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Sympathetic block

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455831/thoracoscopic-sympathectomy-for-refractory-electrical-storm-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#1
Brody Wehman, Michael Mazzeffi, Robert Chow, A Claire Watkins, Brittany Aicher, Si Pham, Whitney Burrows, Bradley Taylor
We report a patient with refractory electrical storm after coronary artery bypass grafting who was successfully treated with thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Cardiac arrest with ventricular tachycardia occurred on postoperative day 2, and the patient required emergency support with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Frequent episodes of ventricular tachycardia prevented cardiac recovery and weaning from mechanical circulatory support. A percutaneous left stellate ganglion block initially demonstrated successful prevention of ventricular tachycardia, and definitive sympathetic denervation was achieved by a left thoracoscopic sympathectomy...
March 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432940/modulation-of-incisor-eruption-in-rats-by-sympathetic-efferents
#2
José Johann Chidiac, Ammar Kassab, Khaldoun Rifai, Nayef E Saadé, Elie D Al Chaer
INTRODUCTION: Intact neural supply is necessary for tooth eruption. Sympathetic denervation accelerates or decelerates the eruption rate depending on the tooth condition (intact or injured). The aim of this study is to reexamine the role of the sympathetic innervation, through the observation of the effects of pre or post ganglionic chemical sympathectomy on the eruption of intact rat incisors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different groups of rats were subjected to either ganglionic or peripheral chemical sympathectomy and the observed effects on incisor eruption were compared to those made on intact/sham groups or on rats subjected to inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) lesion...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416250/a-study-of-the-efficacy-of-stellate-ganglion-blocks-in-complex-regional-pain-syndromes-of-the-upper-body
#3
Rashmi Datta, Jyotsna Agrawal, Amit Sharma, Vikram Singh Rathore, Shivesh Datta
Background and Aims: The effect of stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs) was examined in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) of the upper body. Material and Methods: A total of 287 SGB were given to patients with documented CRPS on medications. Spontaneous and provoked pain assessment was done with numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and range of motion (ROM) was recorded before and after each blockade...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411386/the-wisdom-of-the-body-listeners-autonomic-arousal-distinguishes-between-spontaneous-and-posed-vocal-emotions
#4
Patrik N Juslin, László Harmat, Petri Laukka
It has been the matter of much debate whether perceivers are able to distinguish spontaneous vocal expressions of emotion from posed vocal expressions (e.g., emotion portrayals). In this experiment, we show that such discrimination can be manifested in the autonomic arousal of listeners during implicit processing of vocal emotions. Participants (N = 21, age: 20-55 years) listened to two consecutive blocks of brief voice clips and judged the gender of the speaker in each clip, while we recorded three measures of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system (skin conductance level, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate)...
February 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410631/sympathetic-nervous-regulation-of-calcium-and-action-potential-alternans-in-the-intact-heart
#5
James Winter, Martin J Bishop, Catherine D E Wilder, Christopher O'Shea, Davor Pavlovic, Michael J Shattock
Rationale: Arrhythmogenic cardiac alternans are thought to be an important determinant for the initiation of ventricular fibrillation. There is limited information on the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) on alternans in the intact heart and the conclusions of existing studies, focused on investigating electrical alternans, are conflicted. Meanwhile, several lines of evidence implicate instabilities in Ca handling, not electrical restitution, as the primary mechanism underpinning alternans. Despite this, there have been no studies on Ca alternans and SNS in the intact heart...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408967/effects-of-stellate-ganglion-block-on-analgesia-produced-by-cervical-paravertebral-block-as-established-by-quantitative-sensory-testing-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Luc A Sermeus, Luc E Vanlinthout, Guy H Hans, Tom Schepens, Margaretha B Breebaart, Veerle C Verheyen, Carine J Smitz, Marcel P Vercauteren
Objective: To use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess whether a stellate ganglion block (SGB) modulates the analgesia induced by cervical paravertebral block (CPVB). Design: A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Department of Anesthesia, Antwerp University Hospital, October 2011 to December 2015. Subjects: Twenty-eight adults scheduled for arthroscopy of a nonfractured shoulder were enrolled...
February 2, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360991/elevated-plasma-catecholamines-functionally-compensate-for-the-reduced-myogenic-tone-in-smooth-muscle-stim1-knockout-mice-but-with-deleterious-cardiac-effects
#7
Prahalathan Pichavaram, Wen Yin, Kirk W Evanson, Jonathan H Jaggar, Salvatore Mancarella
Aims: Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) has emerged as an important player in the regulation of growth and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that STIM1 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether reduced expression of STIM1 could modify the structure and function of the vasculature, leading to changes in blood pressure (BP). Methods and results: Smooth muscle-specific STIM1 knockout (sm-STIM1 KO) in mice resulted in arteries with ∼80% reduced STIM1 protein expression as compared to control mice...
