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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531318/agrp-expressing-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-are-involved-in-the-sympathetic-response-to-fasting
#1
Rajesh Gupta, Yunbing Ma, Manqi Wang, Matthew D Whim
Fasting evokes a homeostatic response that maintains circulating levels of energy-rich metabolites and increases the drive to eat. Centrally this reflex activates a small population of hypothalamic neurons that are characterized by the expression of AgRP, a neuropeptide with an extremely restricted distribution. Apart from the hypothalamus the only other site with significant expression is the adrenal gland but there is disagreement about which cells synthesize AgRP. Using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RT-PCR we show AgRP is present in the mouse adrenal medulla and is expressed by neuroendocrine chromaffin cells that also synthesize the catecholamines and neuropeptide Y...
May 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526487/ultrasound-guided-thoracic-paravertebral-injection-in-dogs-a-cadaveric-study
#2
Diego A Portela, Luis Campoy, Pablo E Otero, Manuel Martin-Flores, Robin D Gleed
OBJECTIVE: To describe ultrasound-visualized anatomy and the spread characteristics of a dye injected in the thoracic paravertebral (TPV) space under ultrasound guidance. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomic cadaver study. ANIMALS: Seven dog cadavers. METHODS: One cadaver was used to observe, identify, and describe the relevant TPV anatomy. In the remaining six, the left fifth TPV space was randomly assigned to be injected with either a low volume (LV; 0...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526464/-transient-horner-s-syndrome-after-single-shot-paravertebral-block
#3
Birzat Emre Gölboyu, Mürsel Ekinci, Pınar Karaca Baysal, Ayşe Nur Yeksan, Erkan Cem Çelik, Zeynep Bilgi, Murat Aksun
BACKGROUND: Thoracic paravertebral block can provide analgesia for unilateral chest surgery and is associated with a low complication rate. Horner syndrome also referred to as oculosympathetic paresis, is a classic neurologic constellation of ipsilateral blepharoptosis, pupillary miosis, and facial anhidrosis resulting from disruption of the sympathetic pathway supplying the head, eye, and neck. CASE REPORT: We present a patient with an ipsilateral transient Horner syndrome after ultrasound guided single shot of 15mL 0...
May 17, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522768/a-model-for-in-vivo-analysis-of-sudomotor-sympathetic-c-fiber-activation-and-human-sweat-gland-output
#4
Gary W Mack
Quantitative assessment of small fiber peripheral neuropathy often involves an evaluation of the interaction between the C-fiber sudomotor nerve and local sweat rate (SR). Typically, some sort of quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) is performed to aid in diagnosing small fiber dysfunction. The currently used QSART demonstrates only moderate test-retest reliability and therefore limits its usefulness in tracking small fiber dysfunction. A new experimental model to examine small C-fiber function in the skin using intradermal electrical stimulation and simultaneous monitoring of SR is proposed...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516454/a-multiscale-computational-modelling-approach-predicts-mechanisms-of-female-sex-risk-in-the-setting-of-arousal-induced-arrhythmias
#5
Pei-Chi Yang, Laura L Perissinotti, Fernando López-Redondo, Yibo Wang, Kevin R DeMarco, Mao-Tsuen Jeng, Igor Vorobyov, Robert D Harvey, Junko Kurokawa, Sergei Y Noskov, Colleen E Clancy
Female sex is a risk factor for inherited and acquired Long-QT associated Torsade de Pointes (TdP) arrhythmias, and sympathetic discharge is a major factor in triggering TdP in female Long-QT syndrome patients. We used a combined experimental and computational approach to predict 'the perfect storm' of hormone concentration, IKr block, and sympathetic stimulation that induces arrhythmia in females with inherited and acquired Long-QT. More specifically, we developed mathematical models of acquired and inherited Long-QT syndrome in male and female ventricular human myocytes by combining effects of a hormone and a hERG blocker dofetilide or hERG mutations...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513740/l-ornithine-stimulates-growth-hormone-release-in-a-manner-dependent-on-the-ghrelin-system
#6
Yee Yin Ho, Junya Nakato, Takafumi Mizushige, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Mamoru Tanida, Saori Akiduki, Kousaku Ohinata
We found that intraduodenal administration of l-ornithine (l-Orn) stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in Wistar rats, and then investigated its mechanism. GH-releasing activity after intraduodenal administration of l-Orn was blocked by [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, an antagonist of the ghrelin receptor; however, l-Orn (100 μM) has no affinity for the ghrelin receptor, suggesting that the GH-releasing activity of l-Orn is mediated via ghrelin release and activation of the ghrelin receptor. Intraduodenally administered l-Orn increased ghrelin mRNA expression in the duodenum but not in the stomach or hypothalamus...
