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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941378/associations-among-adolescent-sleep-problems-emotion-regulation-and-affective-disorders-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#1
Cara A Palmer, Benjamin Oosterhoff, Joanne L Bower, Julie B Kaplow, Candice A Alfano
Sleep problems in youth reliably forecast the development of anxiety and mood disorders, presumably due to increased emotional difficulties. However, precise emotional mechanisms have yet to be delineated. The current study investigated how sleep problems in adolescence are associated with different emotion regulation strategies, and how sleep and psychiatric risk may be indirectly associated via poor emotion regulation. This study utilized data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative sample from the United States (N = 10,148; age range 13-18 years)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938795/lipid-lowering-nutraceuticals-in-clinical-practice-position-paper-from-an-international-lipid-expert-panel
#2
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti, Gani Bajraktari, Olivier Descamps, Dragan M Djuric, Marat Ezhov, Zlatko Fras, Niki Katsiki, Michel Langlois, Gustavs Latkovskis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Gyorgy Paragh, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Olena Mitchenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Daniel Pella, Christos Pitsavos, Željko Reiner, Kausik K Ray, Manfredi Rizzo, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maria-Corina Serban, Laurence S Sperling, Peter P Toth, Dragos Vinereanu, Michal Vrablík, Nathan D Wong, Maciej Banach
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the possible use of nutraceuticals to improve and optimize dyslipidemia control and therapy. Based on the data from available studies, nutraceuticals might help patients obtain theraputic lipid goals and reduce cardiovascular residual risk. Some nutraceuticals have essential lipid-lowering properties confirmed in studies; some might also have possible positive effects on nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors and have been shown to improve early markers of vascular health such as endothelial function and pulse wave velocity...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#3
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938747/prevalence-of-endocrine-and-genetic-abnormalities-in-boys-evaluated-systematically-for-a-disorder-of-sex-development
#4
R Nixon, V Cerqueira, A Kyriakou, A Lucas-Herald, J McNeilly, M McMillan, A I Purvis, E S Tobias, R McGowan, S F Ahmed
STUDY QUESTION: What is the likelihood of identifying genetic or endocrine abnormalities in a group of boys with 46, XY who present to a specialist clinic with a suspected disorder of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: An endocrine abnormality of the gonadal axis may be present in a quarter of cases and copy number variants (CNVs) or single gene variants may be present in about half of the cases. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Evaluation of 46, XY DSD requires a combination of endocrine and genetic tests but the prevalence of these abnormalities in a sufficiently large group of boys presenting to one specialist multidisciplinary service is unclear...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938745/a-closer-look-at-expanded-carrier-screening-from-a-pgd-perspective
#5
Carolina Vaz-de-Macedo, Joyce Harper
Conventionally, the search for carrier status was based on ethnicity and/or family history and targeted to a restricted number of genetic conditions and mutations. This is now being replaced by extended panels testing for hundreds of genetic disorders with a broad range of phenotypes, in what is called 'expanded carrier screening'. While the ultimate aim of these panels is to increase the reproductive autonomy of the individuals and couples by providing preconception knowledge that could lead to the broadest range of available options, including PGD, we argue that: (i) Given the number and heterogeneity of the conditions included in panels, it cannot be guaranteed that a couple who tests positive for one of those conditions will be eligible for PGD; patients should be informed of this potential limitation before undertaking screening...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#6
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938649/family-based-whole-exome-sequencing-of-atopic-dermatitis-complicated-with-cataracts
#7
Wenxin Luo, Wangdong Xu, Lin Xia, Dan Xie, Lin Wang, Zaipei Guo, Yue Cheng, Yi Liu, Weimin Li
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disorder with elevated prevalence. Cataract induced by AD rarely occurs in adolescent and young adult patients, which is also called atopic cataract. Using whole exome sequencing, we aimed to explore genetic alterations among AD and atopic cataract. RESULT: We recruited a 19 year-old Chinese male with AD accompanied with cataracts, his father with AD and his mother without AD or cataract. Through analysis of the exomic sequence of the 3 individuals from the same family, we identified that with respect to AD, there were 162 genes mutated in both this patient and his father but not in his mother...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938517/green-tea-camellia-sinensis-and-l-theanine-medicinal-values-and-beneficial-applications-in-humans-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Arif, Mohib Ullah Kakar, Robina Manzoor, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Ruchi Tiwari, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Kuldeep Dhama, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Maryam Dadar, Chao Sun
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a famous herb, and its extract has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicinal system. In this context, several studies have revealed its health benefits and medicinal potentialities for several ailments. With ever increasing scientific knowledge, search for safer, potential and novel type of health-related supplements quest, scientists are re-directing their research interests to explore natural resources i.e. medicinal herbs/plant derived compounds. Green tea consumption has gained a special attention and popularity in the modern era of changing lifestyle...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938513/increased-anterior-default-mode-network-homogeneity-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder-a-replication-study
