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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#1
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938248/a-youth-compendium-of-physical-activities-activity-codes-and-metabolic-intensities
#2
Nancy F Butte, Kathleen B Watson, Kate Ridley, Issa F Zakeri, Robert G McMurray, Karin A Pfeiffer, Scott E Crouter, Stephen D Herrmann, David R Bassett, Alexander Long, Zekarias Berhane, Stewart G Trost, Barbara E Ainsworth, David Berrigan, Janet E Fulton
PURPOSE: A Youth Compendium of Physical Activities (Youth Compendium) was developed to estimate the energy costs of physical activities using data on youth only. METHODS: Based on a literature search and pooled data of energy expenditure measurements in youth, the energy costs of 196 activities were compiled in 16 activity categories to form a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities. To estimate the intensity of each activity, measured oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was divided by basal metabolic rate (Schofield age-, sex- and mass-specific equations) to produce a youth MET (METy)...
September 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937579/pyrethroids-inhibit-k2p-channels-and-activate-sensory-neurons-basis-of-insecticide-induced-paraesthesias
#3
Aida Castellanos, Alba Andres, Laura Bernal, Gerard Callejo, Nuria Comes, Arcadi Gual, Jonathan P Giblin, Carolina Roza, Xavier Gasull
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for pest control, in agriculture or in human public health commonly as a topical treatment for scabies and head lice. Exposure to pyrethroids such as permethrin or tetramethrin (TM) causes sensory alterations such as transient pain, burning, stinging sensations and paraesthesias. Despite the well-known effects of pyrethroids on sodium channels, actions on other channels that control sensory neuron excitability are less studied. Given the role of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels in modulating sensory neuron excitability and firing, both in physiological and pathological conditions, we examined the effect of pyrethroids on K2P channels mainly expressed in sensory neurons...
September 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937576/chronic-pain-in-families-a-cross-sectional-study-of-shared-social-behavioural-and-environmental-influences
#4
Paul Campbell, Kelvin P Jordan, Blair H Smith, Kate M Dunn
Chronic pain is common and creates significant burden to the individual and society. Emerging research has shown the influence of the family environment on pain outcomes. However it is not clear what shared factors between family members associate with chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate the family level contribution to an individual's chronic pain status. This was a cross sectional study using the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study dataset. This study focused on a nested cohort of dyads (only 2 relatives per family, n = 2714)...
September 11, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937503/patient-burden-of-axial-spondyloarthritis
#5
Vibeke Strand, Jasvinder A Singh
Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) is an inflammatory spondyloarthritis (SpA) that has significant impact on a patient's life. Symptoms, including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, and sexual dysfunction, can profoundly impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and limit work, leisure, and daily activities. Available therapies effectively manage pain and inflammation in early-stage disease, but patients often continue to experience impaired HRQoL. Thus, there remains a need for new therapies with novel mechanisms that can stop disease progression, potentially reverse damage caused by AxSpA and improve HRQoL in patients with AxSpA...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937495/noninvasive-computed-tomography-derived-fractional-flow-reserve-based-on-structural-and-fluid-analysis-reproducibility-of-on-site-determination-by-unexperienced-observers
#6
Keiken Ri, Kanako K Kumamaru, Shinichiro Fujimoto, Yuko Kawaguchi, Tomotaka Dohi, Sou Yamada, Kazuhisa Takamura, Yosuke Kogure, Norikazu Yamada, Etsuro Kato, Ryusuke Irie, Tomohiro Takamura, Michimasa Suzuki, Masaaki Hori, Shigeki Aoki, Hiroyuki Daida
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of computed tomography (CT)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined on site by inexperienced observers using a postprocessing software based on structural and fluid analysis. METHODS: Using 21 coronary vessels in 7 patients who underwent 320-row coronary CT angiography and catheter-FFR, 2 independent inexperienced observers (A: a student radiation technologist; B: a nonmedical staff) determined the CT-FFR using a postprocessing software...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937447/community-general-pediatricians-perspectives-on-providing-autism-diagnoses-in-ontario-canada-a-qualitative-study
#7
Melanie Penner, Gillian A King, Laura Hartman, Evdokia Anagnostou, Michelle Shouldice, Charlotte Moore Hepburn
OBJECTIVE: Community general pediatricians (CGPs) are a potential resource to increase capacity for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessments. The objective of this study was to explore factors influencing CGPs' perspectives on and practices of providing ASD diagnoses. METHODS: This qualitative study used a constructivist modified grounded theory approach. Participants included CGPs who had attended ASD educational events or had referred a child with suspected ASD to a tertiary rehabilitation center...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937443/reducing-disability-durations-and-medical-costs-for-patients-with-a-carpal-tunnel-release-surgery-through-the-use-of-opioid-prescribing-guidelines
#8
Fraser W Gaspar, Roman Kownacki, Catherine S Zaidel, Craig F Conlon, Kurt T Hegmann
