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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427070/practical-lessons-from-protocol-t-for-the-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#1
Lekha Mukkamala, Neelakshi Bhagat, Marco Zarbin
PURPOSE: To review the results of Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Protocol T, as applied to clinical practice. METHODS: Review of major publications reporting the results of Protocol T, a randomized single-masked (in year-1 only), multicenter clinical trial comparing aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab as treatment option for center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). The main outcome measures were change in visual acuity (VA), central subfield thickness (CST) on optical coherence tomography, cost effectiveness, burden of care, and safety...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427065/emerging-simplified-retinal-imaging
#2
Ashish Sharma
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major microvascular complication of diabetes, has a significant impact on the world's health systems. Globally, the number of people with DR will grow from 126.6 million in 2010 to 191.0 million by 2030, and it is estimated that the number with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy will increase from 37.3 million to 56.3 million if prompt action is not taken. Lack of early diagnosis and management is the leading cause of blindness in working-age populations The gap between demand and annual eye examinations has been a big challenge...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426857/spectacle-wear-among-children-in-a-school-based-program-for-ready-made-vs-custom-made-spectacles-in-india-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Priya Morjaria, Jenifer Evans, Kaushik Murali, Clare Gilbert
Importance: Uncorrected refractive errors are the most common cause of visual impairment in children despite correction being highly cost-effective. Objective: To determine whether less expensive ready-made spectacles produce rates of spectacle wear at 3 to 4 months comparable to those of more expensive custom-made spectacles among eligible school-aged children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This noninferiority, double-masked, randomized clinical trial recruited children aged 11 to 15 years from January 12 through July 31, 2015, from government schools in urban and periurban areas surrounding Bangalore, India...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426843/understanding-the-risks-and-harms-of-management-of-incidental-thyroid-nodules-a-review
#4
Jenny K Hoang, Xuan V Nguyen
Importance: Incidental thyroid nodules are defined as nodules originally detected in a patient with no thyroid-related clinical symptoms, examination findings, or suspected thyroid disease. Medical imaging for diseases in the neck, chest, and spine is a common source of incidental thyroid nodules. They are easily detected but poorly characterized. The next step is to decide whether the incidental thyroid nodule should be further evaluated with ultrasonography. Observations: Indiscriminate workup of incidental thyroid nodules with ultrasonography is not cost-effective and is potentially harmful...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426524/beyond-cascade-screening-detection-of-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-at-childhood-immunization-and-other-strategies
#5
Andrew C Martin, Damon A Bell, Tom Brett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common genetic disorder that accelerates premature coronary heart disease. Although effective treatments are available, the majority of individuals remain undiagnosed. We review new evidence for improving the detection of familial hypercholesterolaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that universal screening of children for familial hypercholesterolaemia may be highly effective at the time of immunization if combined with reverse cascade testing of adult family members, who have a more immediate risk of a coronary event...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426469/prophylactic-radiotherapy-for-procedure-tract-metastases-in-mesothelioma-a-review
#6
David T Arnold, Amelia O Clive
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. The majority of patients require pleural procedures for diagnostic or fluid management purposes. Damage to the pleura during these procedures can lead to procedure tract metastases (PTMs), with increasing risk from larger interventions. Prophylactic radiotherapy to these sites is a controversial topic with conflicting results from trial data. In this review, we summarize the recent evidence...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426444/fracture-liaison-services
#7
Karine Briot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to report the evidence of beneficial effects of Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) including data regarding their impact on subsequent fracture, mortality risk and cost-effectiveness. This review also discusses the limitations of these data and the challenges faced during the implementation of FLS. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies showed the beneficial impact of implementation of FLS on the prevention of subsequent fracture risk, reduced mortality and cost-effectiveness...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426345/economic-evaluation-of-ezetimibe-treatment-in-combination-with-statin-therapy-in-the-united-states
#8
Glenn M Davies, Ami Vyas, Carl A Baxter
AIMS: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of ezetimibe with statin therapy versus statin monotherapy from a United States (US) payer perspective, assuming the impending patent expiration of ezetimibe. METHODS: A Markov-like economic model consisting of 28 distinct health states was used. Model population data were obtained from US linked claims and electronic medical records, with inclusion criteria based on diagnostic guidelines. Inputs came from recent clinical trials, meta-analyses, and cost-effectiveness analyses...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425890/biomedical-simulation-evolution-concepts-challenges-and-future-trends
#9
Carla Sá-Couto, Luís Patrão, Francisco Maio-Matos, José Miguel Pêgo
Biomedical simulation is an effective educational complement for healthcare training, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. It enables knowledge, skills and attitudes to be acquired in a safe, educationally orientated and efficient manner. In this context, simulation provides skills and experience that facilitate the transfer of cognitive, psychomotor and proper communication competences, thus changing behavior and attitudes, and ultimately improving patient safety. Beyond the impact on individual and team performance, simulation provides an opportunity to study organizational failures and improve system performance...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425686/if-time-matters-a-multicentre-review-of-minimally-invasive-hernia-repair-in-7176-cases
#10
Kai Witzel, Michael Weitzendorfer
BACKGROUND: In endoscopic hernia repair TEP and TAPP are seen as equivalent surgical techniques in quality, but not in procedure-time. METHODS: We compared the two most common procedures in endoscopic hernia surgery. Focussing on the duration of the surgical procedure, we analyzed 7176 endoscopic hernia operations in 25 hospitals retrospectively and compared it to the literature. RESULTS: In our study TEP (n=2799) took on average 59 minutes, TAPP (n=4377) took 67...
