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Pulmonary molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930804/venous-thromboembolism-in-gynecological-malignancy
#1
Abigail Cohen, Chung Sim Lim, Alun Huw Davies
OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized complication of gynecological malignancy and represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The review aimed to discuss the incidence, risk factors, and clinical presentation of VTE before examining the literature on the diagnosis, prevention, and management in the context of uterine, cervical, ovarian, and vulval cancers. METHODS/MATERIALS: A literature search was performed using Ovid Medline and Embase with the following words: "gynecological malignancy," "pelvic tumor," "venous thromboembolism," "deep vein thrombosis" and "pulmonary embolism...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915902/development-and-clinical-application-of-radiomics-in-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19(th) century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797981/rhabdoid-meningioma-arising-concurrent-in-pulmonary-and-intracranial-with-a-rare-malignant-clinical-progression-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Peng Zhao, Ning Li, Jinfeng Cao, Xiangtao Lin, Changhu Liang
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid meningioma (RM) is an unusual variant of meningioma, classified as WHO grade III. Although its recurrence is common, extracranial metastasis is rare and usually misdiagnosed. The transfer mechanism and pathway are ambiguous; once it develops, there is a poor prognosis and no effective management. The present case is the first report on concurrent intracranial and pulmonary RM with rapid and widespread metastasis. We hope this report can be a helpful reference for clinicians and radiologists...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796342/elucidation-of-insulin-assembly-at-acidic-and-neutral-ph-characterization-of-low-molecular-weight-oligomers
#4
Matthew T Mawhinney, Thomas L Williams, James L Hart, Mitra L Taheri, Brigita Urbanc
Deficiency in insulin secretion and function that characterize type 2 diabetes often requires administration of extraneous insulin, leading to injection-site amyloidosis. Insulin aggregation at neutral pH is not well understood. Although oligomer formation is believed to play an important role, insulin oligomers have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we elucidate similarities and differences between in vitro insulin aggregation at acidic and neutral pH for a range of insulin concentrations (2.5-100 μM) by using kinetic thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism, atomic force and electron microscopy imaging...
August 10, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790814/bacteriological-incidence-in-pneumonia-patients-with-pulmonary-emphysema-a-bacterial-floral-analysis-using-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-gene-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid
#5
Keisuke Naito, Kei Yamasaki, Kazuhiro Yatera, Kentaro Akata, Shingo Noguchi, Toshinori Kawanami, Kazumasa Fukuda, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Hiroshi Mukae
Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94) between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770121/necrotizing-pneumonia-an-emerging-problem-in-children
#6
REVIEW
I Brent Masters, Alan F Isles, Keith Grimwood
BACKGROUND: In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities and is often accompanied by empyema and bronchopleural fistulae. REVIEW: NP in children was first reported in children in 1994, and since then there has been a gradual increase in cases, which is partially explained by greater physician awareness and use of contrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and by temporal changes in circulating respiratory pathogens and antibiotic prescribing...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757299/the-incidence-of-subclinical-forms-of-urogenital-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
Roman Zachoval, Petr Nencka, Martina Vasakova, Emilie Kopecka, Vladimir Borovička, Jiri Wallenfels, Pavel Cermak
The aim of our study was to determine whether patients with pulmonary tuberculosis may have subclinical forms of urogenital tuberculosis. Between 2011 and 2012, a prospective study was conducted. Basic demographic parameters were recorded and the following investigations were performed: direct bacilloscopy of sputum, evaluation of affected lung fields and presence of cavities on chest X-ray, Mantoux tuberculin skin test II, and interferon gamma release assay. Culture and molecular methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine were performed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746152/intraoperative-molecular-imaging-combined-with-positron-emission-tomography-improves-surgical-management-of-peripheral-malignant-pulmonary-nodules
#8
Jarrod D Predina, Andrew D Newton, Jane Keating, Eduardo M Barbosa, Olugbenga Okusanya, Leilei Xia, Ashley Dunbar, Courtney Connolly, Michael P Baldassari, Jack Mizelle, Edward J Delikatny, John C Kucharczuk, Charuhas Deshpande, Sumith A Kularatne, Phillip Low, Jeffrey Drebin, Sunil Singhal
OBJECTIVE: To determine if intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) can improve detection of malignant pulmonary nodules. BACKGROUND: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is commonly utilized in preoperative assessment of patients with solid malignancies; however, false negatives and false positives remain major limitations. Using patients with pulmonary nodules as a study model, we hypothesized that IMI with a folate receptor targeted near-infrared contrast agent (OTL38) can improve malignant pulmonary nodule identification when combined with PET...