OBJECTIVE: The impacts of compliance with opioid prescribing guidelines on disability durations and medical costs for carpal tunnel release (CTR) were examined. METHODS: Using a dataset of insured US employees, opioid prescriptions for 7840 short-term disability cases with a CTR procedure were identified. Opioids prescriptions were compared with the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM)'s opioid prescribing guidelines for postoperative, acute pain, which recommends no more than a 5-day supply, a maximum morphine equivalent dose of 50 mg/day, and only short-acting opioids...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934677/evaluation-of-participatory-planning-lessons-from-hungarian-natura-2000-management-planning-processes
#9
Eszter Kovács, Eszter Kelemen, Gabriella Kiss, Ágnes Kalóczkai, Veronika Fabók, Barbara Mihók, Boldizsár Megyesi, György Pataki, Barbara Bodorkós, Bálint Balázs, Györgyi Bela, Katalin Margóczi, Ágnes Roboz, Dániel Molnár
Stakeholder participation in nature conservation policies and especially in the management of protected areas has gained importance in the last decades. These changes are underlined by democratic principles and the perceived contribution of stakeholder involvement to the effectiveness of conservation management. Evaluating participatory processes is essential to learn about the past and thus increase the quality of future processes. The evaluation can be useful for the organisations responsible for planning and management, stakeholders and policy makers as well...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934560/creativity-and-mood-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Christa L Taylor
Although the belief that creativity is related to psychopathology is prevalent, empirical evidence is limited. Research findings relating to mood disorder in particular are mixed, possibly as a result of differing research approaches (e.g., assessing the creativity of individuals with versus without mood disorder opposed to the prevalence of mood disorder in creative versus noncreative individuals). Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate prior research examining the link between mood disorder and creativity from three distinct research approaches...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933709/evidence-for-misspecification-of-a-nationally-used-quality-measure-for-substance-use-treatment
#11
Soeren Mattke, Zachary Predmore, Elizabeth Sloss, Asa Wilks, Katherine E Watkins
OBJECTIVES: The National Committee for Quality Assurance's (NCQA) measure "Initiation and Engagement of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence Treatment" captures the proportion of substance use patients with (1) treatment initiation within 14 days and (2) treatment engagement within 30 days thereafter. The definition of treatment considers only counseling but not medication-assisted treatment (MAT), although MAT is supported by current guidelines. Our research question is whether this omission results in meaningful measurement error...
September 4, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933708/statewide-longitudinal-progression-of-the-whole-patient-measure-of-safety-in-south-carolina
#12
Christine B Turley, Jordan Brittingham, Aunyika Moonan, Dianne Davis, Hrishikesh Chakraborty
Meaningful improvement in patient safety encompasses a vast number of quality metrics, but a single measure to represent the overall level of safety is challenging to produce. Recently, Perla et al. established the Whole-Person Measure of Safety (WPMoS) to reflect the concept of global risk assessment at the patient level. We evaluated the WPMoS across an entire state to understand the impact of urban/rural setting, academic status, and hospital size on patient safety outcomes. The population included all South Carolina (SC) inpatient discharges from January 1, 2008, through to December 31, 2013, and was evaluated using established definitions of highly undesirable events (HUEs)...
September 4, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931079/an-evidence-based-evaluation-of-transferrable-skills-and-job-satisfaction-for-science-phds
#13
Melanie Sinche, Rebekah L Layton, Patrick D Brandt, Anna B O'Connell, Joshua D Hall, Ashalla M Freeman, Jessica R Harrell, Jeanette Gowen Cook, Patrick J Brennwald
PhD recipients acquire discipline-specific knowledge and a range of relevant skills during their training in the life sciences, physical sciences, computational sciences, social sciences, and engineering. Empirically testing the applicability of these skills to various careers held by graduates will help assess the value of current training models. This report details results of an Internet survey of science PhDs (n = 8099) who provided ratings for fifteen transferrable skills. Indeed, analyses indicated that doctoral training develops these transferrable skills, crucial to success in a wide range of careers including research-intensive (RI) and non-research-intensive (NRI) careers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930949/the-blocking-flap-for-ulnar-nerve-instability-after-in-situ-release-technique-and-a-grading-system-of-ulnar-nerve-instability-to-guide-treatment
#14
Peter Tang
In situ ulnar nerve release has been gaining popularity as a simple, effective, and low-morbidity procedure for the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. One concern with the technique is how to manage the unstable ulnar nerve after release. It is unclear how much nerve subluxation will lead to problems and surprisingly there is no grading system to assess ulnar nerve instability. I propose such a grading system, as well as a new technique to stabilize the unstable ulnar nerve. The blocking flap technique consists of raising a rectangular flap off the flexor/pronator fascia and attaching it to the posterior subcutaneous flap so that it blocks the nerve from subluxation/dislocation...
