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Pulmonary molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315455/home-versus-in-patient-treatment-for-deep-vein-thrombosis
#1
REVIEW
Richard Othieno, Emmanuel Okpo, Rachel Forster
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot blocks blood flow through a vein, which can occur after surgery, after trauma, or when a person has been immobile for a long time. Clots can dislodge and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism (PE)), causing death. DVT and PE are known by the term venous thromboembolism (VTE). Heparin (in the form of unfractionated heparin (UFH)) is a blood-thinning drug used during the first three to five days of DVT treatment...
January 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302953/utilization-of-targeted-near-infrared-molecular-imaging-to-improve-pulmonary-metastasectomy-of-osteosarcomas
#2
Jarrod D Predina, Andrew Newton, Charuhas Deshpande, Philip Low, Sunil Singhal
Pulmonary metastasectomy for osteosarcoma provides a select group of patients an opportunity for long-term survival and possible cure. Unfortunately, a complete metastasectomy is challenging due an inability to accurately identify lesions that lay below the threshold of preoperative imaging or intraoperative visual and tactile inspection. Growing evidence suggests that osteosarcomas express a number of unique molecular markers, including the folate receptor alpha. In this case report, we describe the application of a folate receptor-targeted, near-infrared optical contrast agent (OTL38) to improve osteosarcoma localization during minimally invasive pulmonary resection...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259252/image-guided-fluorescence-endomicroscopy-from-macro-to-micro-imaging-of-radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
Jessica R Perez, Norma Ybarra, Frederic Chagnon, Monica Serban, Gabriel Pare, Olivier Lesur, Jan Seuntjens, Issam El Naqa
Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a debilitating side effect of radiation therapy (RT) of several cancers including lung and breast cancers. Current clinical methods to assess and monitor RIPF involve diagnostic computed tomography (CT) imaging, which is restricted to anatomical macroscopic changes. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) or fluorescence endomicroscopy (FE) in combination with a fibrosis-targeted fluorescent probe allows to visualize RIPF in real-time at the microscopic level. However, a major limitation of FE imaging is the lack of anatomical localization of the endomicroscope within the lung...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241970/identification-of-a-folate-receptor-targeted-near-infrared-molecular-contrast-agent-to-localize-pulmonary-adenocarcinomas
#4
Jarrod D Predina, Andrew D Newton, Courtney Connolly, Ashley Dunbar, Michael Baldassari, Charuhas Deshpande, Edward Cantu, Jason Stadanlick, Sumith A Kularatne, Philip S Low, Sunil Singhal
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the number one cancer killer in the United States. Despite attempted curative surgical resection, nearly 40% of patients succumb to recurrent disease. High recurrence rates may be partially explained by data suggesting that 20% of NSCLC patients harbor synchronous disease that is missed during resection. In this report, we describe the use of a novel folate receptor-targeted near-infrared contrast agent (OTL38) to improve the intraoperative localization of NSCLC during pulmonary resection...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237455/molecular-and-histological-effects-of-mr-guided-pulsed-focused-ultrasound-to-the-rat-heart
#5
Kee W Jang, Tsang-Wei Tu, Matthew E Nagle, Bobbi K Lewis, Scott R Burks, Joseph A Frank
BACKGROUND: Image-guided high intensity focused ultrasound has been used as an extracorporeal cardiac pacing tool and to enhance homing of stem cells to targeted tissues. However, molecular changes in the myocardium after sonication have not been widely investigated. Magnetic-resonance (MR)-guided pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) was targeted to the rat myocardium over a range of pressures and the microenvironmental and histological effects were evaluated over time. METHODS: Eight-to-ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received T2-weighted MR images to target pFUS to the left ventricular and septum without cardiac or respiratory gating...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202877/folate-receptor-targeted-molecular-imaging-improves-identification-of-malignancy-during-pulmonary-resection-a-case-report
#6
Jarrod D Predina, Andrew Newton, Courtney Connolly, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: During minimally invasive pulmonary resection, both limited visualization and tactile feedback can make localization of pulmonary nodules and assessment for synchronous disease challenging. Intraoperative molecular imaging is an emerging technology that can enhance a surgeon's ability to detect cancers at the time of resection. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe the application of a folate receptor-targeted, near infrared optical contrast agent (OTL38) for the detection of an invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198911/xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-a-prospective-multicentre-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#7
Susan E Dorman, Samuel G Schumacher, David Alland, Pamela Nabeta, Derek T Armstrong, Bonnie King, Sandra L Hall, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Daniela M Cirillo, Nestani Tukvadze, Nino Bablishvili, Wendy Stevens, Lesley Scott, Camilla Rodrigues, Mubin I Kazi, Moses Joloba, Lydia Nakiyingi, Mark P Nicol, Yonas Ghebrekristos, Irene Anyango, Wilfred Murithi, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Lyrio Peres, Alena Skrahina, Vera Auchynka, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Mahmud Hanif, Xin Liu, Xing Yuan, Catharina C Boehme, Jerrold J Ellner, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that has improved the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, but its sensitivity is inadequate in patients with paucibacillary disease or HIV. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) was developed to overcome this limitation. We compared the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra with that of Xpert for detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms presenting at primary health-care centres and hospitals in eight countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, India, China, Georgia, Belarus, and Brazil)...
