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Pulmonary Drug deposition models

Per Bäckman, Ulrika Tehler, Bo Olsson
BACKGROUND: Exposure following oral inhalation depends on the deposition pattern of the inhaled aerosol, the extent and rate of oral and pulmonary absorption, as well as systemic distribution and clearance. For lipophilic inhaled compounds with low water solubility and high permeability, the extent and rate of pulmonary absorption can be assumed dependent on deposition pattern as well as dissolution rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mechanistic model of airway deposition, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, absorption, and dissipation was applied to simulate systemic exposure of the novel selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, AZD5423, when dosed to healthy volunteers using two different nebulizers and two different dry powder inhalers in combination with two different primary particle size distributions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Laura Lucarini, Mariaconcetta Durante, Cecilia Lanzi, Alessandro Pini, Giulia Boccalini, Laura Calosi, Flavio Moroni, Emanuela Masini, Guido Mannaioni
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease characterized by excessive myofibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix and fibrils deposition, remodelling of lung parenchyma and pulmonary insufficiency. Drugs able to reduce disease progression are available, but therapeutic results are unsatisfactory; new and safe treatments are urgently needed. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme involved in key biological processes: DNA repair, gene expression control, and cell survival or death...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Marius Hittinger, Nico Alexander Mell, Hanno Huwer, Brigitta Loretz, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is linked to inflammatory processes in the human lung. The aim of this study was to mimic in vitro the treatment of lung inflammation by using a cell-based human autologous co-culture model. As a potential trial medication, we developed a pulmonary dry powder formulation loaded with interleukin-10 (IL-10), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. The inflammatory immune response was stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. The co-culture was combined with the Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device on Cell Cultures )PADDOCC), to deposit the IL-10-loaded microparticles on the inflamed co-culture model at the air-liquid interface...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Marius Hittinger, Julia Janke, Hanno Huwer, Regina Scherließ, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
The development of new formulations for pulmonary drug delivery is a challenge on its own. New in vitro models which address the lung are aimed at predicting and optimising the quality, efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs, to facilitate the more rapid translation of such products into the clinic. Reducing the complexity of the in vivo situation requires that such models reproducibly reflect essential physiological factors in vitro. The choice of cell types, culture conditions and the experimental set-up, can affect the outcome and the relevance of a study...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Jos L J van der Velden, Ying Ye, James D Nolin, Sidra M Hoffman, David G Chapman, Karolyn G Lahue, Sarah Abdalla, Peng Chen, Yong Liu, Brydon Bennett, Nasreen Khalil, Donna Sutherland, William Smith, Gerald Horan, Mahmoud Assaf, Zebulun Horowitz, Rajesh Chopra, Randall M Stevens, Maria Palmisano, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger, Peter H Schafer
BACKGROUND: Lung remodeling and pulmonary fibrosis are serious, life-threatening conditions resulting from diseases such as chronic severe asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Preclinical evidence suggests that JNK enzyme function is required for key steps in the pulmonary fibrotic process. However, a selective JNK inhibitor has not been investigated in translational models of lung fibrosis with clinically relevant biomarkers, or in IPF patients. METHODS: The JNK inhibitor CC-930 was evaluated in the house dust mite-induced fibrotic airway mouse model, in a phase I healthy volunteer pharmacodynamic study, and subsequently in a phase II multicenter study of mild/moderate IPF (n = 28), with a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, sequential ascending-dose period (50 mg QD, 100 mg QD, 100 mg BID) and a 52-week open-label treatment-extension period...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Zimeng Wang, Julie L Cuddigan, Sweta K Gupta, Samantha A Meenach
Tacrolimus (TAC) has exhibited promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, its application is prevented by its poor solubility, instability, poor bioavailability, and negative systemic side effects. To overcome the obstacles of using TAC for the treatment of PAH, we developed nanocomposite microparticles (nCmP) for the pulmonary delivery of tacrolimus in the form of dry powder aerosols. These particles can provide targeted pulmonary delivery, improved solubility of tacrolimus, the potential of penetration through mucus barrier, and controlled drug release...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Anne Van der Meeren, Agnès Moureau, David Laurent, Pierre Laroche, Jaime F Angulo
Plutonium (Pu) intake by inhalation is one of the major potential consequences following an accident in the nuclear industry or after improvised nuclear device explosion. Macrophages are essential players in retention and clearance of inhaled compounds. However, the extent to which these phagocytic cells are involved in these processes highly depends on the solubility properties of the Pu deposited in the lungs. Our objectives were to develop an in vitro model representative of the human pulmonary macrophage capacity to internalize and release Pu compounds in presence or not of the chelating drug diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA)...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Sophie Perinel, Lara Leclerc, Nathalie Prévôt, Agathe Deville, Michèle Cottier, Marc Durand, Jean-Michel Vergnon, Jérémie Pourchez
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of where particles deposit in the respiratory tract is crucial for understanding the health effects associated with inhaled drug particles. METHOD: An ex vivo study was conducted to assess regional deposition patterns (thoracic vs. extrathoracic) of radioactive polydisperse aerosols with different size ranges [0.15 μm-0.5 μm], [0.25 μm-1 μm] and [1 μm-9 μm]. SPECT/CT analyses were performed complementary in order to assess more precisely the regional deposition of aerosols within the pulmonary tract...