January 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358393/increased-thermogenesis-by-a-noncanonical-pathway-in-angptl3-8-deficient-mice
#8
Serena Banfi, Viktoria Gusarova, Jesper Gromada, Jonathan C Cohen, Helen H Hobbs
Dietary triglyceride (TG) is the most efficient energy substrate. It is processed and stored at substantially lower metabolic cost than is protein or carbohydrate. In fed animals, circulating TGs are preferentially routed for storage to white adipose tissue (WAT) by angiopoietin-like proteins 3 (A3) and 8 (A8). Here, we show that mice lacking A3 and A8 (A3-/-A8-/- mice) have decreased fat mass and a striking increase in temperature (+1 °C) in the fed (but not fasted) state, without alterations in food intake or physical activity...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357505/chemoreflex-mediated-arrhythmia-during-apnea-at-5050m-in-low-but-not-high-altitude-natives
#9
Stephen A Busch, Hannah E Davies, Sean Van Diepen, Lydia L Simpson, Frances Sobierajski, Laurel Riske, Mike Stembridge, Philip N Ainslie, Christopher K Willie, Ryan L Hoiland, Jonathan P Moore, Craig D Steinback
Peripheral chemoreflex mediated increases in both parasympathetic and sympathetic drive under chronic hypoxia may evoke brady-arrhythmias during apneic periods. We determined if: a) voluntary apnea unmasks arrhythmia at sea level and altitude (5050m), b) if high altitude natives (Nepalese Sherpa) exhibit similar cardiovagal responses at altitude; and c) if brady-arrhythmias at altitude are partially chemoreflex mediated. Participants were grouped as Lowlanders (n=14; age=27{plus minus}6yrs) and Nepalese Sherpa (n=8; age=32{plus minus}11yrs)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357327/characteristics-of-the-middle-cervical-sympathetic-ganglion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Chan Park, Chong Hyun Suh, Ji Eun Shin, Jung Hwan Baek
BACKGROUND: Understanding the characteristics of the middle cervical sympathetic ganglion (MCSG) may minimize procedure-related complications and maximize efficacy during surgery or ultrasound (US)-guided procedures. The location and detection rate of the MCSG were variable in small population studies. Therefore, a large population study or meta-analysis could give more information about the MCSG. OBJECTIVES: We aim to review the published literature and evaluate the anatomical features of the MCSG, including the detection rate, location, size, and a normal variation, and to review the clinical relevance of MCSG for procedures including, US-guided ganglion block, ethanol ablation (EA), or radiofrequency ablation (RFA)...
January 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307079/functional-changes-of-orexinergic-reaction-to-psychoactive-substances
#11
REVIEW
Vincenzo Monda, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Renato Bernardini, Anna Valenzano, Gabriella Marsala, Christian Zammit, Roberto Avola, Marco Carotenuto, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
It is becoming increasingly apparent the importance of the central nervous system (CNS) as the major contributor to the regulation of systemic metabolism. Antipsychotic drugs are used often to treat several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder However, antipsychotic drugs prescription, particularly the second-generation ones (SGAs), such as clozapine and olanzapine, is related to a considerable weight gain which usually leads to obesity. The aim of this paper is to assess the influence of orexin A on sympathetic and hyperthermic reactions to several neuroleptic drugs...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276402/ganglion-blocks-as-a-treatment-of-pain-current-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Osman Hakan Gunduz, Ozge Kenis-Coskun
The inputs from sympathetic ganglia have been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of various painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain of different origin, and coccygodynia. Sympathetic ganglia blocks are used to relieve patients who suffer from these conditions for over a century. Many numbers of local anesthetics such as bupivacaine or neurolytic agents such as alcohol can be chosen for a successful block. The agent is selected according to its duration of effect and the purpose of the injection...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249773/does-pneumoperitoneum-affect-perfusion-index-and-pleth-variability-index-in-patients-receiving-combined-epidural-and-general-anesthesia
#13
Zen'ichiro Wajima, Toshiya Shiga, Kazuyuki Imanaga
Plethysmographic variability index (PVI) is a dynamic index used for the purpose of fluid responsiveness in patients, and the effect of pneumoperitoneum on PVI is still unclear. We therefore attempted to determine whether PVI and perfusion index (PI) change before/after pneumoperitoneum in patients receiving combined epidural and general anesthesia, which is a common anesthesia method with intravenous remifentanil. Twenty patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy or colectomy. Immediately before pneumoperitoneum, variables were measured at baseline I and were then measured every min for 5 min after pneumoperitoneum start...
