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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053621/isoproterenol-increases-rankl-expression-in-a-atf4-nfatc1-dependent-manner-in-mouse-osteoblastic-cells
#1
Kyunghwa Baek, Hyun-Jung Park, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyung-Ryong Kim
Sympathetic nervous system stimulation-induced β-adrenergic signal transduction is known to induce bone loss and increase of osteoclast activity. Although isoproterenol, a nonspecific β-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been shown to increase receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), the details of the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in isoproterenol-induced RANKL expression in C2C12 and in primary cultured mouse calvarial cells...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993263/angiotensin-1-7-in-the-rostro-ventrolateral-medulla-increases-blood-pressure-and-splanchnic-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-anesthetized-rats
#2
Mark S Bilodeau, J C Leiter
Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG-(1-7)), a derivative of angiotensin I or II, is involved in the propagation of sympathetic output to the heart and vasculature, and the receptor for ANG-(1-7), the Mas receptor, is expressed on astrocytes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We recorded blood pressure (BP) and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) before and after focal injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM of rats. Unilateral injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM, acting through the Mas receptor, increased SSNA and BP, and glutamate receptor antagonists, CNQX and D-AP5, partially reduced the ANG-(1-7) effect...
October 6, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990131/diagnosis-and-management-of-cognitive-and-behavioral-changes-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#3
REVIEW
Babak Tousi
Proper diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in clinical practice remains suboptimal as many cases are misdiagnosed, usually as Alzheimer disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) and, in rare cases, psychosis. Therefore, it is important for patients with dementia to be thoroughly evaluated by a specialist who is familiar with current diagnostic tests and treatment options. New diagnostic criteria from the Dementia with Lewy Bodies Consortium have been developed to increase diagnostic sensitivity for DLB (Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: fourth consensus report of the DLB Consortium; McKeith et al...
October 9, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984660/selective-scalp-nerve-block-a-useful-technique-with-tissue-expansion-in-postburn-pediatric-alopecia
#4
Maha Ahmed Abo-Zeid, Alaa Eldin Adel Elmaddawy, Mohamed Hassan El-Fahar, Ahmed Hassan El-Sabbagh
BACKGROUND: Scalp defects can be reconstructed either with skin graft, local flaps, free flaps, or tissue expansion. Tissue expanders have been proved to be fruitful in the pediatric population. Scalp expansion has proved to be useful in the reconstruction of posttraumatic and postburn alopecic defects. Selective nerve block can be added for attenuation of sympathetic stimulation and decrease surgical stress in cranial surgeries. In this study, a comparison was done between using selective nerve block and without selective nerve block in both stages of tissue expansion procedure...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963014/sympathetic-nerve-blocks-promote-anti-inflammatory-response-by-activating-jak2-stat3-mediated-signaling-cascade-in-rat-myocarditis-model-a-novel-mechanism-with-clinical-implications
#5
Hyelim Park, Hyewon Park, Dasom Mun, Michael Kim, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Boyoung Joung
BACKGROUND: Left stellectomy has become an important therapeutic option for patients with potentially fatal arrhythmias. However, the antiarrhythmic mechanism of left stellectomy is not well known. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP) is a complex immune mechanism that regulates peripheral inflammatory responses. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of left stellectomy on CAIP using rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) models. METHODS: EAM was produced by injecting 2 mg of porcine cardiac myosin into the footpads of rats...
September 26, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954227/dynamic-lateralization-of-pupil-dilation-evoked-by-locus-coeruleus-activation-results-from-sympathetic-not-parasympathetic-contributions
#6
Yang Liu, Charles Rodenkirch, Nicole Moskowitz, Brian Schriver, Qi Wang
Pupil size is collectively controlled by the sympathetic dilator and parasympathetic sphincter muscles. Locus coeruleus (LC) activation has been shown to evoke pupil dilation, but how the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways contribute to this dilation remains unknown. We examined pupil dilation elicited by LC activation in lightly anesthetized rats. Unilateral LC activation evoked bilateral but lateralized pupil dilation; i.e., the ipsilateral dilation was significantly larger than the contralateral dilation...
September 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941256/distinct-protein-kinase-c-isoenzyme-mediates-inhibitory-effects-of-different-g-protein-coupled-receptors-on-cardiac-rapidly-activating-delayed-rectifier-k-current
#7
Xueli Liu, Yuhong Wang, Hua Zhang, Li Shen, Yanfang Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) and sympathetic activity contributes to high risk of ventricular arrhythmias in heart diseases. The rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr ) carried by the hERG protein plays a critical role in cardiac repolarization; and a reduction of IKr is involved in increased cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Studies have shown that stimulation of α1A -adrenoreceptors (α1A AR) or Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) inhibits IKr via protein kinase C (PKC)...
