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Sugar glass technology

Ryota Nomura, Yumiko Morita, Saaya Matayoshi, Kazuhiko Nakano
Surface Pre-reacted Glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler is a bioactive filler produced by PRG technology, which has been applied to various dental materials. A S-PRG filler can release multiple ions from a glass-ionomer phase formed in the filler. In the present study, detailed inhibitory effects induced by S-PRG eluate (prepared with S-PRG filler) against Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, were investigated. S-PRG eluate effectively inhibited S. mutans growth especially in the bacterium before the logarithmic growth phase...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kirsten E Gardner
Soon after the discovery of insulin in the early 1920s, the popular press celebrated the miraculous discovery. Although insulin had no curative effect on the chronic state of diabetes, it was frequently heralded as a "cure." This paper examines how the discovery of insulin intersected with the rise of diabetic technology and the transfer of medical technology to the home setting. By analyzing diabetic manuals written for patients and physicians, letters exchanged between patient and physician, medical journals, magazines and newspapers, I trace how patients learned about insulin and more significantly how patients adopted measurement technologies designed to allow better home administration of insulin...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
Harald Sieme, Harriëtte Oldenhof, Willem F Wolkers
Sperm cryopreservation facilitates storage and transport for use in artificial reproduction technologies. Cryopreservation processing, however, exposes cells to stress resulting in cellular damage compromising sperm function. Cryoprotective agents are needed to minimize cryopreservation injury, but at higher concentration they are toxic to cells. In this review, we describe cryoinjury mechanisms, and modes of action of different types of cryoprotective agents. Furthermore, measures are discussed how to minimize toxic effects caused by adding and removing cryoprotective agents...
June 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Aswin Dereymaker, Guy Van Den Mooter
Fluid bed coating has been proposed in the past as an alternative technology for manufacturing of drug-polymer amorphous solid dispersions, or so-called glass solutions. It has the advantage of being a one-step process, and thus omitting separate drying steps, addition of excipients, or manipulation of the dosage form. In search of an adequate sample preparation method for modulated differential scanning calorimetry analysis of beads coated with glass solutions, glass transition broadening and decrease of the glass transition temperature (Tg ) were observed with increasing particle size of crushed coated beads and crushed isolated films of indomethacin (INDO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)...
May 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jordan J Smith, Philip J Morgan, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Kerry A Dally, Jo Salmon, Anthony D Okely, Tara L Finn, David R Lubans
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention for adolescent boys, an obesity prevention intervention using smartphone technology. METHODS: ATLAS was a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 14 secondary schools in low-income communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 361 adolescent boys (aged 12-14 years) considered at risk of obesity. The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and involved: teacher professional development, provision of fitness equipment to schools, face-to-face physical activity sessions, lunchtime student mentoring sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application and Web site, and parental strategies for reducing screen-time...
September 2014: Pediatrics
Satish K Sharma, Shashibala Juyal, V K Rao, V K Yadav, A K Dixit
A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500 ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2 h at 50 ± 2 °C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50 W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized...
July 2014: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Roberta Polak, Thomas Crouzier, Rosanna M Lim, Katharina Ribbeck, Marisa M Beppu, Ronaldo N M Pitombo, Robert E Cohen, Michael F Rubner
The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of thin films on surfaces has proven to be an extremely useful technology for uses ranging from optics to biomedical applications. Releasing these films from the substrate to generate so-called free-standing multilayer films opens a new set of applications. Current approaches to generating such materials are limited because they can be cytotoxic, difficult to scale up, or have undesirable side reactions on the material. In this work, a new sacrificial thin film system capable of chemically triggered dissolution at physiological pH of 7...
August 11, 2014: Biomacromolecules
Norman Chieng, Hjalte Trnka, Johan Boetker, Michael Pikal, Jukka Rantanen, Holger Grohganz
The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis for powder X-ray diffraction-pair-wise distribution function (PXRD-PDF) data to detect phase separation in freeze-dried binary amorphous systems. Polymer-polymer and polymer-sugar binary systems at various ratios were freeze-dried. All samples were analyzed by PXRD, transformed to PDF and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). These results were validated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) through characterization of glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrate solute (Tg')...
September 15, 2013: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
M Z Saavedra-Leos, A Grajales-Lagunes, R González-García, A Toxqui-Terán, S A Pérez-García, M A Abud-Archila, M A Ruiz-Cabrera
The glass transition temperature of model food systems prepared with several glucose/fructose/sucrose mass fractions was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A distance-based experimental design for mixtures of 3 components was used to establish the proportion of sugars of the model systems. Thus, 32 compositions including individual sugars and sugar mixtures, both binary and ternary were prepared and analyzed. Thermograms showing the complete process of heating-cooling-reheating were used to determine the precise glass transition temperature during cooling (T(g)(c)) or reheating (T(g)(H) in amorphous sugars...
May 2012: Journal of Food Science
Xichun Zhou, Jian Zhang, Denong Wang
We present here a method for construction of carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates without prior chemical derivatization. Microwave radiation energy is applied to accelerate carbohydrate coupling on chips. Since this bioarray platform is designed to present sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations, it is particularly suitable for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glycoepitopes and their functional properties...