September 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693198/pulmonary-toxicity-generated-from-radiotherapeutic-treatment-of-thoracic-malignancies
#9
Guodong Deng, Ning Liang, Jian Xie, Hui Luo, Lili Qiao, Jingxin Zhang, Dawei Wang, Jiandong Zhang
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) remains a major obstacle for thoracic radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer, esophageal cancer and lymphoma. It is the principal dose-limiting complication, and can markedly impair the therapeutic ratio as well as a patient's quality of life. The current review presents the relevant concepts associated with RILI, including the pathogenic mechanisms and the potential treatment strategies, so as to achieve a general understanding of this issue. RILI comprises an acute radiation pneumonitis phase and subsequent late lung fibrosis...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683785/mesenteric-cysts-and-mesenteric-venous-thrombosis-leading-to-intestinal-necrosis-in-pregnancy-managed-with-laparotomy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Aris Giannos, Sofoklis Stavrou, Nikolaos Goumalatsos, George Fragkoulidis, Eleni Chra, Dimitrios Argiropoulos, Dimitrios Loutradis, Peter Drakakis
BACKGROUND: Mesenteric cyst is a rare clinical entity especially in pregnancy; therefore, few cases have been reported in the literature. The standard method of their treatment is surgical excision either with laparotomy or laparoscopy. In addition, mesenteric vein thrombosis is a rare and life-threatening condition in pregnancy and needs immediate treatment because it can lead to intestinal necrotic ischemia. This is the first report of the coexistence of mesenteric cysts and mesenteric vein thrombosis during gestation...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673474/new-developments-and-future-challenges-of-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-for-pulmonary-embolism
#11
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Philippe Robin, Pierre-Yves Salaun
Although widely validated, current tests for pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis, i.e. computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and V/Q planar scintigraphy, have some limitations. Drawbacks of CTPA include the radiation dose, some contra indications and a rising concern about a possible overdiagnosis/overtreatment of PE. On the other hand, V/Q planar scintigraphy has a high rate of non-diagnostic tests responsible for complex diagnostic algorithms. Since the PIOPED study, imaging equipment and radiopharmaceuticals have greatly evolved allowing the introduction of techniques that improve imaging of lung ventilation and perfusion...
June 27, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654764/deep-proteome-profiling-reveals-common-prevalence-of-mzb1-positive-plasma-b-cells-in-human-lung-and-skin-fibrosis
#12
Herbert B Schiller, Christoph H Mayr, Gabriela Leuschner, Maximilian Strunz, Claudia Staab-Weijnitz, Stefan Preisendörfer, Beate Eckes, Pia Moinzadeh, Thomas Krieg, David A Schwartz, Rudolf A Hatz, Jürgen Behr, Matthias Mann, Oliver Eickelberg
RATIONALE: Analyzing the molecular heterogeneity of different forms of organ fibrosis may reveal common and specific factors and thus identify potential future therapeutic targets. OBJECTIVES: We sought to use proteome-wide profiling of human tissue fibrosis to (1) identify common and specific signatures across endstage interstitial lung disease (ILD) cases, (2) characterize ILD subgroups in an unbiased fashion, and (3) identify common and specific features of lung and skin fibrosis...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611243/optimization-of-a-collagen-targeted-positron-emission-tomography-probe-for-molecular-imaging-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Pauline Désogère, Luis F Tapias, Tyson A Rietz, Nicholas Rotile, Francesco Blasi, Helen Day, Justin Elliot, Bryan C Fuchs, Michael Lanuti, Peter Caravan
There is a large unmet need for a simple, accurate, non-invasive, quantitative and high resolution imaging modality to detect lung fibrosis at early stage and to monitor disease progression. Overexpression of collagen is a hallmark of organ fibrosis. Here, we describe the optimization of a collagen-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) probe for staging pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Six peptides were synthesized, conjugated to a copper chelator, and radiolabeled with copper-64. The collagen affinity of each probe was measured in a plate-based assay...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608182/an-unmet-clinical-need-the-history-of-thrombus-imaging
#14
Gregory M Lanza, Grace Cui, Anne H Schmieder, Huiying Zhang, John S Allen, Michael J Scott, Todd Williams, Xiaoxia Yang
Robust thrombus imaging is an unresolved clinical unmet need dating back to the mid 1970s. While early molecular imaging approaches began with nuclear SPECT imaging, contrast agents for virtually all biomedical imaging modalities have been demonstrated in vivo with unique strengths and common weaknesses. Two primary molecular imaging targets have been pursued for thrombus imaging: platelets and fibrin. Some common issues noted over 40 years ago persist today. Acute thrombus is readily imaged with all probes and modalities, but aged thrombus remains a challenge...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588054/sustained-neurological-recovery-after-stroke-in-aged-rats-treated-with-a-novel-prostacyclin-analog
#15
Changjun Yang, Kelly M DeMars, Jon C Alexander, Marcelo Febo, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Targeting the prostaglandin I2 prostanoid (IP) receptor to reduce stroke injury has been hindered by the lack of selective drugs. MRE-269 is the active metabolite of selexipag showing a high selectivity toward the IP receptor. Selexipag has been recently approved for clinical use in pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that postischemic treatment with MRE-269 provides long-lasting neuroprotection with improved neurological outcomes in a clinically relevant rat stroke model...
