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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928916/mouse-tetherin-enhances-moloney-murine-leukemia-virus-induced-syncytium-formation
#1
H S Kim, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Tetherin (also referred to as BST-2 or CD317) is an antiviral cellular restriction factor that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses. It is a 30-36 kDa type II transmembrane protein, expression of which is induced by type I interferon. Mouse tetherin inhibits nascent cell-free particle release. However, it is unclear whether mouse tetherin restricts cell-to-cell spread of moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) or whether is the mouse tetherin involved in syncytium formation. To examine cell-to-cell spread and syncytium formation of Mo-MLV in the presence or absence of mouse tetherin, R peptide (the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane protein (TM); 16 amino acids) truncated Env expressing vector was constructed...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928057/modulation-of-the-splicing-regulatory-function-of-srsf10-by-a-novel-compound-that-impairs-hiv-1-replication
#2
Lulzim Shkreta, Marco Blanchette, Johanne Toutant, Emmanuelle Wilhelm, Brendan Bell, Benjamin A Story, Ahalya Balachandran, Alan Cochrane, Peter K Cheung, P Richard Harrigan, David S Grierson, Benoit Chabot
We recently identified the 4-pyridinone-benzisothiazole carboxamide compound 1C8 as displaying strong anti-HIV-1 potency against a variety of clinical strains in vitro Here we show that 1C8 decreases the expression of HIV-1 and alters splicing events involved in the production of HIV-1 mRNAs. Although 1C8 was designed to be a structural mimic of the fused tetracyclic indole compound IDC16 that targets SRSF1, it did not affect the splice site shifting activity of SRSF1. Instead, 1C8 altered splicing regulation mediated by SRSF10...
December 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928004/the-effect-of-hiv-1-env-on-serinc5-antagonism
#3
Saina Beitari, Shilei Ding, Qinghua Pan, Andrés Finzi, Chen Liang
: SERINC5 is able to restrict HIV-1 infection by drastically impairing the infectivity of viral particles. Current studies have shown that HIV-1 Nef protein counters SERINC5 through down regulating SERINC5 from the cell surface and preventing virion incorporation of SERINC5. In addition, the Env proteins of some HIV-1 strains can also overcome SERINC5 inhibition. However, it is unclear how HIV-1 Env does so and why HIV-1 has two mechanisms to resist SERINC5 inhibition. Results of this study show that neither Env nor Nef prevents high-level ectopic SERINC5 from incorporation into HIV-1 particles, except that Env, but not Nef, is able to resist the inhibition of virion-associated SERINC5...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928002/adjuvanting-an-siv-vaccine-with-tlr-ligands-encapsulated-in-nanoparticles-induces-persistent-antibody-responses-and-enhanced-protection-in-trim5%C3%AE-restrictive-macaques
#4
Sudhir Pai Kasturi, Pamela A Kozlowski, Helder I Nakaya, Matheus C Burger, Pedro Russo, Mathew Pham, Yevgeniy Kovalenkov, Eduardo L V Silveira, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Samantha L Burton, Katie M Kilgore, Mathew J Johnson, Rafiq Nabi, Traci Legere, Zarpheen Jinnah Sher, Xuemin Chen, Rama R Amara, Eric Hunter, Steven E Bosinger, Paul Spearman, Shane Crotty, Francois Villinger, Cynthia A Derdeyn, Jens Wrammert, Bali Pulendran
: Our previous work has shown that antigens adjuvanted with specific ligands for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7/8 encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nanoparticles (NP), induced robust and durable immune responses in mice and macaques. We investigated the efficacy of these NP adjuvants in inducing protective immunity against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Rhesus macaques (RMs) were immunized with NP containing TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists mixed with soluble recombinant SIVmac239 derived envelope (Env) gp140 and Gag p55 (Protein), or with virus like particles (VLP) containing SIVmac239 Env and Gag...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921323/the-application-of-strand-invasion-phenomenon-directed-by-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-and-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssb-for-the-recognition-of-specific-sequences-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family
#5
Grzegorz Machnik, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Tomasz Gąsior, Małgorzata Huzarska, Dariusz Belowski, Magdalena Alenowicz, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Bogusław Okopień
The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#6
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902399/truncation-of-the-enzootic-nasal-tumor-virus-envelope-protein-cytoplasmic-tail-increases-env-mediated-fusion-and-infectivity
#7
Scott R Walsh, Jondavid G de Jong, Jacob P van Vloten, María Carla Rosales Gerpe, Lisa A Santry, Sarah K Wootton
Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) and Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) are highly related ovine betaretroviruses that induce nasal and lung tumors in small ruminants, respectively. While the ENTV and JSRV envelope (Env) glycoproteins mediate virus entry using the same cellular receptor, the GPI-linked protein hyaluronoglucosaminidase, ENTV Env pseudovirions mediate entry into cells from a much more restricted range of species than do JSRV Env pseudovirions. Unlike JSRV Env, ENTV Env does not induce cell fusion at pH 5...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899035/delayed-seroconversion-to-htlv-ii-is-associated-with-a-stop-codon-mutation-in-the-pol-gene