April 19, 2017: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425574/factors-associated-with-sustainability-of-2-quality-improvement-programs-after-achieving-early-implementation-success-a-qualitative-case-study
#11
Stephanie M C Ament, Freek Gillissen, Albine Moser, José M C Maessen, Carmen D Dirksen, Maarten F von Meyenfeldt, Trudy van der Weijden
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Sustainability of innovations is a relatively new concept in health care research and has become an issue of growing interest. The current study explored factors related to the sustainability of 2 multidisciplinary hospital-based programs 3 to 6 years after achieving early implementation success. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted into 2 implementation cases, an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program for colorectal surgery and a short-stay program for breast cancer surgery...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425561/creating-homogenous-strain-distribution-within-3d-cell-encapsulated-constructs-using-a-simple-and-cost-effective-uniaxial-tensile-bioreactor-design-and-validation-study
#12
Gayathri Subramanian, Mostafa Elsaadany, Callan Bialorucki, Eda Yildirim-Ayan
Mechanical loading bioreactors capable of applying uniaxial tensile strains are emerging to be a valuable tool to investigate physiologically-relevant cellular signaling pathways and biochemical expression. In this study, we have introduced a simple and cost-effective uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor for the application of precise and homogenous uniaxial strains to 3D cell-encapsulated collagen constructs at physiological loading strains (0-12%) and frequencies (0.01-1 Hz). The bioreactor employs silicone-based loading chambers specifically designed to stretch constructs without direct gripping to minimize stress concentration at the ends of the construct and preserve its integrity...
April 20, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425405/cost-effectiveness-and-clinical-impact-of-antiviral-strategies-of-hbeag-positive-and-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b
#13
Itziar Oyagu Ez, María Buti, Max Brosa, Magdalena Rueda, Miguel A Casado
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with high burden and healthcare costs. Virologic response achieved with antivirals is associated with progression avoidance. This study aimed to estimate the efficiency and clinical impact of antiviral strategies in CHB patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Markov model estimated lifetime complications and direct costs in both, HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative cohorts. Strategy 1 (71% of treated population) and strategy 2 (100%), both based on pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) followed by oral tenofovir or entecavir, were compared to no treatment...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425373/calm-child-programme
#14
Ereny Gobrial, Raghu Raghavan
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (IDs) are more vulnerable to experiencing anxiety disorders. Parental involvement in intervention is crucial for successful management of the interventions in the population of people with ASDs. This article describes the design and evaluation of parenting programme for anxiety disorders in children and young people with ASD and ID. In phase 1 semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore management strategies for anxiety at home and in school settings...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425297/new-approaches-for-itaconic-acid-production-bottlenecks-and-possible-remedies
#15
Richa Bafana, R A Pandey
Currently, growing attention is being devoted to the conversion of biomass into value-added products, such as itaconic acid (IA), which is considered as the cleanest alternative to petroleum-based acrylic acid. IA is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that is used as a building block chemical for the production of several value-added products such as poly-itaconic acid. IA and its derivatives have a wide range of potential applications in textile, paint, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Presently, industries are producing IA on the large scale by fermentation from glucose...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425128/understanding-the-effects-of-different-social-data-on-selecting-priority-conservation-areas
#16
Azadeh Karimi, Ayesha I T Tulloch, Greg Brown, Marc Hockings
Conservation success is contingent on assessing social as well as environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially-explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially-explicit social values and preferences collected using public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods with biological data...
April 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425018/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-liver-transplantation-changing-patterns-and-practices
#17
REVIEW
Nicole E Rich, Neehar D Parikh, Amit G Singal
Benefits of liver transplantation (LT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are well established. However, there is debate regarding optimal and equitable selection of patients best served by LT, particularly in the face of limited organ availability. Herein, we discuss topics regarding LT selection criteria for patients with HCC. Recent change in UNOS policy currently mandates a 6-month observation period prior to priority listing and institutes a cap of 34 MELD exception points for patients with HCC...
April 19, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424852/clinical-application-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-for-bone-healing-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Gopal Shankar Krishnakumar, Alice Roffi, Davide Reale, Elizaveta Kon, Giuseppe Filardo
PURPOSE: This paper documents the existing evidence on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) use for the treatment of bone fractures, non-union, and osteonecrosis, through a review of the clinical literature, underlying potential and limitations in terms of cost effectiveness and risk of complications. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on the PubMed database using the following string: (bone morphogenetic proteins OR BMPs) and (bone repair OR bone regeneration) including papers from 2000 to 2016...
April 19, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424786/immunocytochemistry-improving-the-diagnosis-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-infections
#19
Thaisa Helena S Fonseca, Fabrício M Silva Oliveira, Marina Alacoque, Marcella Israel Rocha, Henrique Vitor Leite, Joseph F Guimarães Santos, Haendel G N O Busatti, Marcelo Vidigal Caliari, Maria Aparecida Gomes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunocytochemistry (ICC) to diagnose trichomoniasis, particularly asymptomatic infections. By culture serial dilutions, ICC was able to detect 1 trophozoite/mL, while the culture was positive up to 100 trophozoites/mL. The ICC in vivo detection capability was assessed in vaginal secretions of mice experimentally infected and in vaginal swabs from asymptomatic HIV-positive pregnant women compared with culture. All vaginal secretion samples from mice were positive according to both methods...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424755/rapid-low-cost-prototyping-of-transdermal-devices-for-personal-healthcare-monitoring
#20
Sanjiv Sharma, Anwer Saeed, Christopher Johnson, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Anthony Eg Cass
The next generation of devices for personal healthcare monitoring will comprise molecular sensors to monitor analytes of interest in the skin compartment. Transdermal devices based on microneedles offer an excellent opportunity to explore the dynamics of molecular markers in the interstitial fluid, however good acceptability of these next generation devices will require several technical problems associated with current commercially available wearable sensors to be overcome. These particularly include reliability, comfort and cost...
April 2017: Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research
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