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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926881/remediation-of-arsenic-contaminated-groundwater-by-in-situ-stimulating-biogenic-precipitation-of-iron-sulfides
#1
Kunfu Pi, Yanxin Wang, Xianjun Xie, Teng Ma, Yaqing Liu, Chunli Su, Yapeng Zhu, Zhiqiang Wang
Severe health problems due to elevated arsenic (As) in groundwater have made it urgent to develop cost-effective technologies for As removal. This field experimental study tested the feasibility of in-situ As immobilization via As incorporation into newly formed biogenic Fe(II) sulfides in a typical As-affected strongly reducing aquifer at the central part of Datong Basin, China. After periodic supply of FeSO4 into the aquifer for 25 d to stimulate microbial sulfate reduction, dissolved sulfide concentrations increased during the experiment, but the supplied Fe(II) reacted quickly with sulfide to form Fe(II)-sulfides existing majorly as mackinawite as well as a small amount of pyrite-like minerals in sediments, thereby restricting sulfide build-up in groundwater...
October 22, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926650/group-b-streptococci-screening-before-repeat-cesarean-delivery-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#2
Catherine M Albright, Caitlin MacGregor, Desmond Sutton, Meena Theva, Brenna L Hughes, Erika F Werner
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal group B streptococci (GBS) screening in women with a singleton pregnancy planning a repeat cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a decision analysis from a health care perspective to compare the cost-effectiveness of GBS screening for women planning a repeat cesarean delivery. With universal screening, all GBS-positive women who labored before a scheduled cesarean delivery received antibiotic prophylaxis...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926593/cost-effectiveness-of-direct-acting-anti-viral-treatment-in-hepatitis-c-infected-liver-transplant-candidates-with-compensated-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
James Salazar, Varun Saxena, James G Kahn, John P Roberts, Neil Mehta, Michael Volk, Jennifer C Lai
BACKGROUND: HCV(+) donors represent an effective strategy to increase liver donor availability to HCV-infected recipients. However, many HCV(+) transplant candidates are now receiving treatment with direct acting anti-virals (DAA) that lower the risk of posttransplant HCV recurrence but could make the patient ineligible for HCV(+) livers. METHODS: We compared pretransplant DAA treatment versus deferred DAA treatment using a cost-effectiveness decision analysis model to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; cost per quality-adjusted life year [QALY] gained) from the societal perspective across a range of HCV(+) liver availability rates...
December 6, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926555/avoiding-radical-surgery-in-elderly-patients-with-rectal-cancer-is-cost-effective
#4
Christopher Rao, Arthur Sun Myint, Thanos Athanasiou, Omar Faiz, Antony Paul Martin, Brendan Collins, Fraser McLean Smith
BACKGROUND: Radical surgery is associated with significant perioperative mortality in elderly and comorbid populations. Emerging data suggest for patients with a clinical complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy that a watch-and-wait approach may provide equivalent survival and oncological outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of watch and wait and radical surgery for patients with rectal cancer after a clinical complete response following chemoradiotherapy...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926432/pathogen-and-particle-associations-in-wastewater-significance-and-implications-for-treatment-and-disinfection-processes
#5
C Chahal, B van den Akker, F Young, C Franco, J Blackbeard, P Monis
Disinfection guidelines exist for pathogen inactivation in potable water and recycled water, but wastewater with high numbers of particles can be more difficult to disinfect, making compliance with the guidelines problematic. Disinfection guidelines specify that drinking water with turbidity ≥1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) is not suitable for disinfection and therefore not fit for purpose. Treated wastewater typically has higher concentrations of particles (1-10NTU for secondary treated effluent). Two processes widely used for disinfecting wastewater are chlorination and ultraviolet radiation...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925845/economic-studies-applied-to-vaccines-against-invasive-diseases-an-updated-budget-impact-analysis-of-age-based-pneumococcal-vaccination-strategies-in-the-elderly-in-italy
#6
Sara Boccalini, Angela Bechini, Roberto Gasparini, Donatella Panatto, Daniela Amicizia, Paolo Bonanni
Many evaluations have been carried out on the economic impact of pneumococcal vaccination in older adults (>64 years of age) in several countries, including Italy. However, these studies did not include the new data on the effectiveness of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in the elderly reported by the CAPiTA Study. The aim of the present study was to update our previous budget impact analysis of multi-cohort PCV13 vaccination in adults in Italy by including new scientific evidence. We also compared single-cohort vaccination strategies per year, in order to identify the cohort with the most favourable economic profile, in the event of the multi-cohort approach not being economically sustainable for the National Health System (NHS)...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925577/the-role-of-ultrasound-compared-to-biopsy-of-temporal-arteries-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis-tabul-a-diagnostic-accuracy-and-cost-effectiveness-study
#7