May 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512154/glucose-autoregulation-is-the-dominant-component-of-the-hormone-independent-counterregulatory-response-to-hypoglycemia-in-the-conscious-dog
#7
Justin M Gregory, Noelia Rivera, Guillaume Kraft, Jason J Winnick, Ben Farmer, Eric J Allen, E Patrick Donahue, Marta S Smith, Dale S Edgerton, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
The contribution of hormone-independent counterregulatory signals in defense of insulin-induced hypoglycemia were determined in adrenalectomized, overnight-fasted conscious dogs receiving hepatic portal vein insulin infusions at a rate 20-fold basal. Either euglycemia was maintained (group 1) or hypoglycemia (≈45 mg/dL) was allowed to occur. There were 3 hypoglycemic groups: one in which hepatic autoregulation against hypoglycemia occurred in the absence of sympathetic nervous system input (group 2), autoregulation in the presence of norepinephrine (NE) signaling to fat and muscle (group 3), and autoregulation in the presence of NE signaling to fat, muscle, and liver (group 4)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511527/temporary-blindness-after-inferior-alveolar-nerve-block
#8
Animesh Barodiya, Rishi Thukral, Shaila Mahendra Agrawal, Anshul Rai, Siddharth Singh
Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. This procedure is safe, but complications may still occur. Ocular complications such as diplopia, loss of vision, or ophthalmoplegia are extremely rare. This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and maxillary and middle meningeal arteries, intravascular administration of anaesthetic agent caused unusual ocular signs and symptoms such as temporary blindness...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490900/complex-management-of-a-patient-with-refractory-primary-erythromelalgia-lacking-a-scn9a-mutation
#9
Sarah A Low, Wendye Robbins, Vivianne L Tawfik
A 41-year-old woman presented with burning and erythema in her extremities triggered by warmth and activity, which was relieved by applying ice. Extensive workup was consistent with adult-onset primary erythromelalgia (EM). Several pharmacological treatments were tried including local anesthetics, capsaicin, ziconotide, and dantrolene, all providing 24-48 hours of relief followed by symptom flare. Interventional therapies, including peripheral and sympathetic ganglion blocks, also failed. Thus far, clonidine and ketamine have been the only effective agents for our patient...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487221/neurophysiological-insights-on-flexibility-improvements-through-motor-imagery
#10
Thiago Ferreira Dias Kanthack, Aymeric Guillot, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Théophile Guizard, Christian Collet, Franck Di Rienzo
The efficacy of motor imagery (MI) practice to facilitate muscle stretching remains controversial and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms unexplored. We evaluated the effects of MI practice during a sit-and-reach task. Healthy participants were randomly assigned to a MI practice (n=15) or Control (n=15) group and completed 2 blocks of 5 sit-and-reach trials. During the first block (B1), participants performed 5 maximal stretching trials of 10s. During the second block (B2), trials were divided into two consecutive parts: i) reproducing the maximum performance of B1 (10s, B2 part 1), and ii) attempting to outperform the maximum performance of B1 (10s, B2 part 2)...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473352/mir-21-is-involved-in-norepinephrine-mediated-rat-granulosa-cell-apoptosis-by-targeting-smad7
#11
Li Zhang, Jie Gao, Sheng Cui
Substantive evidence has indicated that the sympathetic innervation contributes to the regulation and development of ovarian functions. Norepinephrine (NE) is one of the major neurotransmitters contained in the extrinsic ovarian sympathetic nerves and is thought to be a potent moderator of ovarian functions such as steroidogenesis and granulosa cell proliferation or apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of NE regulation of granulosa cell apoptosis in the rat ovary are rare. Real-time PCR and Western blot results show that NE regulates the expression of miR-21 in primary granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416585/case-of-refractory-hypertension-controlled-by-repeated-renal-denervation-and-celiac-plexus-block-a-case-of-refractory-sympathetic-overload
#12
Chan Joo Lee, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Kyung Bong Yoon, Hae-Young Lee, Anna F Dominiczak, Rhian M Touyz, Garry L R Jennings, Eun Joo Cho, Dagmara Hering, Sungha Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413612/advances-in-understanding-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-raas-in-blood-pressure-control-and-recent-pivotal-trials-of-raas-blockade-in-heart-failure-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
REVIEW
Lama Ghazi, Paul Drawz
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a fundamental role in the physiology of blood pressure control and the pathophysiology of hypertension (HTN) with effects on vascular tone, sodium retention, oxidative stress, fibrosis, sympathetic tone, and inflammation. Fortunately, RAAS blocking agents have been available to treat HTN since the 1970s and newer medications are being developed. In this review, we will (1) examine new anti-hypertensive medications affecting the RAAS, (2) evaluate recent studies that help provide a better understanding of which patients may be more likely to benefit from RAAS blockade, and (3) review three recent pivotal randomized trials that involve newer RAAS blocking agents and inform clinical practice...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#14
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404742/autonomic-nervous-system-activation-mediates-the-increase-in-whole-body-glucose-uptake-in-response-to-electroacupuncture
#15
Anna Benrick, Milana Kokosar, Min Hu, Martin Larsson, Manuel Maliqueo, Rodrigo Rodrigues Marcondes, Marzia Soligo, Virginia Protto, Elisabet Jerlhag, Antonina Sazonova, Carl Johan Behre, Kurt Højlund, Peter Thorén, Elisabet Stener-Victorin
A single bout of low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) causing muscle contractions increases whole-body glucose uptake in insulin-resistant rats. We explored the underlying mechanism of this finding and whether it can be translated into clinical settings. Changes in glucose infusion rate (GIR) were measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp during and after 45 min of low-frequency EA in 21 overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 controls matched for age, weight, and body mass index (experiment 1) and in rats receiving autonomic receptor blockers (experiment 2)...
