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Mirja Ruohoniemi, Johanna Mikkonen, Riitta Salomäki, Laura Hänninen, Annamari Heikkilä, Sanna Ryhänen
During the last decade, concerns over veterinary students' stress have been expressed in several studies, and the need for student support has become evident. In addition, the importance of professional and personal identity development in veterinary curricula has been widely recognized. There is a need to integrate academic and professional skills instruction with training in personal-life balance. Even though tools for student support and stress management exist within universities, reports on active and creative practices in veterinary education are scarce...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Ying Jin, Huijin Chen, Xiaojian Xu, Yuntao Hu, Changguan Wang, Zhizhong Ma
PURPOSE: To determine the phases of traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy after open globe injury by assessing cellular components, extracellular matrix constituents of proliferative vitreoretinopathy membranes, and intraretinal changes over time. METHODS: Twenty-one epiretinal and/or subretinal membrane specimens were obtained from 21 patients with open globe injuries. The patients were divided into Groups A (≤28 days), B (29-120 days), and C (>120 days) according to the interval between injury and vitrectomy...
October 21, 2016: Retina
Roger Figueroa, Angela Wiley
Childhood obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and physical inactivity is a major contributor. Factors related to physical activity promotion in the family child care context are understudied. A convenience sample of participants in a mid-sized city in the Midwestern U.S. was recruited through the local child care resource and referral agency and were invited through flyers and emails to take part in an online or paper survey. Survey results in a sample of 107 family child care providers indicate that many did not meet physical activity recommendations and are missing the opportunity to enable children's physical activity via important practices and resources...
2016: SpringerPlus
Pedro Passos, Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Aoife Hayes, Kevin D Cashman
Recent re-evaluations of dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin D have established intake requirements between 10 and 20 µg/d. National nutrition surveys indicate that habitual mean intakes of vitamin D in the population are typically in the range 3-7 µg/d. As vitamin D supplementation will not be effective at a population level because the uptake is generally low, creative food-based solutions are needed to bridge the gap between current intakes and these new requirement values. The overarching aim of this review is to highlight how food-based solutions can have an important role in bridging this gap and counteracting vitamin D inadequacy in Europe and elsewhere...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Isabel E Kenny, Sahrai Saeed, Eva Gerdts, Helga Midtbø, Hilde Halland, Mai T Lønnebakken
BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MHT), defined as normal office blood pressure (BP) but high ambulatory BP, has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although MHT has been associated with obesity, there is limited knowledge on the prevalence and covariates of MHT in obese cohorts. METHODS: Office and ambulatory BP recordings and other cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 323 obese participants included in the fat-associated cardiovascular dysfunction study (mean age 48...
October 21, 2016: Blood Pressure Monitoring
Taylor Braunberger, Darren Lynn, Christie Reimer, Monica Doctor, Mary K Hill, Jessica Mounessa, Cory A Dunnick
BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis (CD) has been assessed by numerous disease severity indices resulting in heterogeneity across published research. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate published CD severity scales and identify a criterion standard for assessment. METHODS: Scopus and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for human randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on CD severity measures published during a 10-year period. Eligible studies were English-language RCTs reporting disease severity outcome measures for CD in humans...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
Desmond H Y Tse, Christopher J Wiggins, Benedikt A Poser
PURPOSE: In order to fully benefit from the improved signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios at 9.4T, the challenges of B1+ inhomogeneity and the long acquisition time of high-resolution 2D gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging were addressed. THEORY AND METHODS: Flip angle homogenized excitations were achieved by parallel transmission (pTx) of 3-spoke pulses, designed by magnitude least-squares optimization in a slice-by-slice fashion; the acquisition time reduction was achieved by simultaneous multislice (SMS) pulses...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Donald W Black
SUMMARY: Responding to the survey of 5580 college students in South India in the study of George et al, the author discusses the universality of addictive gambling and its stereotyped nature. This study, together with work in North America and elsewhere, argues for more research that targets prevalence, risk factors, course, and treatment. The author points out the challenge of conducting research when funding is hard to obtain. DECLARATION OF INTERESTS: None. COPYRIGHT AND USAGE: © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016...
September 2016: BJPsych Open
Donald Glowinski, Fabrizio Bracco, Carlo Chiorri, Didier Grandjean
The present contribution provides readers from diverse fields of psychology with a new and comprehensive model for the understanding of the characteristics of music ensembles. The model is based on a novel heuristic approach whose key construct is resilience, intended here as the ability of a system to adapt to external perturbations and anticipate future events. The paper clarifies the specificity of music ensemble as an original social and creative activity, and how some mechanisms, at an individual (cognitive) and group (coordination) level, are enacted in a particular way that endows these groups with exceptional capacity for resilience...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Yongqi Sun, Qianyi Liu, Hao Wang, Zuotai Zhang, Xidong Wang
Disposal of biomass in the agriculture and steel slags in the steel industry provides a significant solution toward sustainability in China. Herein these two sectors were creatively combined as a novel method, i.e., biomass/CO2 gasification using waste heat from hot slags where the influence of chemical compositions of steel slags, characterized as iron oxide content and basicity, on gasification thermodynamics, was systemically reported for the first time. Both the target gases of CO, H2 and CH4 and the polluted gases of NH3, NO and NO2 were considered...