September 19, 2017: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930918/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-death-in-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Nicolas Moreau, Xavier Wittebole, Yvan Fleury, Patrice Forget, Pierre-François Laterre, Castanares-Zapatero Diego
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an inflammation score recognized as associated with outcome. While inflammation has been shown to correlate with the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), we sought to investigate the role of NLR in predicting 90-day mortality in cirrhotic patients experiencing ACLF.We performed a retrospective cohort study involving a total of 108 consecutive cirrhotic patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). NLR, clinical and biological data were recorded...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930892/costs-and-trends-in-utilization-of-low-value-services-among-older-adults-with-commercial-insurance-or-medicare-advantage
#16
Elizabeth A Carter, Pamela E Morin, Keith D Lind
BACKGROUND: Overutilization of low-value services (unnecessary or minimally beneficial tests or procedures) has been cited as a large contributor to the high costs of health care in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To analyze trends in utilization of low-value services from 2009 to 2014 among commercial and Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees 50 and older. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of deidentified claims obtained from the OptumLab Data Warehouse...
September 19, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930801/findings-from-the-national-machine-guarding-program-safety-climate-hazard-assessment-and-safety-leadership-in-small-metal-fabrication-businesses
#17
David L Parker, Samuel Yamin, Min Xi, Robert Gordon, Ivan Most, Rod Stanley
OBJECTIVES: This manuscript assesses safety climate data from the National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP)-a nationwide intervention to improve machine safety. METHODS: Baseline safety climate surveys were completed by 2161 employees and 341 owners or managers at 115 businesses. A separate onsite audit of safety management practices and machine guarding equipment was conducted at each business. RESULTS: Safety climate measures were not correlated with machine guarding or safety management practices...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930800/risk-of-sharps-injuries-to-home-care-nurses-and-aides-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Natalie M Brouillette, Margaret M Quinn, David Kriebel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate all available literature and develop a pooled estimate of the risk of sharps injuries (SI) among home care (HC) nurses and aides. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted and relevant articles were reviewed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Primary outcome data from studies identified by the systematic review were pooled using a random effects model to calculate a summary measure of SI risk for nurses and for aides...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930797/optimizing-the-safety-profile-of-everolimus-by-delayed-initiation-in-de-novo-heart-transplant-recipients-results-of-the-prospective-randomized-study-everheart
#19
Luciano Potena, Carlo Pellegrini, Francesco Grigioni, Cristiano Amarelli, Ugolino Livi, Massimo Maccherini, Gabriella Masciocco, Giuseppe Faggian, Paola Lilla Della Monica, Gino Gerosa, Nicola Marraudino, Marco Corda, Massimo Boffini
BACKGROUND: Although everolimus potentially improves long-term heart transplantation (HTx) outcomes, its early postoperative safety profile had raised concerns and needs optimization. METHODS: This 6-month, open-label, multicenter randomized trial was designed to compare the cumulative incidence of a primary composite safety endpoint comprising wound healing delays, pericardial effusion (PCEs), pleural effusion (PLEs) needing drainage, and renal insufficiency events (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤30/mL/min/1...
September 19, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930785/patients-and-clinicians-views-of-the-psychological-components-of-tinnitus-treatment-that-could-inform-audiologists-usual-care-a-delphi-survey
#20
Dean M Thompson, John Taylor, Deborah A Hall, Dawn-Marie Walker, Mary McMurran, Amanda Casey, David Stockdale, Debbie Featherstone, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine which components of psychological therapies are most important and appropriate to inform audiologists' usual care for people with tinnitus. DESIGN: A 39-member panel of patients, audiologists, hearing therapists, and psychologists completed a three-round Delphi survey to reach consensus on essential components of audiologist-delivered psychologically informed care for tinnitus. RESULTS: Consensus (≥80% agreement) was reached on including 76 of 160 components...
September 19, 2017: Ear and Hearing
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