April 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393479/inhibitory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-electroacupuncture-via-chronically-implanted-electrodes-on-stress-induced-gastric-hypersensitivity-in-rats-with-neonatal-treatment-of-iodoacetamide
#16
Jingzhu Zhou, Shiying Li, Yinping Wang, Robert D Foreman, Jieyun Yin, Shengsheng Zhang, Jiande D Z Chen
BACKGROUND: Stress is considered an independent factor causing and aggravating gastrointestinal symptoms, including visceral pain. The aim of this study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) on stress-induced gastric hypersensitivity in rats treated with neonatal iodoacetamide mimicking human functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Neonatal rats were treated with gavage of 0.2 mL of 0.1% iodoacetamide in 2% sucrose daily for six days starting on tenth day after birth...
April 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373696/blocking-the-nav1-8-channel-in-the-left-stellate-ganglion-suppresses-ventricular-arrhythmia-induced-by-acute-ischemia-in-a-canine-model
#17
Lilei Yu, Menglong Wang, Dan Hu, Bing Huang, Liping Zhou, Xiaoya Zhou, Zhuo Wang, Songyun Wang, Hong Jiang
Left stellate ganglion (LSG) hyperactivity promotes ischemia induced ventricular arrhythmia (VA). Blocking the Nav1.8 channel decreases neuron activity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether blocking the Nav1.8 channel with its specific blocker A-803467 in the LSG reduces sympathetic activity and exerts anti-arrhythmic effects. Forty canines were divided into dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) group and 10 mM, 15 mM, and 20 mM A-803467 groups. A volume of 0.1 ml of A-803467 or DMSO was injected into the LSG...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369749/olcegepant-blocks-neurogenic-and-non-neurogenic-cgrpergic-vasodepressor-responses-and-facilitates-noradrenergic-vasopressor-responses-in-pithed-rats
#18
V H Avilés-Rosas, E Rivera-Mancilla, B A Marichal-Cancino, G Manrique-Maldonado, A H Altamirano-Espinoza, A MaassenVanDenBrink, C M Villalón
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Olcegepant (BIBN4096BS) is a selective non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonist with acute antimigraine properties. Since systemic vascular tone is modulated by perivascular (primary sensory CGRPergic and sympathetic) nerves, this randomized study investigated in pithed rats the effect of acute i.v. treatment with olcegepant on the neurogenic and non-neurogenic: (i) CGRPergic vasodepressor responses; and (ii) noradrenergic vasopressor responses. The pithed rat is an experimental model predictive of systemic (cardio) vascular side effects...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364364/possible-reversal-of-ptsd-related-dna-methylation-by-sympathetic-blockade
#19
REVIEW
Eugene G Lipov, Kenneth Candido, Elspeth C Ritchie
Studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level increase is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk. BDNF may be a "missing-link" that mediates the interaction between genetics, environment, and the sympathetic system. Trauma has been shown to induce DNA methylation that in turn can increase BDNF concentration due to increased gene expression. Therapies that focus on the reduction of beta-NGF (BNGF) levels may impact PTSD symptoms. The focus of this paper is to discuss possible effect of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on epigenetic changes noted with PTSD mediated by BDNF and NGF...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360882/vestibular-activation-habituates-the-vasovagal-response-in-the-rat
#20
Bernard Cohen, Giorgio P Martinelli, Yongqing Xiang, Theodore Raphan, Sergei B Yakushin
Vasovagal syncope is a significant medical problem without effective therapy, postulated to be related to a collapse of baroreflex function. While some studies have shown that repeated static tilts can block vasovagal syncope, this was not found in other studies. Using anesthetized, male Long-Evans rats that were highly susceptible to generation of vasovagal responses, we found that repeated activation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) with ±2 and ±3 mA, 0.025 Hz sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) caused incremental changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) that blocked further generation of vasovagal responses...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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