2016: Respiratory Research
Rami Fishler, Josué Sznitman
Quantifying respiratory flow characteristics in the pulmonary acinar depths and how they influence inhaled aerosol transport is critical towards optimizing drug inhalation techniques as well as predicting deposition patterns of potentially toxic airborne particles in the pulmonary alveoli. Here, soft-lithography techniques are used to fabricate complex acinar-like airway structures at the truthful anatomical length-scales that reproduce physiological acinar flow phenomena in an optically accessible system. The microfluidic device features 5 generations of bifurcating alveolated ducts with periodically expanding and contracting walls...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Aateka Patel, A Woods, Yanira Riffo-Vasquez, Anna Babin-Morgan, Marie-Christine Jones, Stuart Jones, Kavitha Sunassee, Stephen Clark, Rafael T M de Rosales, Clive Page, Domenico Spina, Ben Forbes, Lea Ann Dailey
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are semi-rigid spherical capsules with a triglyceride core that present a promising formulation option for the pulmonary delivery of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Whilst the biodistribution of LNCs of different size has been studied following intravenous administration, the fate of LNCs following pulmonary delivery has not been reported. We investigated quantitatively whether lung inflammation affects the clearance of 50nm lipid nanocapsules, or is exacerbated by their pulmonary administration...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Xingqi Wang, Zijun Ouyang, Qian You, Shuai He, Qianqian Meng, Chunhui Hu, Xudong Wu, Yan Shen, Yang Sun, Xuefeng Wu, Qiang Xu
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, degenerative and almost irreversible disease. There is hardly an effective cure for lung damage due to pulmonary fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of obaculactone in an already-assessed model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin administration. Mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of bleomycin, and obaculactone was given orally after bleomycin instillation daily for 23days. Treatment with obaculactone ameliorated body weight loss, lung histopathology abnormalities and pulmonary collagen deposition, with a decrease of the inflammatory cell number and the cytokine level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
July 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
E Boger, N Evans, M Chappell, A Lundqvist, P Ewing, A Wigenborg, M Fridén
Pulmonary drug disposition after inhalation is complex involving mechanisms, such as regional drug deposition, dissolution, and mucociliary clearance. This study aimed to develop a systems pharmacology approach to mechanistically describe lung disposition in rats and thereby provide an integrated understanding of the system. When drug- and formulation-specific properties for the poorly soluble drug fluticasone propionate were fed into the model, it proved predictive of the pharmacokinetics and receptor occupancy after intravenous administration and nose-only inhalation...
