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Pulmonary molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149626/clinical-implications-of-genetic-heterogeneity-in-multifocal-pulmonary-adenocarcinomas
#1
COMMENT
Tawee Tanvetyanon, Theresa A Boyle
Multifocal pulmonary adenocarcinomas are increasingly encountered in clinical practice, in part due to the increased availability and improvement in the thoracic imaging. Recognized as a distinct entity in the upcoming 8(th) edition of American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, multifocal adenocarcinomas exhibit several unique features such as the characteristic appearance of multiple ground glass opacities or nodules in computerized tomography (CT). Recent studies have suggested that the vast majority of these malignant lesions are genetically independent even when occurring synchronously in a single patient...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145528/lipidomics-reveals-dramatic-lipid-compositional-changes-in-the-maturing-postnatal-lung
#2
Sydney E Dautel, Jennifer E Kyle, Geremy Clair, Ryan L Sontag, Karl K Weitz, Anil K Shukla, Son N Nguyen, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Teresa Luders, Charles W Frevert, Sina A Gharib, Julia Laskin, James P Carson, Thomas O Metz, Richard A Corley, Charles Ansong
Lung immaturity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving normal lung development could provide insights on how to ameliorate disrupted development. While transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of normal lung development have been previously reported, characterization of changes in the lipidome is lacking. Lipids play significant roles in the lung, such as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in pulmonary surfactant; however, many of the roles of specific lipid species in normal lung development, as well as in disease states, are not well defined...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066672/intraoperative-molecular-imaging-to-identify-lung-adenocarcinomas
#3
REVIEW
Andrew D Newton, Gregory T Kennedy, Jarrod D Predina, Philip S Low, Sunil Singhal
Intraoperative molecular imaging is a promising new technology with numerous applications in lung cancer surgery. Accurate identification of small nodules and assessment of tumor margins are two challenges in pulmonary resections for cancer, particularly with increasing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). One potential solution to these problems is intraoperative use of a fluorescent contrast agent to improve detection of cancer cells. This technology requires both a targeted fluorescent dye that will selectively accumulate in cancer cells and a specialized imaging system to detect the cells...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053515/gender-differences-in-the-t-cell-profiles-of-the-airways-in-copd-patients-associated-with-clinical-phenotypes
#4
Helena Forsslund, Mingxing Yang, Mikael Mikko, Reza Karimi, Sven Nyrén, Benita Engvall, Johan Grunewald, Heta Merikallio, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Jan Wahlström, Åsa M Wheelock, C Magnus Sköld
T lymphocytes are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). How T cells are recruited to the lungs and contribute to the inflammatory process is largely unknown. COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and discriminating disease phenotypes based on distinct molecular and cellular pathways may provide new approaches for individualized diagnosis and therapies. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were obtained from 40 never-smokers, 40 smokers with normal lung function, and 38 COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043583/radiographic-manifestations-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-positive-patients-correlation-with-cd4-t-cell-count
#5
Mehrdad Bakhshayesh-Karam, Payam Tabarsi, Seyed Mehdi Mirsaiedi, Majid Valiollahpour Amiri, Soheila Zahirifard, Seyed Davood Mansoori, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND: Observations on Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in addition to epidemiologic molecular studies have recently provided strong evidence for the state of immune system as the major determinant of the TB imaging spectrum. However, the presence of any correlation between radiographic findings and the degree of immunosuppression in HIV+ patients still remains controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the TB radiographic manifestation in HIV+ patients and its relationship to the CD4 cell count...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040141/prenatal-diagnosis-of-smith-magenis-syndrome-in-two-fetuses-with-increased-nuchal-translucency-mild-lateral-ventriculomegaly-and-congenital-heart-defects
#6
Ting-Ying Lei, Ru Li, Fang Fu, Jun-Hui Wan, Yong-Ling Zhang, Xiang-Yi Jing, Can Liao
OBJECTIVE: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation disorder characterized by an interstitial deletion involving chromosome 17p11.2 containing the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene or due to mutation of RAI1. Few cases have been reported in the medical literature regarding prenatal diagnosis of SMS. We report on the prenatal diagnosis of SMS in two fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT), mild lateral ventriculomegaly, and congenital heart defects by whole-genome and high-resolution chromosome microarray analysis (CMA)...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932290/the-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-and-future-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Fernando J Martinez, Alison Chisholm, Harold R Collard, Kevin R Flaherty, Jeffrey Myers, Ganesh Raghu, Simon L F Walsh, Eric S White, Luca Richeldi
With the recent development of two effective treatments for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. The traditional approach to diagnosis emphasises the importance of thorough clinical and laboratory evaluations to exclude secondary causes of disease. High-resolution CT is a critical initial diagnostic test and acts as a tool to identify patients who should undergo surgical lung biopsy to secure a definitive histological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern...