December 18, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248426/pharmacological-evidence-that-metformin-blocks-the-vasopressor-responses-mediated-by-stimulation-of-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-pithed-rats
#14
Saúl Huerta de la Cruz, Grecia J Medina-Terol, Jesús H Beltrán-Ornelas, Carolina B Gomez, Yaltzir Morato-Valderrama, Araceli Sánchez-López, David Centurión
It has been reported that metformin reduces blood pressure although the mechanisms have not been described. Indeed, several mechanisms could be implicated including the interaction with α-adrenoceptors or inhibition of sympathetic outflow. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the capability of metformin to block the vasopressor responses induced by α1/2-adrenoceptor agonists or selective electrical stimulation of sympathetic outflow. For this purpose, Wistar male rats were anesthetized, pithed and cannulated for selective preganglionic stimulation of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow or drugs administration...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235464/syk-kinase-mediates-brown-fat-differentiation-and-activation
#15
Marko Knoll, Sally Winther, Anirudh Natarajan, Huan Yang, Mengxi Jiang, Prathapan Thiru, Aliakbar Shahsafaei, Tony E Chavarria, Dudley W Lamming, Lei Sun, Jacob B Hansen, Harvey F Lodish
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism influences glucose homeostasis and metabolic health in mice and humans. Sympathetic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in response to cold induces proliferation, differentiation, and UCP1 expression in pre-adipocytes and mature brown adipocytes. Here we show that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and activated by β-adrenergic stimulation. Deletion or inhibition of SYK, a kinase known for its essential roles in the immune system, blocks brown and white pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro, and results in diminished expression of Ucp1 and other genes regulating brown adipocyte function in response to β-adrenergic stimulation...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228720/gastric-myoelectric-activity-during-cisplatin-induced-acute-and-delayed-emesis-reveals-a-temporal-impairment-of-slow-waves-in-ferrets-effects-not-reversed-by-the-glp-1-receptor-antagonist-exendin-9-39
#16
Zengbing Lu, Man P Ngan, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, Xiaodan Fan, Paul L R Andrews, John A Rudd
Preclinical studies show that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), can reduce acute emesis induced by cisplatin. In the present study, we investigate the effect of exendin (9-39) (100 nmol/24 h, i.c.v), on cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced acute and delayed emesis and changes indicative of 'nausea' in ferrets. Cisplatin induced 37.2 ± 2.3 and 59.0 ± 7.7 retches + vomits during the 0-24 (acute) and 24-72 h (delayed) periods, respectively. Cisplatin also increased (P<0...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220373/can-nerve-regeneration-on-an-artificial-nerve-conduit-be-enhanced-by-ethanol-induced-cervical-sympathetic-ganglion-block
#17
Yoshiki Shionoya, Katsuhisa Sunada, Keiji Shigeno, Akira Nakada, Michitaka Honda, Tatsuo Nakamura
This study aimed to determine whether nerve regeneration by means of an artificial nerve conduit is promoted by ethanol-induced cervical sympathetic ganglion block (CSGB) in a canine model. This study involved two experiments-in part I, the authors examined the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on long-term blood flow to the orofacial region; part II involved evaluation of the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repair using polyglycolic acid-collagen tubes. In part I, seven Beagles were administered left CSGB by injection of 99...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217672/digital-ischemia-after-application-of-self-adherent-elastic-wrap-dressing-a-case-series
#18
Christopher A Makarewich, Penelope Lang, Douglas T Hutchinson
Self-adherent elastic wrap dressings are a convenient option to manage pediatric hand and finger injuries. However, when improperly applied, they have the potential to cause devastating complications. We detail in this report 5 cases of dressing-induced ischemic injury to the hand in pediatric patients with a review of the literature. All patients were treated by the senior author between 2007 and 2015 and were retrospectively reviewed for initial injury, frequency of dressing changes, presence of pain, time to evaluation by the orthopedic hand team, treatment, and outcome...
December 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215951/regulation-of-aqueous-humor-dynamics-by-hydrogen-sulfide-potential-role-in-glaucoma-pharmacotherapy
#19
Sunny E Ohia, Jenaye Robinson, Leah Mitchell, Kalu K Ngele, Segewkal Heruye, Catherine A Opere, Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous transmitter with well-known biological actions in a wide variety of tissues and organs. The potential involvement of this gas in physiological and pathological processes in the eye has led to several in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies to understand its pharmacological role in some mammalian species. Evidence from literature demonstrates that 4 enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of this gas (cystathionine β-synthase, CBS; cystathionine γ-lyase, CSE; 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, 3MST; and d-amino acid oxidase) are present in the cornea, iris, ciliary body, lens, and retina...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212811/altered-expression-of-hepatic-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-in-aging-rats-implications-for-age-related-metabolic-dysfunction-in-liver
#20
Yun Shi, Zhen-Ju Shu, Hanzhou Wang, Jeffrey L Barnes, Chih-Ko Yeh, Paramita M Ghosh, Michael S Katz, Amrita Kamat
Increased β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in rat liver during aging has been linked to age-related increases in hepatic glucose output and hepatosteatosis. In this study we investigated the expression of β-ARs, individual receptor subtypes, and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulatory proteins in livers from aging rats. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that β-AR density increased by >3-fold in hepatocyte membranes from senescent (24 mo old) compared to young adult (7 mo old) rats, and that this phenomenon was blocked by food restriction which is known to retard aging processes in rodents...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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