Raashid Luqmani, Ellen Lee, Surjeet Singh, Mike Gillett, Wolfgang A Schmidt, Mike Bradburn, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Andreas P Diamantopoulos, Wulf Forrester-Barker, William Hamilton, Shauna Masters, Brendan McDonald, Eugene McNally, Colin Pease, Jennifer Piper, John Salmon, Allan Wailoo, Konrad Wolfe, Andrew Hutchings
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a relatively common form of primary systemic vasculitis, which, if left untreated, can lead to permanent sight loss. We compared ultrasound as an alternative diagnostic test with temporal artery biopsy, which may be negative in 9-61% of true cases. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound with biopsy in diagnosing patients with suspected GCA. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre cohort study...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925441/anodized-3d-printed-titanium-implants-with-dual-micro-and-nano-scale-topography-promote-interaction-with-human-osteoblasts-and-osteocyte-like-cells
#8
Karan Gulati, Matthew Prideaux, Masakazu Kogawa, Luis Lima-Marques, Gerald J Atkins, David M Findlay, Dusan Losic
The success of implantation of materials into bone is governed by effective osseointegration, requiring biocompatibility of the material and the attachment and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. To enhance cellular function in response to the implant surface, micro- and nano-scale topography have been suggested as essential. In this study, we present bone implants based on 3D-printed titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), with a unique dual topography composed of micron-sized spherical particles and vertically aligned titania nanotubes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925403/heterogeneously-catalyzed-aerobic-oxidation-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-to-2-5-furandicarboxylic-acid-with-manganese-dioxide
#9
Eri Hayashi, Tasuku Komanoya, Keigo Kamata, Michikazu Hara
A simple non-precious metal catalyst system based on cost-effective and ubiquitously available MnO2, NaHCO3, and molecular oxygen was used to convert 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-difurandicarboxylic acid as a bioplastics precursor in 91% yield. The MnO2 catalyst could be recovered by simple filtration and reused several times. The present system was also applicable to the aerobic oxidation of other biomass-derived substrates and the gram-scale oxidation of HMF to FDCA, in which 2.36 g (86% yield) of the analytically pure FDCA could be isolated...
December 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925246/analytical-method-for-urinary-metabolites-as-biomarkers-for-monitoring-exposure-to-phthalates-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#10
Toshiaki Yoshida
Phthalates, widely being used as plasticizers, have been detected from the indoor air of residences, but there have been few reports on methods of analyzing urinary metabolites as biomarkers to monitor exposure to di-n-pentyl phthalate or di-n-hexyl phthalate. Presented here is a cost-effective and sensitive analytical method for the determination of urinary metabolites of phthalates containing these two compounds. Nine urinary phthalate metabolites were enzymatically hydrolyzed and extracted with toluene: monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-n-pentyl phthalate, mono-n-hexyl phthalate, monocyclohexyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate...
December 7, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925175/to-expand-coverage-or-increase-frequency-quantifying-the-tradeoffs-between-equity-and-efficiency-facing-cervical-cancer-screening-programs-in-low-resource-settings
#11
Nicole G Campos, Vivien Tsu, Jose Jeronimo, Mercy Mvundura, Kyueun Lee, Jane J Kim
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with 85% of the disease burden residing in less developed regions. To inform evidence-based decision-making as cervical cancer screening programs are planned, implemented, and scaled in low- and middle-income countries, we used cost and test performance data from the START-UP demonstration project in Uganda and a microsimulation model of HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis to quantify the health benefits, distributional equity, cost-effectiveness, and financial impact of either 1) improving access to cervical cancer screening or 2) increasing the number of lifetime screening opportunities for women who already have access...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924933/all-silicon-ultra-broadband-infrared-light-absorbers
#12
Kazim Gorgulu, Abdullah Gok, Mehmet Yilmaz, Kagan Topalli, Necmi Bıyıklı, Ali K Okyay
Absorbing infrared radiation efficiently is important for critical applications such as thermal imaging and infrared spectroscopy. Common infrared absorbing materials are not standard in Si VLSI technology. We demonstrate ultra-broadband mid-infrared absorbers based purely on silicon. Broadband absorption is achieved by the combined effects of free carrier absorption, and vibrational and plasmonic absorption resonances. The absorbers, consisting of periodically arranged silicon gratings, can be fabricated using standard optical lithography and deep reactive ion etching techniques, allowing for cost-effective and wafer-scale fabrication of micro-structures...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924792/a-cost-effective-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-infectious-encephalitis
#13
Usha Kant Misra, Vinita Elizabeth Mani, Jayantee Kalita
SETTING: A tertiary care teaching hospital in India. OBJECTIVE: To report a syndromic approach to acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and propose a cost-effective model. STUDY DESIGN: AES patients were categorized by the presence or absence of myalgia/rash into systemic and neurological AES. The patients with systemic AES were investigated for dengue, scrub typhus, leptospira, chikungunya, and malaria, and those with neurological AES were investigated for herpes and Japanese encephalitis (JE)...
