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Sympathetic block

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340164/denervation-of-the-extrinsic-cardiac-sympathetic-nervous-system-as-a-treatment-modality-for-arrhythmia
#1
Chance M Witt, Luciana Bolona, Michelle O Kinney, Christopher Moir, Michael J Ackerman, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J Asirvatham, Christopher J McLeod
Denervation of the extrinsic cardiac sympathetic nervous system is a method of altering the autonomic tone experienced by the heart and vasculature. It has been studied and employed as a therapy for cardiac disease for decades. Currently, there is a high level of interest in using cardiac denervation for treatment of arrhythmias. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the cardiac autonomic nervous system followed by a discussion of the mechanistic studies which provide a basis for the therapeutic use of sympathetic denervation...
March 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300321/skeletal-colonization-by-breast-cancer-cells-is-stimulated-by-an-osteoblast-and-%C3%AE-2ar-dependent-neo-angiogenic-switch
#2
Patrick L Mulcrone, J Preston Campbell, Lise Clément-Demange, Ana Lia Anbinder, Alyssa R Merkel, Rolf A Brekken, Julie A Sterling, Florent Elefteriou
The skeleton is a common site for breast cancer metastasis. Although significant progress has been made to manage osteolytic bone lesions, the mechanisms driving the early steps of the bone metastatic process are still not sufficiently understood to design efficacious strategies needed to inhibit this process and offer preventative therapeutic options. Progression and recurrence of breast cancer, as well as reduced survival of patients with breast cancer, are associated with chronic stress, a condition known to stimulate sympathetic nerve outflow...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299842/electroacupuncture-promotes-cns-dependent-release-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Tatiana E Salazar, Matthew R Richardson, Eleni Beli, Matthew S Ripsch, John George, Youngsook Kim, Yaqian Duan, Leni Moldovan, Yuanqing Yan, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Vaishnavi Jadhav, Jared A Smith, Susan McGorray, Alicia L Bertone, Dmitri O Traktuev, Keith L March, Luis M Colon-Perez, Keith Avin, Emily Sims, Julie A Mund, Jamie Case, Shaolin Deng, Min Su Kim, Bruce McDavitt, Michael E Boulton, Jeffrey Thinschmidt, Sergio Li Calzi, Stephanie D Fitz, Robyn K Fuchs, Stuart J Warden, Todd McKinley, Anantha Shekhar, Marcelo Febo, Phillip L Johnson, Lung Ji Chang, Zhanguo Gao, Mikhail G Kolonin, Song Lai, Jinfeng Ma, Xinzhong Dong, Fletcher A White, Huisheng Xie, Mervin C Yoder, Maria B Grant
Electro-acupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using front-limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and Du-14 and Du-20 increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299616/promise-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-heart-failure-diabetes-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Pieter Martens, Chantal Mathieu, Frederik H Verbrugge
This review provides mechanistic insight in the pleiotropic effects of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors with particular interest to the pathophysiology of heart failure. The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has recently demonstrated an unprecedented 38% reduction in cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes. Despite modest effects on long-term glycemic control, highly significant reductions in heart failure admissions and end-stage kidney disease were observed. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the latest approved class of glucose-lowering agents...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298801/stellate-ganglion-block-as-rescue-therapy-in-refractory-ventricular-tachycardia
#5
M C Rajesh, K V Deepa, E K Ramdas
Pain physicians and anesthesiologists routinely perform stellate ganglion block for the treatment of painful upper extremity sympathetic dystrophy. Close proximity of ganglion to vascular structures warrants some expertise and training in the procedure. Off late, successful use of the technique in intractable ventricular tachyarrhythmias has come in literature. We have few cases wherein we could successfully ablate intractable ventricular tachycardia with stellate block which was refractory to repeated shocks...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295755/evidence-for-a-functional-vasoconstrictor-role-for-atp-in-the-human-cutaneous-microvasculature
#6
James A Lang, Alex C Krajek, Kevin A Smaller
Noradrenaline is responsible for eliciting ∼60% of the reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) response in young adults, whereas the remainder is due to one or more unidentified coreleased sympathetic adrenergic neurotransmitter(s). Inconsistent evidence has placed neuropeptide Y in this role; however, other putative cotransmitters have yet to be tested. We hypothesize that ATP contributes to the reflex cutaneous VC response. Two protocols were conducted in young adults (n = 10); both involved the placement of three microdialysis (MD) probes in forearm skin and whole-body cooling (Tsk  = 30...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280382/retention-of-finger-blood-flow-against-postural-change-as-an-indicator-of-successful-sympathetic-block-in-the-upper-limb
#7
Toshihiko Nakatani, Tatsuya Hashimoto, Ichiro Sutou, Yoji Saito
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic block in the upper limb has diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic utility for disorders in the upper extremity that are associated with sympathetic disturbances. Increased skin temperature and decreased sweating are used to identify the adequacy of sympathetic block in the upper limb after stellate ganglion block (SGB). Baroreflexes elicited by postural change induce a reduction in peripheral blood flow by causing sympathetic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that sympathetic block in the upper limb reduces the decrease in finger blood flow caused by baroreflexes stimulated by postural change from the supine to long sitting position...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277325/the-pathway-of-injectate-spread-with-the-transmuscular-quadratus-lumborum-block-a-cadaver-study
#8
Mette Dam, Bernhard Moriggl, Christian K Hansen, Romed Hoermann, Thomas F Bendtsen, Jens Børglum
BACKGROUND: The spread of injectate resulting from a transmuscular quadratus lumborum (TQL) block and a transverse oblique paramedian (TOP) TQL block has never been examined. The aim of this cadaveric study was to investigate by which pathway the injectate spreads cephalad into the thoracic paravertebral space and which nerves were dyed by the injectate cephalad and caudad to the diaphragm when performing a TQL and a TOP TQL block. We also aimed to investigate whether the thoracic and lumbar sympathetic trunks as well as the lumbar plexus were covered by the injectate...