April 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Maria F Acosta, Priya Muralidharan, Samantha A Meenach, Don Hayes, Stephen M-Black, Heidi M Mansour
BACKGROUND: The use of non-invasive inhaled aerosols for pulmonary drug delivery continues to grow. This is due to the many unique advantages this delivery route offers for the treatment of both local and systemic diseases. The physicochemical properties of the formulated drugs as well as the physiology of the lungs play a key role in both the deposition and absorption of the particles. The airway and the alveolar epithelium are targets for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, particles have to overcome biological barriers before they reach their target and produce an effect...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yue-Han Wu, Xian-Wei Li, Wen-Qun Li, Xiao-Hui Li, Yuan-Jian Li, Gao-Yun Hu, Zhao-Qian Liu, Dai Li
Fluorofenidone is a novel derivative of l-mimosine. It has remarkable anti-fibrotic properties. In this study, we established that fluorofenidone ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis (PF) both in vivo and in vitro by specifically inhibiting the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a). eIF3a plays an important role in the development and progression of PF. An animal model of PF was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5mg/kg) in rats. Rats were orally administered with fluorofenidone (250, 500 mg/kg/d·[i...
February 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Maryam Esmaeili, Mahdi Aghajani, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir, Amir Amani
Advantages of lipid nanoparticles for pulmonary applications are possibility of deep lung deposition with prolonged release and low toxicity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of formulation and processing parameters on particle size of prepared SLNs. Budesonide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (BUD-SLNs) were prepared with different values of drug content, ultrasonication amplitude, and homogenization time and the data were modeled using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Optimal conditions for fabrication of small-sized particles of 170-200 nm were found to be low drug content with high-amplitude and high-homogenization time...
January 13, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Michael G Sugiyama, Asela Gamage, Roman Zyla, Susan M Armstrong, Suzanne Advani, Andrew Advani, Changsen Wang, Warren L Lee
Lung injury after influenza infection is characterized by increased permeability of the lung microvasculature, culminating in acute respiratory failure. Platelets interact with activated endothelial cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of acute lung injury. Autopsy studies have revealed pulmonary microthrombi after influenza infection, and epidemiological studies suggest that influenza vaccination is protective against pulmonary thromboembolism; however, the effect of influenza infection on platelet-endothelial interactions is unclear...
December 4, 2015: Journal of Virology
Sumit Arora, Mehra Haghi, Paul M Young, Michael Kappl, Daniela Traini, Sanyog Jain
OBJECTIVE: To develop and characterize a highly respirable dry powder inhalable formulation of voriconazole (VRZ). METHODS: Powders were prepared by spray drying aqueous/alcohol solutions. Formulations were characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, thermal, moisture responses and aerosolization performance. Optimized powder was deposited onto an air-interface Calu-3 model to assess their uptake across Calu-3 lung epithelia. Optimized formulation was evaluated for stability (drug content and aerosol performance) for 3 months...
2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Lei Wan, Jian Liu, Chuan-Bing Huang, Xi Chen, Yuan Wang, Wan-Dong Zhang, Lei Liu, Yuan-Yuan Cheng, Yun-Xia Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of triptolide on Notch receptor and ligand expressions in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group, model (MC) group, methotrexate group and triptolide groups. Rat models of AA were established by an intradermal injection of 0.1 mL Freund's complete adjuvant into the right paw. Twelve days after the injection, the rats were treated with corresponding drugs for 30 days; the rats in NC group and MC group were given saline only...
October 2015: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Aly A Abdelbary, Abdulaziz M Al-mahallawi, Mohamed E Abdelrahim, Ahmed M A Ali
Carvedilol (CAR) is a potent antihypertensive drug but has poor oral bioavailability (24%). A nanosuspension suitable for pulmonary delivery to enhance bioavailability and bypass first-pass metabolism of CAR could be advantageous. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to prepare CAR nanosuspensions and to use artificial neural networks associated with genetic algorithm to model and optimize the formulations. The optimized nanosuspension was lyophilized to obtain dry powder suitable for inhalation. However, respirable particles must have a diameter of 1-5 µm in order to deposit in the lungs...
2015: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jiansheng Li, Peng Zhao, Ya Li, Yange Tian, Yonghua Wang
The present work adopted a systems pharmacology-based approach to provide new insights into the active compounds and therapeutic targets of Bufei Yishen formula (BYF) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, we established a rat model of cigarette smoke- and bacterial infection-induced COPD to validate the mechanisms of BYF action that were predicted in systems pharmacology study. The systems pharmacology model derived 216 active compounds from BYF and 195 potential targets related to various diseases...
2015: Scientific Reports
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