#9
Wenbin Guo, Xilong Cui, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Guangrong Xie, Renrong Wu, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao
BACKGROUND: Abnormal default-mode network (DMN) homogeneity has been involved in the neurophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) with inconsistent findings. The inconsistency may be due to clinical and methodological variability, and the reproducibility of the findings is limited. The present study aimed to examine alterations of the DMN homogeneity in two independent samples of patients with first-episode, drug-naive MDD. METHODS: The samples included 59 patients with MDD and 31 comparison subjects from Sample 1 and 29 patients with MDD and 24 comparison subjects from Sample 2...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#10
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938479/pulmonary-function-and-sleep-breathing-two-new-targets-for-type-2-diabetes-care
#11
Albert Lecube, Rafael Simó, Maria Pallayova, Naresh M Punjabi, Carolina López-Cano, Cecilia Turino, Cristina Hernández, Ferran Barbé
Population based studies showing the negative impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on lung function are overviewed. Among the well-recognized pathophysiological mechanisms, the metabolic pathways related to insulin resistance, low-grade chronic inflammation, leptin resistance, microvascular damage, and autonomic neuropathy are emphasized. Histopathological changes are exposed, and findings reported from experimental models are clearly differentiated from those described in humans. The accelerated decline in pulmonary function that appears in patients with cystic fibrosis with related abnormalities of glucose tolerance and diabetes is considered as an example to further investigate the relationship between T2D and the lung...
September 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-inter-individual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#12
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We use a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly account for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938470/genetic-disruption-of-21-hydroxylase-in-zebrafish-causes-interrenal-hyperplasia
#13
Helen Eachus, Andreas Zaucker, James A Oakes, Aliesha Griffin, Meltem Weger, Tülay Güran, Angela Taylor, Abigail Harris, Andy Greenfield, Jonathan L Quanson, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Vincent T Cunliffe, Ferenc Müller, Nils Krone
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of common inherited disorders leading to glucocorticoid deficiency. Most cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). The systemic consequences of imbalanced steroid hormone biosynthesis due to severe 21OHD remains poorly understood. Therefore, we have developed a zebrafish model for 21OHD, which focuses on the impairment of glucocorticoid biosynthesis. A single 21-hydroxylase gene (cyp21a2) is annotated in the zebrafish genome based on sequence homology. Our in silico analysis of the Cyp21a2 protein sequence suggests a sufficient degree of similarity for the usage of zebrafish cyp21a2 to model aspects of human 21OHD in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938448/novel-autosomal-dominant-pth-gene-signal-sequence-mutation-in-a-family-with-familial-isolated-hypoparathyroidism
#14
Luigia Cinque, Angelo Sparaneo, Laura Penta, Amedea Mencarelli, Daniela Rogaia, Susanna Esposito, Federico Pio Fabrizio, Filomena Baorda, Alberto Verrotti, Alberto Falorni, Gabriela Stangoni, Geoffrey N Hendy, Vito Guarnieri, Paolo Prontera
Context: Familial isolated hypoparathyroidism (FIH) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), glial cells missing-2 (GCM2), guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha 11 (GNA11), or parathyroid hormone (PTH) genes. Thus far, only 4 cases with homozygous and 2 cases with heterozygous mutations in the PTH gene have been reported. Objective: To clinically describe an FIH family and identify and characterize the causal gene mutation...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938445/mini-review-discovery-of-gnih-and-its-role-in-hypothyroidism-induced-delayed-puberty
#15
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, You Lee Son, Mika Kiyohara, Ichiro Miyata
It is known that hypothyroidism delays puberty in mammals. Interaction between the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes may be important processes in delayed puberty. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a newly discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release in quail. It now apperas that GnIH is conserved across various mammals and primates including humans and inhibits reproduction. We have further demonstrated that GnIH is involved in pubertal delay induced by thyroid dysfunction in female mice...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938432/mitochondrial-function-regulated-by-mitoguardin-1-2-is-crucial-for-ovarian-endocrine-functions-and-ovulation
#16
Xiao-Man Liu, Yin-Li Zhang, Shu-Yan Ji, Long-Wen Zhao, Wei-Na Shang, Dali Li, Zijiang Chen, Chao Tong, Heng-Yu Fan
The balances of mitochondrial dynamic changes, mitochondrial morphology, and mitochondrial number are critical in cell metabolism. Once disturbed, disorders in these processes generally cause diseases or even death in animals. We performed large-scale genetic screenings in fruit flies and discovered the new gene mitoguardin (miga) that encodes for a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. In order to examine the physiological functions of its mammalian homologs Miga1 and 2, we generated Miga1 and Miga2 single- and double-knockout mouse strains and found that the knockout mice were viable, but the females were subfertile...