November 30, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169684/airway-morphology-and-inspiratory-flow-features-in-the-early-stages-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
REVIEW
Tristan Van de Moortele, Ute Goerke, Chris H Wendt, Filippo Coletti
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Inhaled pollutants are the prime risk factor, but the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased is poorly understood. Most studies on the disease onset and trajectory have focused on genetic and molecular biomarkers. Here we investigate the role of the airway anatomy and the consequent respiratory fluid mechanics on the development of COPD. METHODS: We segmented CT scans from a five-year longitudinal study in three groups of smokers (18 subjects each) having: (i) minimal/mild obstruction at baseline with declining lung function at year five; (ii) minimal/mild obstruction at baseline with stable function, and (iii) normal and stable lung function over the five year period...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158839/characterization-of-cardiac-dynamics-in-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-model-by-four-dimensional-optoacoustic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Hsiao-Chun Amy Lin, Xosé Luís Déan-Ben, Ivana Ivankovic, Melanie A Kimm, Katja Kosanke, Helena Haas, Reinhard Meier, Fabian Lohöfer, Moritz Wildgruber, Daniel Razansky
Extraction of murine cardiac functional parameters on a beat-by-beat basis is limited with the existing imaging modalities due to insufficient three-dimensional temporal resolution. Faster volumetric imaging methods enabling in vivo characterization of functional parameters are poised to advance cardiovascular research and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. We present a new approach based on analyzing contrast-enhanced optoacoustic (OA) images acquired at high volumetric frame rate without using cardiac gating or other approaches for motion correction...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156147/electromagnetic-navigational-bronchoscopy-versus-ct-guided-percutaneous-sampling-of-peripheral-indeterminate-pulmonary-nodules-a-cohort-study
#10
Kavita M Bhatt, Yasmeen K Tandon, Ruffin Graham, Charles T Lau, Jason K Lempel, Joseph T Azok, Peter J Mazzone, Erika Schneider, Nancy A Obuchowski, Michael A Bolen
Purpose To compare the diagnostic yield and complication rates of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic (ENB)-guided and computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous tissue sampling of lung nodules. Materials and Methods Retrospectively identified were 149 patients sampled percutaneously with CT guidance and 146 patients who underwent ENB with transbronchial biopsy of a lung lesion between 2013 and 2015. Clinical data, incidence of complications, and nodule pathologic analyses were assessed through electronic medical record review...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139101/-endobronchial-ultrasound-ebus-an-update-2017
#11
K Darwiche, F Özkan, C Wolters, S Eisenmann
Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) with the two modalities curved and radial EBUS significantly improved the diagnostics in several pulmonary diseases. The examination and staging of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in patients with known or suspected lung malignancy as well as the evaluation of unknown pulmonary or mediastinal lesions can be achieved with minimal invasive means when using EBUS. More invasive surgical procedures for diagnostic purposes can be omitted. The diagnostic yield also increases when EBUS is applied in sarcoidosis or mediastinal lymph node tuberculosis but only to some extend in case of lymphoma...
November 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113271/significance-of-imaging-and-clinical-features-in-the-differentiation-between-primary-and-secondary-pulmonary-lymphoma
#12
Yuhao Dong, Miaoyu Zeng, Bin Zhang, Lujun Han, Entao Liu, Zhouyang Lian, Jing Liu, Changhong Liang, Shuixing Zhang
The aim of the present study was to analyze the differences in imaging and clinical features between primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) and secondary pulmonary lymphoma (SPL) to provide insight into pulmonary lymphoma for an improved clinical diagnosis. A retrospective study of 38 patients with pulmonary lymphoma (19 PPL and 19 SPL) treated between September 1, 2006, and December 31, 2015, was performed. The clinical manifestations, and computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT images of each case were collected...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076898/68ga-dota-tate-pet-ct-for-molecular-imaging-of-somatostatin-receptor-expression-in-extra-adrenal-paraganglioma-in-a-case-of-complete-carney-triad
#13
Thorsten Derlin, Dagmar Hartung, Katja Hueper
Carney triad is a very rare syndrome characterized by the synchronous or metachronous occurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, pulmonary chondroma, and extra-adrenal paraganglioma. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with complete Carney triad who underwent a Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT scan for restaging of metastasizing extra-adrenal paraganglioma and for evaluation of targeted radionuclide therapy potential. On the Ga-DOTA-TATE PET scan, increased tracer accumulation was observed in paraganglioma metastases...