July 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578306/multiple-recurrent-ischaemic-strokes-in-a-patient-with-cancer-is-there-a-role-for-the-initiation-of-anticoagulation-therapy-for-secondary-stroke-prevention
#16
Giselle Alexandra Suero-Abreu, Jia Zhen Cheng, Ryna Karina Then
A 52-year-old woman with a medical history of cervical and thyroid cancer, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, uncontrolled diabetes and heavy smoking was diagnosed with a new metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. While undergoing palliative chemotherapy, she developed dysarthria and left-sided weakness. Imaging studies showed multiple bilateral ischaemic strokes. On hospital days 2 and 5, she developed worsening neurological symptoms and imaging studies revealed new areas of ischaemia on respective days. Subsequent workup did not revealed a clear aetiology for the multiple ischaemic events and hypercoagulability studies were only significant for a mildly elevated serum D-dimer level...
June 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570270/molecular-imaging-of-oxidized-collagen-quantifies-pulmonary-and-hepatic-fibrogenesis
#17
Howard H Chen, Philip A Waghorn, Lan Wei, Luis F Tapias, Daniel T Schu Hle, Nicholas J Rotile, Chloe M Jones, Richard J Looby, Gaofeng Zhao, Justin M Elliott, Clemens K Probst, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Gregory Y Lauwers, Andrew M Tager, Kenneth K Tanabe, Michael Lanuti, Bryan C Fuchs, Peter Caravan
Fibrosis results from the dysregulation of tissue repair mechanisms affecting major organ systems, leading to chronic extracellular matrix buildup, and progressive, often fatal, organ failure. Current diagnosis relies on invasive biopsies. Noninvasive methods today cannot distinguish actively progressive fibrogenesis from stable scar, and thus are insensitive for monitoring disease activity or therapeutic responses. Collagen oxidation is a universal signature of active fibrogenesis that precedes collagen crosslinking...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545097/an-integrated-risk-predictor-for-pulmonary-nodules
#18
Paul Kearney, Stephen W Hunsucker, Xiao-Jun Li, Alex Porter, Steven Springmeyer, Peter Mazzone
It is estimated that over 1.5 million lung nodules are detected annually in the United States. Most of these are benign but frequently undergo invasive and costly procedures to rule out malignancy. A risk predictor that can accurately differentiate benign and malignant lung nodules could be used to more efficiently route benign lung nodules to non-invasive observation by CT surveillance and route malignant lung nodules to invasive procedures. The majority of risk predictors developed to date are based exclusively on clinical risk factors, imaging technology or molecular markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523317/mri-as-indicator-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-activity-from-morphological-to-molecular-level-assessment-a-case-report
#19
Maria Teodora Antuaneta Buzan, Hanelore Herta, Mihaela Maria Coman, Daniela Homorodean, Silviu Andrei Sfrângeu, Carmen Monica Pop
We present the case of an adult patient with active post-primary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and discuss specific morphological and textural aspects found at high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung. The 42-year-old man, heavy smoker, undertook a routine employment medical examination and was admitted to a referral pulmonology and TB center due to the abnormal findings seen on his chest radiography. The patient presented nonspecific symptoms, bilateral bronchial breath at pulmonary auscultation, inflammatory syndrome on the laboratory blood tests and positive sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, which together with the typical aspect on the chest radiography lead to a diagnosis of post-primary pulmonary TB and administration of specific medication...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498283/synovial-sarcoma-of-peripheral-nerves-analysis-of-15-cases
#20
John S A Chrisinger, Usama I Salem, Lars-Gunnar Kindblom, Behrang Amini, Magnus Hansson, Jeanne M Meis
Synovial sarcoma of peripheral nerve (SSPN) is rare with only 26 cases reported in English. SSPN is often mistaken for a benign or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) by clinicians and pathologists. Fifteen cases of SSPN were retrieved from the pathology files of 3 institutions. All tumors arose in a nerve based on imaging and/or operative findings and the diagnoses were histologically confirmed. Neuropathic symptoms predominated in 11 women and 4 men, 19- to 62-year-old (median, 39 years) with tumors involving the ulnar (5), median (3), peroneal (3) or sciatic (2) nerve, or the L4 or T1 nerve root (2)...
August 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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