March 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272292/the-erector-spinae-plane-block-provides-visceral-abdominal-analgesia-in-bariatric-surgery-a-report-of-3-cases
#9
Ki Jinn Chin, Laith Malhas, Anahi Perlas
Postoperative pain after bariatric surgery can be significant and yet difficult to manage. These patients frequently have associated obstructive sleep apnea and are at risk of respiratory depression with opioid analgesia. Abdominal wall blocks such as the subcostal transversus abdominis plane block are not of significant benefit, probably in part because they provide only somatic analgesia. The ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block is a recently described regional anesthetic technique for providing thoracic analgesia when performed at the level of the T5 transverse process...
March 8, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272291/review-of-sympathetic-blocks-anatomy-sonoanatomy-evidence-and-techniques
#10
Samir Baig, Jee Youn Moon, Hariharan Shankar
The autonomic nervous system is composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is implicated in situations involving emergent action by the body and additionally plays a role in mediating pain states and pathologies in the body. Painful conditions thought to have a sympathetically mediated component may respond to blockade of the corresponding sympathetic fibers. The paravertebral sympathetic chain has been targeted for various painful conditions. Although initially injected using landmark-based techniques, fluoroscopy and more recently ultrasound imaging have allowed greater visualization and facilitated injections of these structures...
March 8, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255983/vasopressin-v1a-receptors-mediate-the-hypertensive-effects-of-pyrnan-apelin-13-in-the-rat-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla
#11
Philip R Griffiths, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Harris, Julian Fr Paton, Anne-Marie O'Carroll
Apelin is a ubiquitous peptide that can elevate arterial blood pressure (ABP) yet understanding of the mechanisms involved remain incomplete. Bilateral microinjection of [Pyr(1) ]apelin-13 into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a major source of sympathoexcitatory neurones, increases ABP and sympathetic nerve activity. We sought to investigate the potential involvement of neurotransmitter systems through which the apelin pressor response may occur within the RVLM. Adult male Wistar rats were anaesthetised and ABP was monitored via a femoral arterial catheter...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243349/percutaneous-cervical-sympathetic-block-for-pain-control-after-internal-carotid-artery-dissection-a-report-of-two-cases
#12
Omar Saeed, Asif A Khan, Nabeel A Herial, Emrah Aytac, Adnan I Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Medical treatment of cranio-cervical pain can be suboptimal in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection. We report the use of cervical sympathetic block for treatment of pain in two patients with ICA dissection. CASE REPORTS: A 58-year-old man and a 43-year-old woman presented with severe cranio-cervical pain associated with left and right ICA dissection confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography. Due to suboptimal control of pain with medical treatment, cervical sympathetic block was performed under fluoroscopic guidance using 20 ml of bupivacaine injected lateral to the posterior aspect of sixth vertebral body in both patients...
