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Da Hye Kim, Soochan Kim, Jin Ha Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Xiumei Che, Hyun Woo Ma, Dong Hyuk Seo, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Seung Won Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling play significant roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, we evaluated whether new therapeutic probiotics have anti-colitic effects and we investigated their mechanisms related to NF-κB and ER-stress pathways. METHODS: Luciferase, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokine assays using HT-29 or RAW264.7 cells were conducted. Mouse colitis was induced using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and confirmed by disease activity index and histology...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Asa Hatami, Chunni Zhu, Aroa Relaño-Gines, Chris Elias, Arpine Galstyan, Michael Jun, Ginger Milne, Charles R Cantor, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Mikhail S Shchepinov
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease which has no effective treatment and is characterized by psychiatric disorders, motor alterations, and dementia, with the cognitive deficits representing a devastating aspect of the disorder. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products are found in mouse models and patients with HD, suggesting that strategies to reduce LPO may be beneficial in HD. In contrast to traditional antioxidants, substituting hydrogen with deuterium at bis-allylic sites in polyunsaturated fatty acids (D-PUFA) decreases the rate-limiting initiation step of PUFA autoxidation, a strategy that has shown benefits in other neurodegenerative diseases...
June 22, 2018: FEBS Journal
Seulah Lee, Dahae Lee, Joo Chan Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Rhim Ryoo, Hyun-Ju Park, Ki Hyun Kim
Calvatia species, generally known as puffball mushrooms, are used both as sources of food as well as traditional medicine. Among the Calvatia genus, Calvatia nipponica (Agaricaceae) is one of the rarest species. Using bioassay-guided fractionation based on anti-inflammatory effects, five alkaloids (1 - 5), two phenolics (6 - 7) and a fatty acid methyl ester (8) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of C. nipponica. Compound 8 was identified from C. nipponica for the first time, and all isolates (1 - 8) were tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264...
June 22, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Pedro J Rey, Inmaculada Cancio, Antonio J Manzaneda, Ana González-Robles, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Julio M Alcántara
Global change drivers are currently affecting semiarid ecosystems. Because these ecosystems differ from others in biotic and abiotic filters, cues for plant regeneration and management derived from elsewhere may not be applicable to semiarid ecosystems. We sought to determine the extent to which regional variation in regeneration prospects of a long-lived semiarid keystone shrub depends on anthropogenic habitat degradation, plant-animal interactions and climate determinants. We investigated the regeneration ability (via population size structure, juvenile density and juvenile/adult ratio), fruit set and seed dispersal of Ziziphus lotus in 25 localities spanning the range of its threatened habitats in Spain...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Stephanie J Watts-Williams, Timothy R Cavagnaro, Stephen D Tyerman
Association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can impact on plant water relations; mycorrhizal plants can exhibit increased stomatal conductance (gs ) and root hydraulic conductance (normalised to root dry weight, Lo ), and altered expression of aquaporins (AQP). Many factors regulate such responses, however, plant intraspecific diversity effects have yet to be explored. Twenty geographically diverse accessions of Medicago truncatula were inoculated with the AMF Funneliformis mosseae or mock-inoculated, and grown under well-watered conditions...
June 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jing Qian, Sy Han Chiou, Jacqueline E Maye, Folefac Atem, Keith A Johnson, Rebecca A Betensky
In several common study designs, regression modeling is complicated by the presence of censored covariates. Examples of such covariates include maternal age of onset of dementia that may be right censored in an Alzheimer's amyloid imaging study of healthy subjects, metabolite measurements that are subject to limit of detection censoring in a case-control study of cardiovascular disease, and progressive biomarkers whose baseline values are of interest, but are measured post-baseline in longitudinal neuropsychological studies of Alzheimer's disease...
June 22, 2018: Biometrics
Krysta Biniek, Ali Tfayli, Raoul Vyumvuhore, Alessia Quatela, Marie-Florence Galliano, Alexandre Delalleau, Arlette Baillet-Guffroy, Reinhold H Dauskardt, Helene Duplan
An important aspect of the biomechanical behavior of the stratum corneum (SC) is the drying stresses that develop with water loss. These stresses act as a driving force for damage in the form of chapping and cracking. Betasitosterol is a plant sterol with a structure similar to cholesterol, a key component in the intercellular lipids of the outermost layer of human skin, the SC. Cholesterol plays an important role in stabilizing the SC lipid structure, and altered levels of cholesterol have been linked with SC barrier abnormalities...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Takahisa Kawamura, Hidefumi Kasai, Valentina Fermanelli, Toshiaki Takahashi, Yukinori Sakata, Toshiyuki Matsuoka, Mika Ishii, Yusuke Tanigawara
Post-marketing surveillance is useful to collect safety data in real-world clinical settings. In this study, we firstly applied the post-marketing real-world data on a mechanistic model analysis for neutropenic profiles of eribulin in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (RBC/MBC). Demographic and safety data were collected using an active surveillance method from eribulin-treated RBC/MBC patients. Changes in neutrophil counts over time were analyzed using a mechanistic pharmacodynamic model...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Science
Ji Young Oh, Han Na Suh, Gee Euhn Choi, Hyun Jik Lee, Young Hyun Jung, So Hee Ko, Jun Sung Kim, Chang Woo Chae, Chang-Kyu Lee, Ho Jae Han
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sonic hedgehog pathway (Shh) plays a central role in maintaining stem cell function and behavior in various processes related to self-renewal and tissue regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect of Shh on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clearly described. Thus, we investigated the effect of Shh on the regulation of mESC behaviors as well as the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of Shh signaling pathway in growth and motility of mESCs using western blot analysis, cell proliferation assay, and cell migration assay...
