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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645283/sympathoexcitation-following-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rat-is-mediated-by-circulating-angiotensin-ii-acting-at-the-carotid-body-and-subfornical-organ
#1
Seung Jae Kim, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Stephen B G Abbott
Circulating angiotensin II (AngII) is vital for arterial pressure elevation following intermittent hypoxia in rats, but its importance in the induction of sympathetic changes is unclear. We tested the contribution of the RAS to the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) in anaesthetized ventilated adult rats. AIH caused a 33.7 ± 2.9% increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and a one-fold increase in sympathetic peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and central sympathetic-respiratory coupling. The sympathetic effects of AIH were prevented by blocking angiotensin type 1 receptors with systemic losartan and intermittent systemic injections of AngII (Int...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627347/trpa1-mediates-the-cardiac-effects-of-acrolein-through-parasympathetic-dominance-but-also-sympathetic-modulation-in-mice
#2
Nicole Kurhanewicz, Allen Ledbetter, Aimen Farraj, Mehdi Hazari
Numerous studies have demonstrated that short-term air pollution exposure causes cardiac autonomic imbalance as measured by heart rate variability (HRV). We previously showed that a single exposure to acrolein, a ubiquitous gaseous component of air pollution, not only causes autonomic imbalance, but also increases arrhythmia through transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) cation channels. Thus, the goal of this study was to characterize acrolein-induced autonomic changes in both normal and TRPA1-knockout mice (KO)...
April 5, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621539/molecular-determinants-of-kv7-1-kcne1-channel-inhibition-by-amitriptyline
#3
Kathya Villatoro-Gómez, David O Pacheco-Rojas, Eloy G Moreno-Galindo, Ricardo A Navarro-Polanco, Martin Tristani-Firouzi, Dimitris Gazgalis, Meng Cui, José A Sánchez-Chapula, Tania Ferrer
Amitriptyline (AMIT) is a compound widely prescribed for psychiatric and non- psychiatric conditions including depression, migraine, chronic pain, and anorexia. However, AMIT has been associated with risks of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death since it can induce prolongation of the QT interval on the surface electrocardiogram and torsade de pointes ventricular arrhythmia. These complications have been attributed to the inhibition of the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr ). The slow delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs ) is the main repolarizing cardiac current when IKr is compromised and it has an important role in cardiac repolarization at fast heart rates induced by an elevated sympathetic tone...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595737/surgical-approach-to-injuries-of-the-cervical-plexus-and-its-peripheral-nerve-branches
#4
David L Brown, A Lee Dellon
BACKGROUND: Located in the neck beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the cervical plexus comprises a coalition of nerves originating from C1 through C4, which provide input to four cutaneous, seven motor, and three cranial nerves and the sympathetic trunk. Sporadic instances of injury to these superficial nerves have been reported. Nevertheless, this specific anatomical cause of neurogenic pain remains incompletely described and underrecognized. METHODS: Twelve patients presented with pain and were diagnosed with various combinations of injury to the lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse cervical, and supraclavicular nerves...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588232/the-effect-of-beta-adrenergic-blockade-on-inflammatory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-acute-mental-stress
#5
Andrew Steptoe, Amy Ronaldson, Karen Kostich, Antonio Lazzarino, Livia Urbanova, Livia A Carvalho
Acute mental stress elicits increases in plasma cytokine concentrations in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) responses in a parallel group, double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial involving 64 healthy young adult volunteers. Participants were administered 80mg slow-release propranolol or placebo daily for 7 days before the stress testing session in which responses to 3 behavioural challenges (public speaking, mirror tracing, mental arithmetic) were evaluated...
March 24, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580957/alamandine-injected-into-the-paraventricular-nucleus-increases-blood-pressure-and-sympathetic-activation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
Yi-Hui Shen, Xi-Ru Chen, Chun-Xi Yang, Bo-Xun Liu, Peng Li
Alamandine is a newly discovered new component of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system (RAS) that has been shown to exert vasoactive effects in some areas of the nervous system. The present study investigated whether administration of alamandine to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) modulates blood pressure and sympathetic activity. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded in anaesthetized rats. PVN microinjection of alamandine increased MAP and RSNA both in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), but to a greater extent in SHRs...