January 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882143/expression-of-connexin-43-ion-channels-and-ca-2-handling-proteins-in-rat-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes
#8
Yaqiong Xiao, Xue Cai, Andrew Atkinson, Sunil Jit Logantha, Mark Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is thought to be triggered by ectopic beats, originating primarily in the myocardial sleeves surrounding the pulmonary veins (PVs). The mechanisms underlying these cardiac arrhythmias remain unclear. To investigate this, frozen sections of heart and lung tissue from adult rats without arrhythmia were obtained in different planes, stained with Masson's trichrome, and immunolabeled for connexin 43 (Cx43), caveolin-3 (Cav3), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4), Nav1...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869512/controversies-in-the-management-of-cancer-associated-thrombosis
#9
Marc Carrier, Paolo Prandoni
Cancer associated thrombosis (CAT) is a frequent complication among cancer patients. It is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and psychological burden. Areas covered: Low-molecular-weight heparin monotherapy for the initial 6 months is considered the standard of care for the acute and long-term management of CAT. For patients at high risk of recurrent CAT (e.g. active cancer or still undergoing anticancer therapy) beyond the initial 6 months of treatment, continuation of anticoagulation therapy for secondary prevention is usually recommended...
January 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799380/imaging-and-molecular-biomarkers-a-novel-approach-to-screen-populations-at-risk-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#10
EDITORIAL
Ivan O Rosas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793401/near-infrared-intraoperative-molecular-imaging-can-locate-metastases-to-the-lung
#11
Jane Keating, Andrew Newton, Ollin Venegas, Sarah Nims, Ryan Zeh, Jarrod Predina, Charuhas Deshpande, John Kucharczuk, Shuming Nie, E James Delikatny, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary metastasectomy is widely accepted for many tumor types because it may prolong survival and potentially cure some patients. However, intraoperative localization of pulmonary metastases can be technically challenging. We propose that intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging can be used as an adjunct during disease localization. METHODS: We inoculated 50 C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) flank tumors. After flank tumor growth, mice were injected through the tail vein with indocyanine green (ICG) before operation, and intraoperative imaging was used to detect pulmonary metastases...
February 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701763/limited-additive-value-of-the-ki-67-proliferative-index-on-patient-survival-in-world-health-organization-classified-pulmonary-carcinoids
#12
Dorian R A Swarts, Martina Rudelius, Sandra M H Claessen, Jack P Cleutjens, Stefan Seidl, Marco Volante, Frans C S Ramaekers, Ernst J M Speel
AIMS: Currently pulmonary carcinoids are separated into typical and atypical based on mitotic count and presence of necrosis, according to the World Health Organization. At variance with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, which are graded based on mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferative index, the use of Ki-67 for grading pulmonary carcinoids is still under debate. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study we evaluated the prognostic impact of Ki-67 assessment in a multicentre cohort of 201 carcinoids [147 typical carcinoids (TCs) and 54 atypical carcinoids (ACs)] using manual analysis (2000 cells counted) and digital image analysis (in-house Leica Qwin program; ≥4500 cells counted)...