October 14, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Alex Hall, Tracy Finch, Niina Kolehmainen, Deborah James
BACKGROUND: Implementing good-quality health and social care requires empowerment of staff members within organizations delivering care. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is an intervention using positive video feedback to empower staff through reflection on practice. This qualitative study explored the implementation of VIG within an autism care organization in England, from the perspective of staff members undergoing training to deliver VIG. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 7 participants working within the organization (5 staff undergoing training to deliver VIG; 2 senior managers influencing co-ordination of training)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Hardeep Singh, Mark L Graber, Timothy P Hofer
Timely and accurate diagnosis is foundational to good clinical practice and an essential first step to achieving optimal patient outcomes. However, a recent Institute of Medicine report concluded that most of us will experience at least one diagnostic error in our lifetime. The report argues for efforts to improve the reliability of the diagnostic process through better measurement of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic process is a dynamic team-based activity that involves uncertainty, plays out over time, and requires effective communication and collaboration among multiple clinicians, diagnostic services, and the patient...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Mette Trollund Rask, Eva Ørnbøl, Marianne Rosendal, Per Fink
OBJECTIVE: The upcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision for primary care use suggests inclusion of a new diagnostic construct, bodily (di)stress syndrome (BDS), for individuals with medically unexplained symptoms. We aimed to explore the long-term outcome of BDS in health care costs, work disability, and self-rated health. METHODS: Consecutive patients consulting their family physician for a new health problem were screened for physical and mental symptoms by questionnaires (n = 1785)...
October 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Carl Philipp Nothaft
This article deals with a forgotten treatise on the age of the world, written between 1308 and 1316 by Walter Odington, a monk of Evesham Abbey, otherwise known for his writings on alchemy and music theory. By tracing the sources and rationale behind Odington's arguments and comparing them with those of other medieval authors, the article attempts to shed new light on the state of chronological scholarship in England in the eleventh to fourteenth centuries, when astronomical and astrological methods were freely used to supplement or replace scriptural interpretation, yielding creative and unexpected results...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Carlos F Cáceres, Annick Borquez, Jeffrey D Klausner, Rachel Baggaley, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. DISCUSSION: The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Chinglin Wu, Suyu Zhong, Hsuehchih Chen
Remote association is a core ability that influences creative output. In contrast to close association, remote association is commonly agreed to be connected with more original and unique concepts. However, although existing studies have discovered that creativity is closely related to the white-matter structure of the brain, there are no studies that examine the relevance between the connectivity efficiencies and creativity of the brain regions from the perspective of networks. Consequently, this study constructed a brain white matter network structure that consisted of cerebral tissues and nerve fibers and used graph theory to analyze the connection efficiencies among the network nodes, further illuminating the differences between remote and close association in relation to the connectivity of the brain network...
2016: PloS One
Louis R Pasquale, Hugues Aschard, Jae H Kang, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Sara Lindström, Daniel I Chasman, William G Christen, R Rand Allingham, Allison Ashley-Koch, Richard K Lee, Sayoko E Moroi, Murray H Brilliant, Gadi Wollstein, Joel S Schuman, John Fingert, Donald L Budenz, Tony Realini, Terry Gaasterland, Douglas Gaasterland, William K Scott, Kuldev Singh, Arthur J Sit, Robert P Igo, Yeunjoo E Song, Lisa Hark, Robert Ritch, Douglas J Rhee, Vikas Gulati, Shane Havens, Douglas Vollrath, Donald J Zack, Felipe Medeiros, Robert N Weinreb, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Yutao Liu, Peter Kraft, Julia E Richards, Bernard A Rosner, Michael A Hauser, Jonathan L Haines, Janey L Wiggs
OBJECTIVE: Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. METHODS: Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Zhengwei Wen, Qunying Jia, Xiaojuan Kang, Yongliang Lou, Lilin Zou, Jifeng Yang, Jimin Gao, Liping Han, Xiang Li
Interferon (IFN) regulates immune responses and antitumor activity. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides can specifically bind to integrin αvβ3, a transmembrane receptor that is highly expressed on the surface of various cancer cells. In this study, we expressed recombinant RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and assessed their antitumor activity in vitro. Two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and a negative control protein were expressed in vitro. These two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins could bind the tumor cell surface specifically and did not bind to normal cells...
October 18, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Shadi Shafaghi, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Zahra Ansari Aval, Kambiz Sheikhy, Behrooz Farzanegan, Esmaeil Mortaz, Habib Emami, Clemens Aigner, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
OBJECTIVES: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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