March 23, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568742/therapeutic-effect-of-long-term-epidural-block-in-rats-with-pregnancy-induced-hypertension
#7
Nianjiao Han, Yang Li, Youjing Dong
Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) causes a variety of systemic disorders that negatively affect the maternal placenta and fetal growth. Epidural sympathetic block elicits symptoms of decreased blood pressure. This study was designed to determine the therapeutic effect of long-term epidural block in rats with PIH. Methods: Forty healthy pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into four groups with each group consisting of 10 rats. On gestation day (GD) 14, rats in control group underwent a sham procedure; rats in RUPP group were operated on to obtain reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP); rats in RUPP plus normal saline (NS) group were also subjected to the RUPP procedure and underwent epidural block with 25  μ l normal saline twice daily until delivery; rats in RUPP plus epidural block (EB) group were treated as those in RUPP plus NS group except that an epidural block with 25  μ l of 0...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538343/blocking-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-adrenergic-signaling-reduces-dietary-fat-absorption-by-suppressing-expression-of-pancreatic-lipase-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#8
Kyunghwa Baek, Danbi Park, Hyo Rin Hwang, Seong-Gon Kim, Heesu Lee, Jeong-Hwa Baek
We investigated whether β-adrenergic antagonists attenuates dietary fat absorption through the regulation of pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) expression in pancreatic acinar cells in the context of high fat diet feeding. Male six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned into an ad libitum fed control diet (CON) and a high fat diet (HIGH). Within each diet group, subgroups of mice were treated with vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (BB). Over 12 weeks, body weight gain observed in HIGHVEH was mitigated in HIGHBB (+103% vs...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528455/lumbar-sympathetic-plexus-block-as-a-treatment-for-postamputation-pain-methodology-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Zachary L McCormick, Andrew Hendrix, David Dayanim, Bryan Clay, Amy Kirsling, Norman Harden
Objective: We present a technical protocol for rigorous assessment of patient-reported outcomes and psychophysical testing relevant to lumbar sympathetic blocks for the treatment of postamputation pain (PAP). This description is intended to inform future prospective investigation. Design: Series of four participants from a blinded randomized sham-controlled trial. Setting: Tertiary, urban, academic pain medicine center. Subjects: Four participants with a single lower limb amputation and associated chronic PAP...
March 8, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522760/stress-evoking-emotional-stimuli-exaggerate-deficits-in-motor-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
R L Blakemore, M R Mac Askill, R Shoorangiz, T J Anderson
Recent animal studies have shown that stress can profoundly affect motor behaviour and worsen motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) by acting on the dopaminergic system, possibly due to stress-associated emotional changes. However, systematic investigation of the influence of acute emotional stressors on motor function in PD is scarce. Here we examined the effect of repeated exposure to negative emotional stimuli on grip-force control in PD. Eighteen patients with idiopathic PD (tested off-medication) and 18 healthy controls produced an isometric precision grip contraction at 15% of maximum force while viewing a series of unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral emotional images (blocked presentation; without visual feedback of force output)...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515233/depression-promotes-prostate-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis-via-a-sympathetic-camp-fak-signaling-pathway
#11
Yan Cheng, Xing-Hua Gao, Xian-Jing Li, Qiu-Hua Cao, Dan-Dan Zhao, Jin-Rong Zhou, Hong-Xi Wu, Yun Wang, Lin-Jun You, Hong-Bao Yang, Yun-Long He, Yong-Ren Li, Jin-Song Bian, Qing-Yi Zhu, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Depression drives cancer progression and induces poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying depression and cancer outcomes are unclear. In this work, we investigated 98 prostate cancer patients and found that patients with high score of psychological depression were correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis. We found focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was increased in cancer patients with metastatic features and high score of depression. FAK knockdown completely blocked depression-promoted tumor invasion in orthotopic transplantation tumors...
March 8, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496660/role-of-sympathetic-nerves-and-adipocyte-catecholamine-uptake-in-the-vasorelaxant-function-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#12
Sophie N Saxton, Katie E Ryding, Robert G Aldous, Sarah B Withers, Jacqueline Ohanian, Anthony M Heagerty
OBJECTIVE: Healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect on resistance arteries which is vital in regulating arterial tone. Activation of β3 -adrenoceptors by sympathetic nerve-derived NA (noradrenaline) may be implicated in this effect and may stimulate the release of the vasodilator adiponectin from adipocytes. Understanding the mechanisms responsible is vital for determining how PVAT may modify vascular resistance in vivo. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Electric field stimulation profiles of healthy C57BL/6J mouse mesenteric resistance arteries were characterized using wire myography...
March 1, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495085/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-dexmedetomidine-induced-vasoconstriction-in-healthy-volunteers
#13
Pekka Talke, Brian J Anderson
AIMS: Alpha-2 agonists are direct peripheral vasoconstrictors by activation of vascular smooth muscle alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The impact of this response during dexmedetomidine infusion remains poorly quantified. Our goal was to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD, vasoconstriction) effects of a computer controlled dexmedetomidine infusion in healthy volunteers. METHODS: After local ethics committee approval, we studied 10 healthy volunteers...