August 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938419/nocturnal-urinary-excretion-of-fsh-and-lh-in-children-and-adolescents-with-normal-and-early-puberty
#17
Nanna Kolby, Alexander S Busch, Lise Aksglaede, Kaspar Sørensen, Jorgen Holm Petersen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Anders Juul
Context: Clinical use of single serum gonadotropin measurements in children is limited by the pulsatile section of FSH and LH. However, first morning voided (FMV) urine may integrate the fluctuating gonadotropin serum levels. Objective: We aimed to evaluate urinary and serum gonadotropin levels according to age, sex and pubertal stage in healthy children and to assess the clinical use of FMV urinary gonadotropins in children with disordered puberty. Design: Cross-sectional part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty study and longitudinal study of patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938413/prenatal-diagnosis-of-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-and-its-clinical-implications
#18
Theodora Pappa, João Anselmo, Sunnee Mamanasiri, Alexandra M Dumitrescu, Roy E Weiss, Samuel Refetoff
Context: Resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTHβ) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by reduced sensitivity of target tissues to thyroid hormones (TH). Individuals with RTHβ have high TH levels usually due to mutations in the TH receptor beta (THRB) gene. The management of RTHβ during pregnancy is challenging as wild-type (WT) fetuses born to RTHβ mothers have low birth weight and suppressed postnatal TSH, due to intrauterine exposure to excess TH. Objective: To determine birth weight and postnatal TSH of WT fetuses carried by mothers with RTHβ whose fT4 levels were maintained below 20% the upper limit of normal (ULN)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938412/renal-metabolic-programming-is-linked-to-the-dynamic-regulation-of-a-leptin-klf15-axis-and-akt-ampk%C3%AE-signaling-in-male-offspring-of-obese-dams
#19
Philipp Kasper, Christina Vohlen, Katharina Dinger, Jasmine Mohr, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Ruth Janoschek, Jessica Köth, Jan Matthes, Sarah Appel, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar
Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. We therefore studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity female mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) or standard diet (SD, Co) prior to mating, during gestation and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac)...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938397/regulation-of-orbital-fibrosis-and-adipogenesis-by-pathogenic-th17-cells-in-graves-orbitopathy
#20
Sijie Fang, Yazhuo Huang, Sisi Zhong, Yangyang Li, Yidan Zhang, Yinwei Li, Jing Sun, Xingtong Liu, Yang Wang, Shuo Zhang, Tianle Xu, Xiaodong Sun, Ping Gu, Dan Li, Huifang Zhou, Bin Li, Xianqun Fan
Context: Th17 cells are correlated with many human autoimmune disorders including Graves' disease, and may play key roles in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Objective: To study the phenotype of Th17 cells in patients with GO and healthy subjects, investigate the fibrosis and adipogenesis in orbital fibroblasts (OFs) modulated by IL-17A, and determine the interaction between Th17 cells and OFs. Design/Setting/Participants: Blood samples and orbital tissues from GO patients and healthy controls were collected...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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