September 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934788/repeated-ganglion-impar-block-in-a-cohort-of-83-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-and-perineal-pain
#8
Quentin-Come Le Clerc, Thibault Riant, Amelie Levesque, Jean-Jacques Labat, Stephane Ploteau, Roger Robert, Marie-Aimee Perrouin-Verbe, Jerome Rigaud
BACKGROUND: The ganglion impar is the first pelvic ganglion of the efferent sympathetic trunk that relays pelvic and perineal nociceptive messages and therefore constitutes a therapeutic target. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this single-center study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 repeated ganglion impar blocks in patients with chronic pelvic and perineal pain on intention-to-treat. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective single-center study. SETTING: We reviewed the medical records of 83 patients with chronic refractory pelvic and perineal pain...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926474/parasympathetic-activation-enhanced-by-slow-respiration-modulates-early-auditory-sensory-gating
#9
Atsushi Aoyama, Yu Shimura, Takao Ohmuta, Yohei Nomoto, Masashi Kawasumi
Sensory gating is a preattentional mechanism to filter irrelevant information from the environment. It is typically reflected as a suppression of the event-related P50 component for successive sounds in the auditory modality. Although stress-induced sympathetic activation has been reported to disrupt P50 suppression, little is known about the modulatory effect of parasympathetic activation on early auditory sensory gating. We determined the parasympathetic effect on the magnetic P50 (P50m) suppression by controlling the respiratory rhythm and recording data simultaneously with magnetoencephalography and electrocardiography, using three successive click sounds as stimulus and ten normal individuals as study participants...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887652/disruption-of-adenylyl-cyclase-type-5-mimics-exercise-training
#10
John J Guers, Jie Zhang, Sara C Campbell, Marko Oydanich, Dorothy E Vatner, Stephen F Vatner
Exercise training is key to healthful longevity. Since exercise training compliance is difficult, it would be useful to have a therapeutic substitute that mimicked exercise training. We compared the effects of exercise training in wild-type (WT) littermates with adenylyl cyclase type 5 knock out (AC5 KO) mice, a model of enhanced exercise performance. Exercise performance, measured by maximal distance and work to exhaustion, was increased in exercise-trained WT to levels already attained in untrained AC5 KO...
September 8, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872777/orexin-a-increases-sympathetic-nerve-activity-through-promoting-expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Yuanyuan Fan, Enshe Jiang, Taija Hahka, Qinghui Chen, Jianqun Yan, Zhiying Shan
AIM: Accumulating evidence suggests that orexin signaling is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular function. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that upregulated orexin A signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) through stimulating expression of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). METHODS: In vivo sympathetic nerve recordings were performed to test the impact of PVN orexin signaling on sympathetic outflow in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
September 5, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860499/neuroblastoma-patient-derived-xenograft-cells-cultured-in-stem-cell-promoting-medium-retain-tumorigenic-and-metastatic-capacities-but-differentiate-in-serum
#12
Camilla U Persson, Kristoffer von Stedingk, Daniel Bexell, My Merselius, Noémie Braekeveldt, David Gisselsson, Marie Arsenian-Henriksson, Sven Påhlman, Caroline Wigerup
Cultured cancer cells serve as important models for preclinical testing of anti-cancer compounds. However, the optimal conditions for retaining original tumor features during in vitro culturing of cancer cells have not been investigated in detail. Here we show that serum-free conditions are critical for maintaining an immature phenotype of neuroblastoma cells isolated from orthotopic patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). PDX cells could be grown either as spheres or adherent on laminin in serum-free conditions with retained patient-specific genomic aberrations as well as tumorigenic and metastatic capabilities...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851733/brown-adipose-tissue-activation-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Wenjuan Wang, Xiangzhi Meng, Chun Yang, Dongliang Fang, Xuemeng Wang, Jiaqiang An, Jingyi Zhang, Lulu Wang, Tao Lu, Hai-Bin Ruan, Yan Gao
Loss of body weight and fat mass is one of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss is primarily due to reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure. While inadequate energy intake in PD patients is mainly caused by appetite loss and impaired gastrointestinal absorption, the underlying mechanisms for increased energy expenditure remain largely unknown. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a key thermogenic tissue in humans and other mammals, plays an important role in thermoregulation and energy metabolism; however, it has not been tested if BAT is involved in the negative energy balance in PD...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844880/the-fgf21-ccl11-axis-mediates-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissues-by-coupling-sympathetic-nervous-system-to-type-2-immunity
#14
Zhe Huang, Ling Zhong, Jimmy Tsz Hang Lee, Jialiang Zhang, Donghai Wu, Leiluo Geng, Yu Wang, Chi-Ming Wong, Aimin Xu