March 1, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492826/treatment-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-an-updated-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#14
Silvia Duong, Daniela Bravo, Keith J Todd, Roderick J Finlayson, De Q Tran
PURPOSE: Although multiple treatments have been advocated for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the levels of supportive evidence are variable and sometimes limited. The purpose of this updated review is to provide a critical analysis of the evidence pertaining to the treatment of CRPS derived from recent randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). SOURCE: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant RCTs conducted on human subjects and published in English between 1 May 2009 and 24 August 2017...
February 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487541/adrenergic-blockade-bi-directionally-and-asymmetrically-alters-functional-brain-heart-communication-and-prolongs-electrical-activities-of-the-brain-and-heart-during-asphyxic-cardiac-arrest
#15
Fangyun Tian, Tiecheng Liu, Gang Xu, Duan Li, Talha Ghazi, Trevor Shick, Azeem Sajjad, Michael M Wang, Peter Farrehi, Jimo Borjigin
Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2 -mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485127/norepinephrine-inhibits-th17-cells-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-%C3%AE-2-ar-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Yan Liu, Xiao-Xiao Rui, Hui Shi, Yi-Hua Qiu, Yu-Ping Peng
BACKGROUND Norepinephrine (NE), a neurotransmitter released from the sympathetic nerves, has been shown to be involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in the sympathetic nervous system in RA is divergent. Herein, we demonstrate that the sympathetic neurotransmitter NE exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of RA, by inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and function via β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) signaling. MATERIAL AND METHODS CIA was prepared by intradermal injection of collagen type II in the tail base of DBA1/J mice...
February 27, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455831/thoracoscopic-sympathectomy-for-refractory-electrical-storm-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#17
Brody Wehman, Michael Mazzeffi, Robert Chow, A Claire Watkins, Brittany Aicher, Si Pham, Whitney Burrows, Bradley Taylor
We report a patient with refractory electrical storm after coronary artery bypass grafting who was successfully treated with thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Cardiac arrest with ventricular tachycardia occurred on postoperative day 2, and the patient required emergency support with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Frequent episodes of ventricular tachycardia prevented cardiac recovery and weaning from mechanical circulatory support. A percutaneous left stellate ganglion block initially demonstrated successful prevention of ventricular tachycardia, and definitive sympathetic denervation was achieved by a left thoracoscopic sympathectomy...
March 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432940/modulation-of-incisor-eruption-in-rats-by-sympathetic-efferents
#18
José Johann Chidiac, Ammar Kassab, Khaldoun Rifai, Nayef E Saadé, Elie D Al Chaer
INTRODUCTION: Intact neural supply is necessary for tooth eruption. Sympathetic denervation accelerates or decelerates the eruption rate depending on the tooth condition (intact or injured). The aim of this study is to reexamine the role of the sympathetic innervation, through the observation of the effects of pre or post ganglionic chemical sympathectomy on the eruption of intact rat incisors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different groups of rats were subjected to either ganglionic or peripheral chemical sympathectomy and the observed effects on incisor eruption were compared to those made on intact/sham groups or on rats subjected to inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) lesion...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416250/a-study-of-the-efficacy-of-stellate-ganglion-blocks-in-complex-regional-pain-syndromes-of-the-upper-body
#19
Rashmi Datta, Jyotsna Agrawal, Amit Sharma, Vikram Singh Rathore, Shivesh Datta
Background and Aims: The effect of stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs) was examined in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) of the upper body. Material and Methods: A total of 287 SGB were given to patients with documented CRPS on medications. Spontaneous and provoked pain assessment was done with numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and range of motion (ROM) was recorded before and after each blockade...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411386/the-wisdom-of-the-body-listeners-autonomic-arousal-distinguishes-between-spontaneous-and-posed-vocal-emotions
#20
Patrik N Juslin, László Harmat, Petri Laukka
It has been the matter of much debate whether perceivers are able to distinguish spontaneous vocal expressions of emotion from posed vocal expressions (e.g., emotion portrayals). In this experiment, we show that such discrimination can be manifested in the autonomic arousal of listeners during implicit processing of vocal emotions. Participants (N = 21, age: 20-55 years) listened to two consecutive blocks of brief voice clips and judged the gender of the speaker in each clip, while we recorded three measures of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system (skin conductance level, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate)...
February 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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