2012: Methods in Molecular Biology
Giuseppe Bellavia, Sergio Giuffrida, Grazia Cottone, Antonio Cupane, Lorenzo Cordone
Biopreservation by saccharides is a widely studied issue due to its scientific and technological importance; in particular, ternary amorphous protein-saccharide-water systems are extensively exploited to model the characteristics of the in vivo biopreservation process. We present here a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on amorphous trehalose-water systems with embedded different proteins (myoglobin, lysozyme, BSA, hemoglobin), which differ for charge, surface, and volume properties. In our study, the protein/trehalose molar ratio is kept constant at 1/40, while the water/sugar molar ratio is varied between 2 and 300; results are compared with those obtained for binary trehalose-water systems...
May 19, 2011: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Koreyoshi Imamura, Ryo Kagotani, Mayo Nomura, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Kohshi Kinugawa, Kazuhiro Nakanishi
An amorphous matrix comprised of sugar molecules are frequently used in the pharmaceutical industry. The compression of the amorphous sugar matrix improves the handling. Herein, the influence of compression on the water sorption of an amorphous sugar matrix was investigated. Amorphous sugar samples were prepared by freeze-drying, using several types of sugars, and compressed at 0-443 MPa. The compressed amorphous sugar samples as well as uncompressed samples were rehumidified at given RHs, and the equilibrium water content and glass transition temperature (T(g)) were then measured...
April 15, 2011: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Robert Alcock, Matthew G Cottingham, Christine S Rollier, Julie Furze, Samodh D De Costa, Marian Hanlon, Alexandra J Spencer, Jared D Honeycutt, David H Wyllie, Sarah C Gilbert, Migena Bregu, Adrian V S Hill
Live recombinant viral vectors based on adenoviruses and poxviruses are among the most promising platforms for development of new vaccines against diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV-AIDS. Vaccines based on live viruses must remain infectious to be effective, so therefore need continuous refrigeration to maintain stability and viability, a requirement that can be costly and difficult, especially in developing countries. The sugars sucrose and trehalose are commonly used as stabilizing agents and cryoprotectants for biological products...
February 17, 2010: Science Translational Medicine
R Ergun, R Lietha, R W Hartel
From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies...
February 2010: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Xichun Zhou, Craig Turchi, Denong Wang
We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a three-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization...
November 2009: Journal of Proteome Research
Mary Mandels, Douglas E Eveleigh
This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts...
2009: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jessica L Burger, Stephen P Cape, Chad S Braun, David H McAdams, Jessica A Best, Pradnya Bhagwat, Pankaj Pathak, Lia G Rebits, Robert E Sievers
Carbon dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer((R)) (CAN-BD) processing allows particles to be made in the 3-5 mum size range, which is desirable for lung delivery, without destroying biological activity. In response to the Grand Challenge in Global Health Initiative #3, we have been developing an inhalable needle-free live-attenuated measles virus vaccine for use in developing countries. Measles was chosen because it is the number one vaccine preventable killer of children worldwide. Powders were processed by CAN-BD, where a solution containing excipients and live-attenuated measles virus in water was mixed intimately with supercritical or near superctitical carbon dioxide to form an emulsion...
March 2008: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
C Santivarangkna, B Higl, P Foerst
Sugars are recognized protectants used in the preparation of dried starter cultures for fermented food industries, particularly as additives for the drying media. They increase viability of the starter cultures during drying and storage. This review intends to summarize and discuss their roles in each step of the preparation process. The main topics cover the role of sugars in the induction of compatible solutes and alteration of fermentation metabolites during growing of cells, the reduction of cryo- and thermal injuries and membrane damage during drying, as well as the formation of sugar glass matrices and the prevention of oxidation during storage...
May 2008: Food Microbiology
Stefan Kasapis
Through the years, the concept of glassy phenomena evolved from non-science to a highly specialized subject following the appreciation that structural properties or product defects could be rationalized on the basis of this amorphous vitreous transition. Special reference will be made in this review to sugar glasses in the presence of biopolymers which, increasingly, are used to innovate (e.g., replace gelatin) in confections, ice cream, boiled down sweets, etc. Keeping in mind that the subject cuts across several conventional fields, this manuscript is written with several objectives in view...
February 2008: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
H de Waard, W L J Hinrichs, M R Visser, C Bologna, H W Frijlink
In a previous study, it was shown that the incorporation of poorly soluble drugs (BCS class II) in sugar glasses could largely increase the drug's dissolution rate [van Drooge, D.J., Hinrichs, W.L.J., Frijlink, H.W., 2004 b. Anomalous dissolution behaviour of tablets prepared from sugar glass-based solid dispersions. J. Control. Release 97, 441-452]. However, the application of this technology had little effect when high drug loads or fast dissolving sugars were applied due to uncontrolled crystallization of the drug in the near vicinity of the dissolving tablet...
February 12, 2008: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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