February 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663638/pet-imaging-approaches-for-inflammatory-lung-diseases-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Delphine L Chen, Mark L Schiebler, Jin Mo Goo, Edwin J R van Beek
Inflammatory lung disease is one of the most common clinical scenarios, and yet, it is often poorly understood. Inflammatory lung disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, which are causing significant mortality and morbidity, have limited therapeutic options. Recently, new treatments have become available for pulmonary fibrosis. This review article will describe the new insights that are starting to be gained from positron emission tomography (PET) methods, by targeting molecular processes using dedicated radiotracers...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638823/-thoracic-manifestation-of-tuberculosis
#14
D Kienzl-Palma, H Prosch
CLINICAL ISSUE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and transmission is via an airborne route by droplet infection. In the majority of cases patients have thoracic TB, which most frequently presents with hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary manifestation. Due to the rise in incidence of TB in central Europe to be expected over the coming years, it is essential to be acquainted with the radiological manifestations of pulmonary TB, particularly to be able to discriminate active from inactive TB...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635384/splenic-tuberculosis-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-advanced-hiv-infection
#15
B Tiri, L M Saraca, E Luciano, F R Burkert, S Cappanera, E Cenci, D Francisci
The extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) constitutes to about 20% of all TB cases. Among extra-pulmonary form, splenic TB is very rare clinical condition especially as initial manifestation in a developed country. Diagnosis of splenic TB is challenging because it presents no specific symptoms or typical imaging findings and microbiological confirmation is not straight forward. We describe the case of a 55 year old Italian female with advanced HIV infection whose first AIDS clinical manifestation was a TB splenic abscess...
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599415/development-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-during-oral-dasatinib-therapy-for-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Sakura Morishita, Maki Hagihara, Megumi Itabashi, Yoshimi Ishii, Wataru Yamamoto, Ayumi Numata, Kenji Motohashi, Kenji Matsumoto, Shin Fujisawa, Hideaki Nakajima
We present a 36-year-old woman who had been taking oral dasatinib for 3 years for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Although adverse events such as thrombocytopenia and pleural effusion developed, she showed a major molecular response (MMR) 22 months after the initiation of oral dasatinib administration, and the therapy was thus continued. Approximately 34 months after oral dasatinib initiation, she developed severe exertional dyspnea and had to be urgently hospitalized. There was no apparent pleural effusion increase, and neither imaging nor blood test results suggested pneumonia or other infections...
August 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587704/continuing-education-on-imaging-pulmonary-inflammation
#17
Philip M Scherer, Delphine L Chen
Lung inflammatory diseases contribute significantly to the socioeconomic burden of disease. Yet very few new, effective therapies for respiratory disease have been approved for use. A major contributing factor is the lack of biomarkers that can accurately quantify the lung inflammatory burden and that can be used to understand the contribution of lung inflammation to loss in lung function. Molecular imaging approaches can detect and quantify the recruitment and activation of specific immune cells in lung inflammation...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586132/-99m-tc-zolmitriptan-radiolabeling-molecular-modeling-biodistribution-and-gamma-scintigraphy-as-a-hopeful-radiopharmaceutical-for-lung-nuclear-imaging
#18
H M Rashed, F A Marzook, H Farag
Lung imaging radiopharmaceuticals are helpful agents for measuring pulmonary blood flow and allow detection of pulmonary embolism and lung cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging. Zolmitriptan (a selective serotonin receptor agonist) was successfully labeled with (99m)Tc via direct labeling method under reductive conditions studying different factors affecting the labeling efficiency. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan was obtained with a maximum labeling yield of 92...
December 2016: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581824/pet-ct-in-nononcological-lung-diseases-current-applications-and-future-perspectives
#19
Selene Capitanio, Abdul Jalil Nordin, Abdul Rahim Noraini, Claudio Rossetti
Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) is an established diagnostic modality that has become an essential imaging tool in oncological practice. However, thanks to its noninvasive nature and its capability to provide physiological information, the main applications of this technique have significantly expanded.(18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for PET scanning and demonstrates metabolic activity in various tissues. Since activated inflammatory cells, like malignant cells, predominantly metabolise glucose as a source of energy and increase expression of glucose transporters when activated, FDG-PET/CT can be successfully used to detect and monitor a variety of lung diseases, such as infections and several inflammatory conditions...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568150/novel-methods-of-intraoperative-localization-and-margin-assessment-of-pulmonary-nodules
#20
Jane Keating, Sunil Singhal
Lung cancer screening has lead to frequent diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules, many of which require surgical biopsy for diagnosis and intervention. Subcentimeter and central nodules are particularly difficult to visualize or palpate during surgery, thus nodule localization can be a difficult problem for the thoracic surgeon. Although minimally invasive techniques including transthoracic computed tomography and bronchoscopic-guided biopsy may establish a diagnosis, these methods do not help locate nodules during surgery and can lead to inadequate tissue sampling...
2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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