Type 2 cytokines are important signals triggering biogenesis of thermogenic beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) during cold acclimation. However, how cold activates type 2 immunity in WAT remains obscure. Here we show that cold-induced type 2 immune responses and beiging in subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) are abrogated in mice with adipose-selective ablation of FGF21 or its co-receptor β-Klotho, whereas such impairments are reversed by replenishment with chemokine CCL11. Mechanistically, FGF21 acts on adipocytes in an autocrine manner to promote the expression and secretion of CCL11 via activation of ERK1/2, which drives recruitment of eosinophils into scWAT, leading to increases in accumulation of M2 macrophages, and proliferation and commitment of adipocyte precursors into beige adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833780/stellate-ganglion-blockade-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-ventricular-arrhythmias-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Marat Fudim, Richard Boortz-Marx, Arun Ganesh, Nathan H Waldron, Yawar J Qadri, Chetan B Patel, Carmelo A Milano, Albert Y Sun, Joseph P Mathew, Jonathan P Piccini
INTRODUCTION: Treatment refractory ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are often driven and exacerbated by heightened sympathetic tone. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of a temporary percutaneous stellate ganglion block (SGB) on VA burden and defibrillation episodes in patients with treatment refractory VAs. METHODS: Relevant studies from January 1960 through May 2017 were identified in PubMed and Google Scholar. We performed a patient-level analysis using Student's t-test to compare outcomes before and after SGB...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831314/surgery-averted-using-a-novel-minimally-invasive-approach-to-treat-very-severe-radial-artery-spasm
#16
Anthony A Cochet, Daniel A Bellin
A 42-year-old male admitted with a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was referred for invasive angiographic assessment. Based on preprocedural assessment, the right radial artery approach was selected. Despite possessing none of the consensus risk factors for radial artery spasm, in addition to receiving standard arterial spasm prophylaxis and conscious sedation, the patient suffered very severe radial artery spasm with initial catheter placement, resulting in entrapment of a 5 Fr pigtail catheter within the left ventricle...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821839/circadian-clock-dependent-increase-in-salivary-iga-secretion-modulated-by-sympathetic-receptor-activation-in-mice
#17
Misaki Wada, Kanami Orihara, Mayo Kamagata, Koki Hama, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsuhito Nakao, Shigenobu Shibata
The salivary gland is rhythmically controlled by sympathetic nerve activation from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which functions as the main oscillator of circadian rhythms. In humans, salivary IgA concentrations reflect circadian rhythmicity, which peak during sleep. However, the mechanisms controlling this rhythmicity are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether the timing of parasympathetic (pilocarpine) or sympathetic (norepinephrine; NE) activation affects IgA secretion in the saliva. The concentrations of saliva IgA modulated by pilocarpine activation or by a combination of pilocarpine and NE activation were the highest in the middle of the light period, independent of saliva flow rate...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815595/sigma-1-receptor-ligands-inhibit-catecholamine-secretion-from-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-due-to-block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#18
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
October 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791474/acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor-subtypes-in-chromaffin-cells
#19
REVIEW
Manuel Criado
In the adrenal gland, acetylcholine released on stimulation of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve activates neuronal-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in chromaffin cells and triggers catecholamine secretion. At least two subtypes of nAChRs have been described in bovine chromaffin cells. The main subtype, a heteromeric assembly of α3, β4 and perhaps α5 subunits, is involved in the activation step of the catecholamine secretion process and is not blocked by the snake toxin α-bungarotoxin. The other is α-bungarotoxin-sensitive, and its functional role has not yet been well defined...
August 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762464/the-mid-point-transverse-process-to-pleura-mtp-block-a-new-end-point-for-thoracic-paravertebral-block
#20
I Costache, L de Neumann, C J Ramnanan, S L Goodwin, A Pawa, F W Abdallah, C J L McCartney
Current descriptions of thoracic paravertebral block techniques require the needle tip to be anterior to the superior costotransverse ligament. We hypothesised that an injection point midway between the posterior border of the transverse process and the pleura would result in spread to the paravertebral space. We completed bilateral injections of 5 ml methylene blue 0.2% midway between the posterior border of the transverse process and the pleura at T2, T4, T6, T8 and T10 in three unembalmed cadavers. The presence of methylene blue dye at the nerve root in the paravertebral space, the corresponding intercostal nerve and sympathetic chain at the level of injection, and at additional levels, was examined...
August 1, 2017: Anaesthesia
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