December 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048936/computed-tomography-in-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-main-findings-differential-diagnosis-and-pitfalls
#14
Olívia Meira Dias, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Francesca Pennati, Andrea Aliverti, Rodrigo Caruso Chate, Márcio Valente Yamada Sawamura, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a disease with variable clinical presentation in which inflammation in the lung parenchyma is caused by the inhalation of specific organic antigens or low molecular weight substances in genetically susceptible individuals. Alterations of the acute, subacute and chronic forms may eventually overlap, and the diagnosis based on temporality and presence of fibrosis (acute/inflammatory HP vs. chronic HP) seems to be more feasible and useful in clinical practice. Differential diagnosis of chronic HP with other interstitial fibrotic diseases is challenging due to the overlap of the clinical history, and the functional and imaging findings of these pathologies in the terminal stages...
January 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035378/molecular-similarities-and-differences-from-human-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-corresponding-mouse-model-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry-in-comparative-medicine
#15
Michaela Aichler, Thomas Kunzke, Achim Buck, Na Sun, Maximilian Ackermann, Danny Jonigk, Andreas Gaumann, Axel Walch
Animal models can reproduce some model-specific aspects of human diseases, but some animal models translate poorly or fail to translate to the corresponding human disease. Here, we develop a strategy to systematically compare human and mouse tissues, and conduct a proof-of-concept experiment to identify molecular similarities and differences using patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and a bleomycin-induced fibrosis mouse model. Our novel approach employs high-throughput tissue microarrays (TMAs) of humans and mice, high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR-MSI) to spatially resolve mass spectra at the level of specific metabolites, and hierarchical clustering and pathway enrichment analysis to identify functionally similar/different molecular patterns and pathways in pathological lesions of humans and mice...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930804/venous-thromboembolism-in-gynecological-malignancy
#16
Abigail Cohen, Chung Sim Lim, Alun Huw Davies
OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized complication of gynecological malignancy and represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The review aimed to discuss the incidence, risk factors, and clinical presentation of VTE before examining the literature on the diagnosis, prevention, and management in the context of uterine, cervical, ovarian, and vulval cancers. METHODS/MATERIALS: A literature search was performed using Ovid Medline and Embase with the following words: "gynecological malignancy," "pelvic tumor," "venous thromboembolism," "deep vein thrombosis" and "pulmonary embolism...
November 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915902/development-and-clinical-application-of-radiomics-in-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19th century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797981/rhabdoid-meningioma-arising-concurrent-in-pulmonary-and-intracranial-with-a-rare-malignant-clinical-progression-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Peng Zhao, Ning Li, Jinfeng Cao, Xiangtao Lin, Changhu Liang
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid meningioma (RM) is an unusual variant of meningioma, classified as World Health Organization grade III. Although its recurrence is common, extracranial metastasis is rare and usually misdiagnosed. The transfer mechanism and pathway are ambiguous; once the metastasis occurs, the prognosis is poor, and there is no effective management. The present case is the first report of concurrent intracranial and pulmonary RM with rapid and widespread metastasis. We hope this report can serve as a helpful reference for clinicians and radiologists...
November 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796342/elucidation-of-insulin-assembly-at-acidic-and-neutral-ph-characterization-of-low-molecular-weight-oligomers
#19
Matthew T Mawhinney, Thomas L Williams, James L Hart, Mitra L Taheri, Brigita Urbanc
Deficiency in insulin secretion and function that characterize type 2 diabetes often requires administration of extraneous insulin, leading to injection-site amyloidosis. Insulin aggregation at neutral pH is not well understood. Although oligomer formation is believed to play an important role, insulin oligomers have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we elucidate similarities and differences between in vitro insulin aggregation at acidic and neutral pH for a range of insulin concentrations (2.5-100 μM) by using kinetic thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism, atomic force and electron microscopy imaging...
November 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790814/bacteriological-incidence-in-pneumonia-patients-with-pulmonary-emphysema-a-bacterial-floral-analysis-using-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-gene-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid
#20
Keisuke Naito, Kei Yamasaki, Kazuhiro Yatera, Kentaro Akata, Shingo Noguchi, Toshinori Kawanami, Kazumasa Fukuda, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Hiroshi Mukae
Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94) between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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