December 8, 2016: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924781/development-of-sns2-rgo-nanosheet-composite-for-cost-effective-aqueous-hybrid-supercapacitors
#14
Himani Chauhan, Manoj K Singh, Praveen Kumar, Safir Ahmad Hashmi, Sasanka Deka
The development of low cost supercapacitor cells with unique capacitive properties is essential for many domestic and industrial purposes. Here we report the first ever application of SnS2-reduced graphene oxide (SnS2/RGO) layered nanocomposite as a superior electrode material for symmetric aqueous hybrid supercapacitors. We synthesized SnS2/RGO nanocomposite comprised of nanosheets of SnS2 and graphene oxide via a one-pot hydrothermal approach. in situ as-synthesized SnS2/RGO is devised for the first time to give high specific capacitance 500 Fg(-1), energy density 16...
January 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924736/-septic-arthritis-after-intra-articular-injection-is-rare-does-the-taskforce-infection-prevention-use-a-sledgehammer-to-crack-a-nut
#15
M L Bruens, H J van der Zaag-Loonen, F Steenstra, A M Stemerding, S Wijngaarden
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of septic arthritis (SA) after a joint puncture and reconsider the value of the hygiene measures stipulated by the Taskforce Infection Prevention (TIF). DESIGN: Prospective study. METHOD: We determined the number of joint punctures among general practitioners and specialists in the Apeldoorn area during a three-month period (from October 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013). Secondly, we performed an analysis on the incidence of SAs in this period and the subsequent month, and ascertained if these were related to a joint puncture...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924429/cyp2c19-lof-and-gof-guided-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#16
Minghuan Jiang, Joyce H S You
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19 loss-of-function and gain-of-function allele guided (LOF/GOF-guided) antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A life-long decision-analytic model was designed to simulate outcomes of three strategies: universal clopidogrel (75 mg daily), universal alternative P2Y12 inhibitor (prasugrel 10 mg daily or ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily), and LOF/GOF-guided therapy (LOF/GOF allele carriers receiving alternative P2Y12 inhibitor, wild-type patients receiving clopidogrel)...
December 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923864/outcomes-of-the-smoker-s-health-project-a-pragmatic-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-tobacco-dependence-interventions-based-on-self-determination-theory
#17
Geoffrey C Williams, Christopher P Niemiec, Heather Patrick, Richard M Ryan, Edward L Deci
A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory, namely, Intensive Treatment (IT; six contacts over 6 months), Extended Need Support (ENS; eight contacts over 12 months) and Harm Reduction (HR; eight contacts over 12 months with medication use if willing to reduce cigarette use by half)...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923701/prognostic-significance-of-repeat-biopsy-in-lupus-nephritis-histopathologic-worsening-and-a-short-time-between-biopsies-is-associated-with-significantly-increased-risk-for-end-stage-renal-disease-and-death
#18
Cristina Arriens, Sixia Chen, David R Karp, Ramesh Saxena, Kamalanathan Sambandam, Eliza Chakravarty, Judith A James, Joan T Merrill
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Approximately half of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) develop lupus nephritis (LN), a major cause of morbidity and early mortality in that disease. Prolonged renal inflammation is associated with irreversible kidney damage which confers a 30% risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), making early, aggressive treatment mandatory. Failure to achieve therapeutic response or recurrence of renal flare often prompts repeat biopsy. However, the role of repeat biopsy in determining long-term renal prognosis remains controversial...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923612/protocol-of-the-ktft-talk-study-to-reduce-racial-disparities-in-kidney-transplant-evaluation-and-living-donor-kidney-transplantation
#19
Kellee Bornemann, Emilee Croswell, Menna Abaye, Cindy L Bryce, Chung-Chou H Chang, Deborah S Good, Cathleen A Freehling Heiles, Mary Amanda Dew, L Ebony Boulware, Amit D Tevar, Larissa Myaskovsky
Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the optimal treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The evaluation process for a kidney transplant is complex, time consuming, and burdensome to the ESKD patient. Also, race disparities exist in rates of transplant evaluation completion, transplantation, and LDKT. In December 2012 our transplant center implemented a streamlined, one-day evaluation process, dubbed Kidney Transplant Fast Track (KTFT). This paper describes the protocol of a two-part study to evaluate the effectiveness of KTFT at increasing transplant rates (compared to historical controls) and the TALK intervention (Talking About Live Kidney Donation) at increasing LDKT during KTFT...
December 3, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923549/assessing-the-value-of-mepolizumab-for-severe-eosinophilic-asthma-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#20
Melanie D Whittington, R Brett McQueen, Daniel A Ollendorf, Jeffrey A Tice, Richard H Chapman, Steven D Pearson, Jonathan D Campbell
BACKGROUND: Adding mepolizumab to standard treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and controller medications could decrease asthma exacerbations and use of long-term oral steroids in patients with severe disease and increased eosinophils; however, mepolizumab is costly and its cost effectiveness is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of mepolizumab. METHODS: A Markov model was used to determine the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for mepolizumab plus standard of care (SoC) and for SoC alone...
December 3, 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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