#8
Syamalima Dube, Dipak K Dube, Lynn Abbott, Jordan Glaser, Bernard Poiesz
A known HIV-1 positive intravenous drug user was found to be HTLV-II DNA positive by PCR but seronegative in a screening ELISA assay. He was consistently DNA positive but took two years to fully seroconvert. Sequencing of the HTLV-II strain in his cultured T-lymphocytes indicated that it is a prototypical type A strain with no major differences in the LTR DNA sequence, nor major amino acid differences in the Gag, Env, Tax and Rex proteins. However, a mutation in its pol gene created a stop codon at amino acid 543 of the Pol protein, a region which encodes for the RNase function...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894306/first-phase-i-human-clinical-trial-of-a-killed-whole-hiv-1-vaccine-demonstration-of-its-safety-and-enhancement-of-anti-hiv-antibody-responses
#9
Eunsil Choi, Chad J Michalski, Seung Ho Choo, Gyoung Nyoun Kim, Elizabeth Banasikowska, Sangkyun Lee, Kunyu Wu, Hwa-Yong An, Anthony Mills, Stefan Schneider, U Fritz Bredeek, Daniel R Coulston, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi, Meijuan Tian, Katja Klein, Eric J Arts, Jamie F S Mann, Yong Gao, C Yong Kang
BACKGROUND: Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety concerns, despite the ability of killed whole-virus vaccines to generate a strong, predominantly antibody-mediated immune response in vivo. HIV-1 Clade B NL4-3 was genetically modified by deleting the nef and vpu genes and substituting the coding sequence for the Env signal peptide with that of honeybee melittin signal peptide to produce a less virulent and more replication efficient virus...
November 28, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879338/functional-interplay-between-murine-leukemia-virus-glycogag-serinc5-and-surface-glycoprotein-governs-virus-entry-with-opposite-effects-on-gammaretroviral-and-ebolavirus-glycoproteins
#10
Yadvinder S Ahi, Shu Zhang, Yashna Thappeta, Audrey Denman, Amin Feizpour, Suryaram Gummuluru, Bjoern Reinhard, Delphine Muriaux, Matthew J Fivash, Alan Rein
: Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879316/structure-based-design-of-cyclically-permuted-hiv-1-gp120-trimers-that-elicit-neutralizing-antibodies
#11
Sannula Kesavardhana, Raksha Das, Michael Citron, Rohini Datta, Linda Ecto, Nonavinakere Seetharam Srilatha, Daniel DiStefano, Ryan Swoyer, Joseph G Joyce, Somnath Dutta, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Jessica A Flynn, Raghavan Varadarajan
A major goal for HIV-1 vaccine development is an ability to elicit strong and durable broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses. The trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes on HIV-1 are known to contain multiple epitopes that are susceptible to bNAbs isolated from infected individuals. Nonetheless, all trimeric and monomeric Env immunogens designed to date have failed to elicit such antibodies. We report the structure guided design of HIV-1 cyclically permuted gp120 that forms homogeneous, stable trimers and displays enhanced binding to multiple bNAbs, including VRC01, VRC03, VRC-PG04, PGT128 and the quaternary epitope-specific bNAbs PGT145 and PGDM1400...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871328/membrane-bound-modified-form-of-clade-b-env-jrcsf-is-suitable-for-immunogen-design-as-it-is-efficiently-cleaved-and-displays-all-the-broadly-neutralizing-epitopes-including-v2-and-c2-domain-dependent-conformational-epitopes
#12
Supratik Das, Saikat Boliar, Nivedita Mitra, Sweety Samal, Manish Bansal, Wayne C Koff, Bimal K Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Antigenicity of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs) of both lab-adapted and primary isolates expressed on the cell surface rarely match with in vitro neutralization of viruses, pseudo-typed with corresponding Envs. Often, both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies bind to Envs expressed on the cell membrane. This could be due to the lack of efficient cleavage of Env expressed on the cell surface. Naturally occurring, efficiently cleaved Envs with appropriate antigenic properties are relatively rare...
November 21, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869733/antiviral-therapy-by-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-and-inhibitory-antibodies
#13
REVIEW
Zhiqing Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ying Gu, Ningshao Xia
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868386/structure-of-the-transmembrane-domain-of-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein
#14
REVIEW
Bing Chen, James J Chou
HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a heavily glycosylated, type I membrane protein that mediates fusion of viral and cell membranes to initiate infection. It is also a primary target of neutralizing antibodies and thus an important candidate for vaccine development. We have recently reported a nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in a membrane-like environment. Taking HIV-1 as an example, we discuss here how a TM domain can anchor, stabilize, and modulate a viral envelope spike and how its high-resolution structure can contribute to understanding viral membrane fusion and to immunogen design...