June 22, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Daniela Aversa, Alessandro Martini, Ezia Guatteo, Antonio Pisani, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Berretta
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One of the hallmarks of ventral midbrain dopamine (DA)-releasing neurons is membrane hyperpolarization in response to somato-dendritic D2 receptors (D2 Rs) stimulation. At early postnatal age, under sustained DA, this inhibitory response is followed by a slow recovery, resulting in dopamine inhibition reversal (DIR). In the present investigation we aimed to get a better insight onto the cellular mechanisms underlying DIR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed single unit extracellular recordings with a multi-electrode array (MEA) device and conventional patch-clamp recordings on midbrain mouse slices...
June 22, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Christiane Ermina Sophia Rudolph, Alexander Katalinic
AIM: Vaccines against human papillomaviruses are covered by statutory health insurances in Germany since March 2007. A reduction of cervical and other HPV-associated cancers is expected. Incidence rates of HPV-associated cancers preceding the introduction of vaccines are unknown. These, however, are important for assessing the effects of HPV vaccines. The aim of the present study was to bridge this knowledge gap. METHODS: Based on cancer registry data from seven federal states, average yearly incidence rates for cervical, anogenital, oropharyngeal cancers and cancers of the oral cavity were calculated for the period 2003 to 2007...
June 22, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Emily J Rogalski, Becky Khayum
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical neurodegenerative dementia syndrome characterized by deficits in spoken and written word retrieval, word usage, and/or word comprehension. Currently, there are no effective treatments to reverse or halt the underlying disease process; however, speech-language therapy may be helpful. The Communication Bridge Care Model was developed to address the unique communication and quality of life needs of individuals living with PPA. The core elements include person-centered care with dyadic instruction for disease education, and counseling, along with tailored levels of impairment- and compensatory-based communication strategy training...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Esther S Kim, Mathieu Figeys, H Isabel Hubbard, Carlee Wilson
Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and their caregivers are at risk for decreased quality of life (QoL) due to their progressive condition. Aphasia camps are an intervention that can improve QoL, yet individuals with PPA are underrepresented at aphasia camps relative to those with poststroke aphasia. The purpose of this exploratory case study was to examine the effect of participation in aphasia camp on the QoL of a couple impacted by PPA. The Living with Aphasia: Framework for Outcome Measurement (A-FROM) was used to guide a semistructured interview with an individual with PPA and her spouse, both of whom had attended the Alberta Aphasia Camp for 4 years...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Aimee Mooney, Naomi Beale, Melanie Fried-Oken
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious language deterioration. This young-onset disorder leaves adults with reduced communication skills for participation in social activities. There is limited evidence regarding group treatment for individuals with PPA, though the principles of chronic aphasia groups can be applied to this clinical population. We developed a PPA group treatment model incorporating compensatory strategies from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), communication partner training from aphasia rehabilitation, and systematic instruction from dementia management...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Torben Glatz, Goran Marjanovic, Jens Hoeppner
BACKGROUND: Chylothorax is a rare complication after thoracic trauma or surgery, especially oesophagectomy, which, if left untreated, can be potentially life-threatening. METHODS: This article provides an overview of the existing literature on the prevention and surgical therapy of chylothorax. RESULTS: The risk of chyle leakage after oesophagectomy increases with the difficulty of mediastinal dissection and is reported to be around 3% for oesophagectomy...
June 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
J Liang, Y Zhu, X-K Liu, Q-Q Qiu, Y-T Sun, Y Wang, Y Pei, M-Q Yang, L Qi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is strongly associated with insulin resistance and elevated plasma glucose levels. The rs9356744 polymorphism in the CDKAL1 gene is associated with body mass index (BMI) only in East Asians. Here, we examined the effect of the rs9356744 polymorphism on glucose-related traits and prediabetes in Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 2 357 participants were enrolled from the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) Study, including 499 persons with prediabetes, 204 persons with type 2 diabetes, and 1 654 normoglycemic controls...
June 22, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Luei Wern Ong, Jeffrey D Dawson, John W Ely
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physicians often accuse their peers of being "black clouds" if they repeatedly have more than the average number of hospital admissions while on call. Our purpose was to determine whether the black-cloud phenomenon is real or explainable by random variation. METHODS: We analyzed hospital admissions to the University of Iowa family medicine service from July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2015. Analyses were stratified by peer group (eg, night shift attending physicians, day shift senior residents)...
June 2018: Family Medicine
Joshua Freeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Family Medicine
Everardo D Saad, John R Zalcberg, Julien Péron, Elisabeth Coart, Tomasz Burzykowski, Marc Buyse
Time-to-event end points are the most frequent primary end points in phase III oncology trials, both in the adjuvant and advanced settings. The evaluation of these end points is important to inform clinical practice. However, although different measures can be used to describe the effect of treatment on these end points, we believe that any treatment benefit in a given trial is best reported using various absolute and relative measures. Our goal is to help clinicians understand the strengths and limitations of the traditional and novel measures used to denote the effect of treatment in randomized trials...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Qiao-Li Wang, Shao-Hua Xie, Wen-Tao Li, Jesper Lagergren
Background: Tobacco smoking strongly increases risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and moderately increases risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. How smoking cessation influences esophageal cancer risk across histological subtypes, time latencies, and geographic regions is not clear. Methods: Studies were systematically searched on Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Pooled estimates of risk ratios (RRs) were derived using a random effects model...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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