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Critical ischemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046349/differential-regulation-of-the-rac1-gtpase-activating-protein-gap-bcr-during-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#1
Katharine R Smith, Dipen Rajgor, Jonathan G Hanley
Brain ischemia causes oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neurons, triggering a cascade of events leading to synaptic accumulation of glutamate. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors causes excitotoxicity and delayed cell death in vulnerable neurons. Following global cerebral ischemia, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are more vulnerable to injury than their cortical counterparts, but the mechanisms that underlie this difference are unclear. Signalling via Rho-family small GTPases, their upstream Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) and GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs) is differentially dysregulated in response to OGD/ischemia in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043840/comparison-of-two-methods-based-on-photoplethysmography-for-the-diagnosis-of-peripheral-arterial-disease
#2
Christian Høyer, Nikolaj Schandorph Nielsen, Malene Kragh Overvad Jordansen, Helle Damgaard Zacho
AIM: To examine the interchangeability of two methods for distal pressure measurement based on photoplethysmography using a truncated or full display of the arterial inflow curve, respectively. METHODS: Toe and ankle pressures were obtained from 69 patients suspected of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Observer reproducibility of the curve readings was examined by blinded reassessment of the pressure curves in a randomly selected subgroup (60 limbs). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in mean pressures between the two methods (p for all > ...
October 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039034/inactivation-of-nsf-atpase-leads-to-cathepsin-b-release-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#3
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Bingren Hu
Neurons have extraordinary large cell membrane surface area, thus requiring extremely high levels of intracellular membrane-trafficking activities. Consequently, defects in the membrane-trafficking activities preferentially affect neurons. A critical molecule for controlling the membrane-trafficking activities is the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) ATPase. This study is to investigate the cascade of events of NSF ATPase inactivation, resulting in a massive buildup of late endosomes (LEs) and fatal release of cathepsin B (CTSB) after transient cerebral ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion with hypotension (2VO+Hypotension) global brain ischemia model...
October 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038874/ultrasound-guided-popliteal-sciatic-block-provides-adequate-analgesia-during-urgent-endovascular-treatment-of-critical-limb-ischemia-with-resting-pain
#4
Derya Tureli, Sinan Deniz, Aytekin Unlukaplan, Levent Oguzkurt
PURPOSE: To demonstrate feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block for providing analgesia during urgent endovascular treatment of critical limb ischemia with resting pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic blocks were performed by an interventional radiologist in angiography suite immediately prior to commencement of urgent endovascular treatment of 30 critical limb ischemia patients. Subjective pain levels prior to and following sciatic block were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS)...
October 16, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038476/pro-angiogenic-effect-of-rantes-loaded-polysaccharide-based-microparticles-for-a-mouse-ischemia-therapy
#5
N Suffee, C Le Visage, H Hlawaty, R Aid-Launais, V Vanneaux, J Larghero, O Haddad, O Oudar, N Charnaux, A Sutton
Peripheral arterial disease results from the chronic obstruction of arteries leading to critical hindlimb ischemia. The aim was to develop a new therapeutic strategy of revascularization by using biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharides-based microparticles (MP) to treat the mouse hindlimb ischemia. For this purpose, we deliver the pro-angiogenic chemokine Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 in the mouse ischemic hindlimb, in solution or incorporated into polysaccharide-based microparticles...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034032/current-perspective-on-hemodialysis-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#6
REVIEW
Shin Okamoto, Osamu Iida, Toshiaki Mano
The prevalence of peripheral artery disease is substantially higher in patients on chronic hemodialysis than in the general population. The presence of calcified lesions characteristic of hemodialysis patients has an adverse influence on the initial success and long-term outcomes of both surgical bypass and endovascular therapy. Although the selection of revascularization strategy depends on whether an autologous vein is available and if the patient has a life expectancy of at least two years, it is difficult to predict the life expectancy in a real-world clinical situation...