January 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239529/morphological-relationship-between-the-superior-cervical-ganglion-and-cervical-nerves-in-japanese-cadaver-donors
#13
Kazuyuki Mitsuoka, Takeshi Kikutani, Iwao Sato
INTRODUCTION: There are various communications between the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. However, little information exists concerning the origin of these sympathetic ganglion branches at the superior, middle, and inferior regions of the human SCG. The aim of this study was to describe the human SCG in a morphometric manner with the communication with cranial and cervical nerves and supply. METHODS: This study characterized 72 SCG samples from 54 elderly Japanese human cadavers (30 males, 24 females; 65-100 years old)...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223322/eta-receptors-blockade-by-activating-etb-receptors-increases-vascular-permeability-and-induces-exaggerated-fluid-retention
#14
Magali Vercauteren, Frederic Trensz, Anne Pasquali, Christophe Cattaneo, Daniel S Strasser, Patrick Hess, Marc Iglarz, Martine Clozel
Endothelin receptor antagonists have been associated with fluid retention. It has been suggested that, of the two endothelin receptor subtypes, ETB receptors should not be blocked, because of their involvement in natriuresis and diuresis. Surprisingly, clinical data suggest that ETA-selective antagonists pose a greater risk of fluid overload than dual antagonists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of each endothelin receptor to fluid retention and vascular permeability in rats. Sitaxentan and ambrisentan as ETA-selective antagonists, bosentan and macitentan as dual antagonists were used as representatives of each class, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222636/change-in-pulse-transit-time-in-the-lower-extremity-after-lumbar-sympathetic-ganglion-block-an-early-indicator-of-successful-block
#15
Eun-Young Joo, Yu Gyeong Kong, Jonghyuk Lee, Hyun-Seok Cho, Sung-Hoon Kim, Jeong Hun Suh
Objective To investigate the change in pulse transit time (PTT)-time between the electrocardiographic R wave and the highest point of the corresponding plethysmographic wave-after lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB) and evaluate PTT as an indicator of successful LSGB. Methods Sixteen cases of sympathetically mediated lower extremity neuropathic pain treated with LSGB were studied. Correlations between the changes in PTT and temperature were used to identify the cutoff point indicating successful LSGB. Results PTT rate of change at 5 min relative to the baseline PTT (dPTT5/PTT0) significantly correlated positively with the temperature change at 20 min (correlation coefficient 0...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219848/bioelectronic-neuromodulation-of-the-paravertebral-cardiac-efferent-sympathetic-outflow-and-its-effect-on-ventricular-electrical-indices
#16
Una Buckley, Ray W Chui, Pradeep S Rajendran, Tina Vrabec, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey L Ardell
BACKGROUND: Neuromodulation of the paravertebral ganglia by using symmetric voltage controlled kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) has the potential to be a reversible alternative to surgical intervention in patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmias. KHFAC creates scalable focal inhibition of action potential conduction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to evaluate the efficacy of KHFAC when applied to the T1-T2 paravertebral chain to mitigate sympathetic outflow to the heart...
February 20, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216049/chronic-treatment-with-fluoxetine-modulates-vascular-adrenergic-responses-by-inhibition-of-pre-and-post-synaptic-mechanisms
#17
Camila A Pereira, Fernanda L Rodrigues, Silvia G Ruginsk, Camila Z Zanotto, José A Rodrigues, Diego A Duarte, Claudio M Costa-Neto, Leonardo B Resstel, Fernando S Carneiro, Rita C Tostes
Fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has other effects in addition to blocking serotonin reuptake, including changes in the vasomotor tone. Whereas many studies focused on the acute effects of fluoxetine in the vasculature, its chronic effects are still limited. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment modulates adrenergic vascular responses by interfering with post- and pre-synaptic mechanisms. Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (water) or chronic fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day) for 21 days...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215570/cardiac-electrophysiology-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Michael Manogue, David S Hirsh, Michael Lloyd
Spinal cord injury is a clinical syndrome encountered frequently in trauma centers and is accompanied by both acute and chronic heart rhythm abnormalities. The injury is characterized by sympathetic nervous system impairment with preservation of parasympathetic output via the vagus nerve. Severe bradycardia in the form of life-threatening sinus arrest or complete heart block may be observed in the acute recovery phase. Therapy for arrhythmias in the acute phase includes atropine, intravenous chronotropes, methylxanthines for the prevention of episodic bradycardia, and pacemaker implantation in severe cases...
February 12, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210225/increased-apoptosis-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-mediated-by-at1r-ras-erk1-2-signaling-results-in-sympathetic-hyperactivity-and-renovascular-hypertension-in-rats-after-kidney-injury
#19
Hongguo Zhu, Lishan Tan, Yumin Li, Jiawen Li, Minzi Qiu, Lanying Li, Mengbi Zhang, Min Liang, Aiqing Li
Background: The central nervous system plays a vital role in the development of hypertension, but the molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which might contribute to renal hypertension. Methods: Renal hypertension model was established by five-sixth nephrectomy operation (5/6Nx) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten weeks afterwards, they were random assigned to no treatment, or intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, losartan [angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) antagonist], farnesylthiosalicylic acid (Ras inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), or SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase-3 inhibitor)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202186/stimulation-of-rat-cranial-dura-mater-with-potassium-chloride-causes-cgrp-release-into-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-increases-medullary-blood-flow
#20
Mária Dux, Christine Will, Mirjam Eberhardt, Michael J M Fischer, Karl Messlinger
Primary headaches may be accompanied by increased intracranial blood flow induced by the release of the potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from activated meningeal afferents. We aimed to record meningeal and medullary blood flow simultaneously and to localize the sites of CGRP release in rodent preparations in vivo and ex vivo. Blood flow in the exposed rat parietal dura mater and the medulla oblongata was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry, while the dura was stimulated by topical application of 60mM potassium chloride (KCl)...
February 10, 2017: Neuropeptides
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