Feng Lu, Hsu-Shan Huang, Cheng-Yu Chen
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors are commonly used as the first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC; however, the efficacy of drug delivery remains unknown. Hence, we successfully developed erlotinib-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles (FeDC-E NPs) as theranostic probe that can potentially provide a new avenue for monitoring drug delivering through noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging. MRI ΔR2* relaxivity measurements offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the uptake of FeDC-E NPs at cellular and tumoral levels...
January 29, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Xiaoling Zhang, Xinyuan Li, Meihong Meng, Jie Cao, Xiaonan Song, Kangding Liu, Shaokuan Fang
RATIONALE: Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is the obstruction of blood flow through the SVC, causing complete or partial blockade of the collateral circulation of returning venous blood. SVCS is frequently presented with facial, neck, trunk, and upper limbs swelling and so on. However, to the best of our knowledge, the obstruction of the venous return in the spinal veins is rarely a manifestation of SVCS. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented a rare case of a 52-year-old male patient with 2-month history of progressive right upper limb numbness and swelling and 10-day history of extremities malfunctioning...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bettina Beuthien-Baumann
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent anatomical reference method for the combination with positron emission tomography (PET). But MRI does not produce data, which can be directly used for attenuation correction of PET data, potentially compromising quantitative accuracy of PET. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Hybrid-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established standard diagnostic tool, particularly for staging and restaging in oncology...
January 29, 2018: Der Radiologe
Keitaro Kanie, Genzo Iguchi, Hironori Bando, Yasunori Fujita, Yukiko Odake, Kenichi Yoshida, Ryusaku Matsumoto, Hidenori Fukuoka, Wataru Ogawa, Yutaka Takahashi
Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as treatment of multiple advanced cancer types. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, namely anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), antiprogrammed cell death-1 (PD-1), and antiprogrammed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies, have been used for treatment of various cancers. Classified as immune-related adverse events, several endocrinopathies, including hypophysitis, are associated with these agents. Although anti-CTLA-4-induced hypophysitis has been frequently observed, hypophysitis upon use of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies is rare...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Yoshitsugu Narumi, Ryohei Yoshida, Yoshinori Minami, Yasushi Yamamoto, Shiori Takeguchi, Kohei Kano, Kae Takahashi, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Hiroya Terui, Takayuki Katayama, Takaaki Sasaki, Yoshinobu Ohsaki
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade is developed as standard treatment for non-small cell lung cancer. However immune-related adverse events (irAE) have still unknown complications. Here, we report a patient with lung squamous cell carcinoma who developed neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with nivolumab. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old Japanese man with lung squamous cell carcinoma was administered nivolumab as second-line treatment. Two months after treatment with nivolumab, he presented acute paralysis in the bilateral lower limbs, sensory loss...
January 24, 2018: BMC Cancer
Kyung Rae Cho, Kyung Min Lee, Gyule Han, Se Woong Kang, Jung-Il Lee
Objective: Choroidal metastases (CMs) are the most common intraocular tumor. Management is mainly radiation therapy with goals of pain control and visual improvement. However, many radiation-related complications are reported. Since gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for CM was first reported in 1995, few cases have been reported. We report 7 cases of CMs treated with GKS. Methods: From April 2011 to November 2014, 7 patients with CM underwent GKS. Their median age at treatment was 64 years (range, 51-71 years)...
January 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Ashley V Makela, Paula J Foster
PURPOSE: The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlates with breast cancer progression and metastatic spread. Metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) are also recruited to distant sites, where they support metastatic growth. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo fluorine-19 (19 F)-based MRI cell tracking can evaluate the density and distribution of macrophages within murine breast cancer tumors and associated metastases. METHODS: Three murine breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials (4T1, 168FARN, and 67NR) were implanted into the mammary fat pad in mice...
January 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Masanori Nakajima, Ayumi Uchibori, Yuki Ogawa, Tai Miyazaki, Yaeko Ichikawa, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima, Hirokazu Shiraishi, Masakatsu Motomura, Atsuro Chiba
A 61-year-old woman who had smoked for 40 years developed subacute dizziness, ataxic gait, opsoclonus, and right visual impairment. She had right optic disc swelling and optic nerve gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. She had small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), with CV2/collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) 5 and HuD antibodies in her serum and cerebrospinal fluid. She was diagnosed with paraneoplastic optic neuropathy (PON) accompanied by paraneoplastic opsoclonus-ataxia syndrome. Her symptoms improved after removing the SCLC...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
Lina Wu, Xiaofei Wen, Xiance Wang, Chunan Wang, Xilin Sun, Kai Wang, Huiying Zhang, Todd Williams, Allen J Stacy, Junjie Chen, Anne H Schmieder, Gregory M Lanza, Baozhong Shen
Eighty percent of lung cancers originate as subtle premalignant changes in the airway mucosal epithelial layer of bronchi and alveoli, which evolve and penetrate deeper into the parenchyma. Liquid-ventilation, with perfluorocarbons (PFC) was first demonstrated in rodents in 1966 then subsequently applied as lipid-encapsulated PFC emulsions to improve pulmonary function in neonatal infants suffering with respiratory distress syndrome in 1996. Subsequently, PFC nanoparticles (NP) were extensively studied as intravenous (IV) vascular-constrained nanotechnologies for diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery applications...
2018: Theranostics
Yongping Liu, Yaping Zhang, Xibao Mao, Qiufeng Qi, Ming Zhu, Changsong Zhang, Xuefeng Pan, Yang Ling
Otto Warburg observed in 1924 that cancer cells were dependent exclusively on glycolysis for the production of energy even in the presence of oxygen (the 'Warburg effect'). Consequently, cancer cells require ~19 times more glucose uptake to obtain equivalent amounts of energy as normal cells. The Warburg effect is the scientific basis for positron emission tomography (PET), which has markedly improved cancer detection. During chemotherapy, cancer cells may upregulate their expression of multi-drug resistance proteins and ultimately cause treatment failure...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
Patryk Kambakamba, Michael Linecker, Marcel Schneider, Cäcilia S Reiner, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen-Kim, Perparim Limani, Ivan Romic, Joan Figueras, Henrik Petrowsky, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Mickaël Lesurtel
BACKGROUND: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy induces an unprecedented liver hypertrophy and enables resection of otherwise unresectable liver tumors. The effect of associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy on tumor proliferation, however, remains a concern. This study investigated the impact of associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy on growth of colorectal metastases in mice and in humans...
December 13, 2017: Surgery
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