June 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034014/improving-the-outcome-of-vein-grafts-should-vascular-surgeons-turn-veins-into-arteries
#7
REVIEW
Toshihiko Isaji, Takuya Hashimoto, Kota Yamamoto, Jeans M Santana, Bogdan Yatsula, Haidi Hu, Hualong Bai, Guo Jianming, Tambudzai Kudze, Toshiya Nishibe, Alan Dardik
Autogenous vein grafts remain the gold standard conduit for arterial bypass, particularly for the treatment of critical limb ischemia. Vein graft adaptation to the arterial environment, i.e., adequate dilation and wall thickening, contributes to the superior performance of vein grafts. However, abnormal venous wall remodeling with excessive neointimal hyperplasia commonly causes vein graft failure. Since the PREVENT trials failed to improve vein graft outcomes, new strategies focus on the adaptive response of the venous endothelial cells to the post-surgical arterial environment...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033047/effect-of-hemodialysis-on-levels-of-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t
#8
Michael Chen, Howard Gerson, Shaun Eintracht, Sharon J Nessim, Elizabeth MacNamara
Cardiac troponin (cTn) is essential for the diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) baseline cTn levels are often elevated, and it is unknown whether the hemodialysis (HD) procedure affects cTn levels. This leaves clinicians unsure of how to interpret cTn in HD patients with cardiac ischemia. We therefore sought to determine if plasma levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) vary during or after HD treatment. We prospectively enrolled 10 chronic HD patients who were admitted to our institution...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032905/analysis-of-wound-healing-time-and-wound-free-period-as-outcomes-after-surgical-and-endovascular-revascularization-for-critical-lower-limb-ischemia
#9
Jin Okazaki, Daisuke Matsuda, Kiyoshi Tanaka, Masaru Ishida, Sosei Kuma, Koichi Morisaki, Tadashi Furuyama, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: Traditional end points, such as amputation-free survival, used to assess the clinical effectiveness of lower limb revascularization have shortcomings because they do not account independently for wound nonhealing and recurrence or patient survival. Wound healing process and maintenance of a wound-free state after revascularization were not well-studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term clinical course of ischemic wounds after revascularization. We focused on initial wound healing process as well as the maintenance of a wound-free state after achievement of wound healing...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032758/multifaceted-effects-of-delta-opioid-receptors-and-dadle-in-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#10
Jea-Young Lee, M Grant Liska, Marci Crowley, Kaya Xu, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Vivian A Guedes
The opioid system is considered a potential therapeutic target in a variety of neurological disorders. Delta opioid receptors (DOPs) are broadly expressed in the brain, and their activation protects cells from hypoxic/ischemic insults by counteracting disruptions of ionic homeostasis and initiating neuroprotective pathways. The DOP agonist D-Ala2-D-Leu2-Enkephalin (DADLE) promotes neuronal survival, mitigates apoptotic pathways, and protects neurons and glial cells from ischemia-induced cell death, thus making DADLE a promising therapeutic option for stroke...
October 10, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032506/differential-effects-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-isolated-rat-atria-subjected-to-simulated-ischemia-reperfusion-depending-on-the-energetic-substrates-available
#11
Romina Hermann, Victoria Evangelina Mestre Cordero, María de Las Mercedes Fernández Pazos, Federico Joaquín Reznik, Débora Elisabet Vélez, Enrique Alberto Savino, María Gabriela Marina Prendes, Alicia Varela
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine-threonine kinase that functions primarily as a metabolic sensor to coordinate anabolic and catabolic processes in the cell, via phosphorylation of multiple proteins involved in metabolic pathways, aimed to re-establish energy homeostasis at a cell-autonomous level. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion represents a metabolic stress situation for myocytes. Whether AMPK plays a critical role in the metabolic and functional responses involved in these conditions remains uncertain...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031902/chrysophanol-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-mice
#12
Yongmei Zhao, Yalan Fang, Haiping Zhao, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Wenjuan Shi, Yuyou Huang, Li Gao, Yumin Luo
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in mediating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in the brain. Our previous study showed that Chrysophanol (CHR) alleviated cerebral ischemic injury in mice and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) involved in its neuroprotective effect, but the precise mechanism remains not fully understood. The present study investigated the effect of CHR treatment on I/R-induced ER stress. Mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45min and received either vehicle or CHR (0...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026150/essential-role-of-the-na-ca2-exchanger-ncx-in-glutamate-enhanced-cell-survival-in-cardiac-cells-exposed-to-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#13
Marta Maiolino, Pasqualina Castaldo, Vincenzo Lariccia, Silvia Piccirillo, Salvatore Amoroso, Simona Magi
Myocardial ischemia culminates in ATP production impairment, ionic derangement and cell death. The provision of metabolic substrates during reperfusion significantly increases heart tolerance to ischemia by improving mitochondrial performance. Under normoxia, glutamate contributes to myocardial energy balance as substrate for anaplerotic reactions, and we demonstrated that the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger1 (NCX1) provides functional support for both glutamate uptake and use for ATP synthesis. Here we investigated the role of NCX1 in the potential of glutamate to improve energy metabolism and survival of cardiac cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025216/assisted-salvage-of-ischemic-fasciocutaneous-flap-using-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-situ-revascularization
#14
Michael H Carstens, Mauricio Mendieta, Cecilia Pérez, Esperanza Villareal, Rodolfo Garcia
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and can increase perfusion in patients with critical limb ischemia. We will show that this concept can be applied to augment blood flow in zones of flap ischemia. We presented a case study of a 26-year-old man with a complex hand injury covered by a reverse radial perforator fasciocutaneous flap, which developed ischemic necrosis and was treated by debridement, transplantation of ASCs to enhance vascular support, and saline dressings...