November 5, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852851/identification-of-human-anti-hiv-gp160-monoclonal-antibodies-that-make-effective-immunotoxins
#15
Seth H Pincus, Kejing Song, Grace A Maresh, Dean H Hamer, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Weizao Chen, Mei-Yun Zhang, Victor F Ghetie, Po-Ying Chan-Hui, James E Robinson, Ellen S Vitetta
: The envelope (Env) glycoprotein of HIV is the only intact viral protein expressed on the surface of both virions and infected cells. Env is the target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) and has been the subject of intense study in efforts to produce HIV vaccines. Therapeutic anti-Env Abs can also exert antiviral effects via Fc-mediated effector mechanisms or as cytotoxic immunoconjugates, such as immunotoxins (ITs). In the course of screening monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for their ability to deliver cytotoxic agents to infected or Env-transfected cells, we noted disparities in their functional activities...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849170/hiv-1-envelope-mimicry-of-host-enzyme-kynureninase-does-not-disrupt-tryptophan-metabolism
#16
Todd Bradley, Guang Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, T Matt Holl, Ruijun Zhang, Jinsong Zhang, Sampa Santra, Christopher B Fox, Steve G Reed, Robert Parks, Cindy M Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Laura L Sutherland, Richard M Scearce, Nathan Vandergrift, Thomas B Kepler, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, S Munir Alam, Roger McLendon, Jeffrey I Everitt, Christopher B Newgard, Laurent Verkoczy, Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F Haynes
The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) has evolved to subvert the host immune system, hindering viral control by the host. The tryptophan metabolic enzyme kynureninase (KYNU) is mimicked by a portion of the HIV Env gp41 membrane proximal region (MPER) and is cross-reactive with the HIV broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) 2F5. Molecular mimicry of host proteins by pathogens can lead to autoimmune disease. In this article, we demonstrate that neither the 2F5 bnAb nor HIV MPER-KYNU cross-reactive Abs elicited by immunization with an MPER peptide-liposome vaccine in 2F5 bnAb VHDJH and VLJL knock-in mice and rhesus macaques modified KYNU activity or disrupted tissue tryptophan metabolism...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843002/comparison-of-the-patterns-of-antibody-recall-responses-to-hiv-1-gp120-and-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-immunized-mice
#17
Hao-Tong Yu, Jia-Ye Wang, Dan Tian, Ming-Xia Wang, Yan Li, Li Yuan, Wen-Jiang Chen, Di Li, Min Zhuang, Hong Ling
To date, we still lack an ideal strategy for designing envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccines to elicit potent protective antibodies against HIV-1 infection. Since the human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is representative of effective vaccines that can induce ideal humoral immune responses, knowledge of how it elicits antibody responses and T helper cells would be an useful reference for HIV vaccine development. We compared the characteristics of the HIV-1 Env gp120 trimer and HBsAg in antibody elicitation and induction of T follicular helper (Tfh) and memory B cells in immunized Balb/c mice...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836726/differences-in-env-and-gag-protein-expression-patterns-and-epitope-availability-in-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-pbmc-compared-to-infected-and-transfected-feline-model-cell-lines
#18
Inge D M Roukaerts, Chris K Grant, Sebastiaan Theuns, Isaura Christiaens, Delphine D Acar, Sebastiaan Van Bockstael, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Hans J Nauwynck
Env and Gag are key components of the FIV virion that are targeted to the plasma membrane for virion assembly. They are both important stimulators and targets of anti-FIV immunity. To investigate and compare the expression pattern and antigenic changes of Gag and Env in various research models, infected PBMC (the natural FIV host cells) and GFox, and transfected CrFK were stained over time with various Env and Gag specific MAbs. In FIV infected GFox and PBMC, Env showed changes in epitope availability for antibody binding during processing and trafficking, which was not seen in transfected CrFK...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829329/comparison-of-antibody-immune-responses-to-different-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-mutants
#19
Jian-Dong Liu, Li Ren, Bin Ju, Wei Song, Xiang-Yang Ge, Kun-Xue Hong, Ying Liu, Wei Xu, Yan-Ling Hao, Yi-Ming Shao
The identification of immunogens is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development. In our previous study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)attenuated vaccine enhance immunogenicity, both for DNA immunization alone and as a combined DNA prime-vaccinia boost immunization. An RV144 clinical trial has demonstrated that an envelope protein boost may provide some degree of protection against HIV-1 infection. In order to explore the antibody immune responses to two HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the EIAV vaccine and wild-type envelope glycoprotein, mice and guinea pigs were immunized using a DNA prime-protein boost immunization strategy...
November 8, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826543/endogenous-retrovirus-ev21-dose-not-recombine-with-alv-j-and-induces-the-expression-of-isgs-in-the-host
#20
Min Feng, Yan Tan, Manman Dai, Yuanfang Li, Tingting Xie, Hongmei Li, Meiqing Shi, Xiquan Zhang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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