July 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022506/autologous-cell-therapy-for-vascular-regeneration-the-role-of-proangiogenic-cells
#15
Vanessa Bianconi, Francesca Fallarino, Massimo Raffaele Mannarino, Francesco Bagaglia, Meisam Naeimi Kararoudi, Caterina Oriana Aragona, Rita Romani, Matteo Pirro
Autologous cell therapy represents a novel treatment option for vascular regeneration in different disease conditions. Both experimental and clinical studies indicate a therapeutic potential for different proangiogenic cells (PCs), including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. A significant improvement of ischemic symptoms has been reported in different trials evaluating PCs for the treatment of critical limb ischemia. However, contrasting results from different meta-analyses question the efficacy of PC-based approaches on long-term outcomes, including amputation and survival...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022263/cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-beneficial-effects-of-exercise
#16
Juliana Pereira Borges, Karine da Silva Verdoorn
Cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs when the myocardium is revascularized after an episode of limited or absent blood supply. Many changes, including free radical production, calcium overload, protease activation, altered membrane lipids and leukocyte activation, contribute to IRI-induced myocardium damage. Aerobic exercise is the only countermeasure against IRI that can be sustained on a regular basis in clinical practice. Interestingly, both short-term (3-5 days) and long-term (several weeks) exercise increase myocardial tolerance, reduce infarct size area and arrhythmias induced by IRI...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021225/atp-induces-pad4-in-renal-proximal-tubule-cells-via-p2x7-receptor-activation-to-exacerbate-ischemic-aki
#17
May M Rabadi, Mihwa Kim, Hongmei Li, Sang Jun Han, Yewoon Choi, Vivette Denise D'Agati, H Thomas Lee
We previously demonstrated that renal tubular peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) is induced after ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and this induction of PAD4 exacerbates ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) by promoting renal tubular inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. However, the mechanisms of renal tubular PAD4 induction after IR remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP, a pro-inflammatory danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) ligand released from necrotic cells after IR injury, induces renal tubular PAD4 and exacerbates ischemic AKI via P2 purinergic receptor activation...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021167/high-density-lipoprotein-delivered-after-myocardial-infarction-increases-cardiac-glucose-uptake-and-function-in-mice
#18
Sarah E Heywood, Adele L Richart, Darren C Henstridge, Karen Alt, Helen Kiriazis, Claire Zammit, Andrew L Carey, Helene L Kammoun, Lea M Delbridge, Medini Reddy, Yi-Ching Chen, Xiao-Jun Du, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Mark A Febbraio, Andrew L Siebel, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Protecting the heart after an acute coronary syndrome is a key therapeutic goal to support cardiac recovery and prevent progression to heart failure. A potential strategy is to target cardiac glucose metabolism at the early stages after ischemia when glycolysis is critical for myocyte survival. Building on our discovery that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, we now demonstrate that a single dose of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) delivered after myocardial ischemia increases cardiac glucose uptake, reduces infarct size, and improves cardiac remodeling in association with enhanced functional recovery in mice...
October 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019942/nadph-oxidase-related-pathophysiology-in-experimental-models-of-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yao, Tetsuro Ago, Takanari Kitazono, Toru Nabika
Several experimental studies have indicated that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox) exert detrimental effects on ischemic brain tissue; Nox-knockout mice generally exhibit resistance to damage due to experimental stroke following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Furthermore, our previous MCAO study indicated that infarct size and blood-brain barrier breakdown are enhanced in mice with pericyte-specific overexpression of Nox4, relative to levels observed in controls. However, it remains unclear whether Nox affects the stroke outcome directly by increasing oxidative stress at the site of ischemia, or indirectly by modifying physiological variables such as blood pressure or cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991058/red-cell-distribution-width-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#20
Vito Fontana, Ottavia Bond, Savino Spadaro, Filippo Annoni, Leda Nobile, Rafael Badenes, Carlo A Volta, Jean-L Vincent, Jacques Creteur, Fabio S Taccone
BACKGROUND: High red cell distribution width (RDW) values have been associated with increased hospital mortality in critically ill patients, but few data are available for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: We analyzed an institutional database of adult (>18 y) patients admitted to the Department of Intensive Care after nontraumatic SAH between January 2011 and May 2016. RDW (normal value, 10.9% to 13.4%) was obtained daily from admission for a maximum of 7 days, from routine blood analysis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
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