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Pulmonary molecular imaging

Dorian R A Swarts, Martina Rudelius, Sandra M H Claessen, Jack P Cleutjens, Stefan Seidl, Marco Volante, Frans C S Ramaekers, Ernst J M Speel
AIMS: Currently pulmonary carcinoids are separated into typical (TC) and atypical (AC) based on mitotic count and presence of necrosis, according to the WHO. At variance with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, which are graded based on mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferative index, the use of Ki-67 for grading pulmonary carcinoids is still under debate. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study we evaluated the prognostic impact of Ki-67 assessment in a multicenter cohort of 201 carcinoids (147 TCs, 54 ACs), using manual analysis (2000 cells counted) and digital image analysis (in-house Leica Qwin program; ≥ 4500 cells counted)...
October 4, 2016: Histopathology
Delphine L Chen, Mark L Schiebler, Jin Mo Goo, Edwin J R van Beek
Inflammatory lung disease is one of the most common clinical scenarios, and yet, it is often poorly understood. Inflammatory lung disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, which are causing significant mortality and morbidity, have limited therapeutic options. Recently, new treatments have become available for pulmonary fibrosis. This review article will describe the new insights that are starting to be gained from positron emission tomography (PET) methods, by targeting molecular processes using dedicated radiotracers...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
D Kienzl-Palma, H Prosch
CLINICAL ISSUE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and transmission is via an airborne route by droplet infection. In the majority of cases patients have thoracic TB, which most frequently presents with hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary manifestation. Due to the rise in incidence of TB in central Europe to be expected over the coming years, it is essential to be acquainted with the radiological manifestations of pulmonary TB, particularly to be able to discriminate active from inactive TB...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
B Tiri, L M Saraca, E Luciano, F R Burkert, S Cappanera, E Cenci, D Francisci
The extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) constitutes to about 20% of all TB cases. Among extra-pulmonary form, splenic TB is very rare clinical condition especially as initial manifestation in a developed country. Diagnosis of splenic TB is challenging because it presents no specific symptoms or typical imaging findings and microbiological confirmation is not straight forward. We describe the case of a 55 year old Italian female with advanced HIV infection whose first AIDS clinical manifestation was a TB splenic abscess...
2016: IDCases
Sakura Morishita, Maki Hagihara, Megumi Itabashi, Yoshimi Ishii, Wataru Yamamoto, Ayumi Numata, Kenji Motohashi, Kenji Matsumoto, Shin Fujisawa, Hideaki Nakajima
We present a 36-year-old woman who had been taking oral dasatinib for 3 years for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Although adverse events such as thrombocytopenia and pleural effusion developed, she showed a major molecular response (MMR) 22 months after the initiation of oral dasatinib administration, and the therapy was thus continued. Approximately 34 months after oral dasatinib initiation, she developed severe exertional dyspnea and had to be urgently hospitalized. There was no apparent pleural effusion increase, and neither imaging nor blood test results suggested pneumonia or other infections...
August 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Philip M Scherer, Delphine L Chen
Lung inflammatory diseases contribute significantly to the socioeconomic burden of disease. Yet very few new, effective therapies for respiratory disease have been approved for use. A major contributing factor is the lack of biomarkers that can accurately quantify the lung inflammatory burden and that can be used to understand the contribution of lung inflammation to loss in lung function. Molecular imaging approaches can detect and quantify the recruitment and activation of specific immune cells in lung inflammation...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
H M Rashed, F A Marzook, H Farag
Lung imaging radiopharmaceuticals are helpful agents for measuring pulmonary blood flow and allow detection of pulmonary embolism and lung cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging. Zolmitriptan (a selective serotonin receptor agonist) was successfully labeled with (99m)Tc via direct labeling method under reductive conditions studying different factors affecting the labeling efficiency. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan was obtained with a maximum labeling yield of 92...
September 1, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Selene Capitanio, Abdul Jalil Nordin, Abdul Rahim Noraini, Claudio Rossetti
Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) is an established diagnostic modality that has become an essential imaging tool in oncological practice. However, thanks to its noninvasive nature and its capability to provide physiological information, the main applications of this technique have significantly expanded.(18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for PET scanning and demonstrates metabolic activity in various tissues. Since activated inflammatory cells, like malignant cells, predominantly metabolise glucose as a source of energy and increase expression of glucose transporters when activated, FDG-PET/CT can be successfully used to detect and monitor a variety of lung diseases, such as infections and several inflammatory conditions...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Jane Keating, Sunil Singhal
Lung cancer screening has lead to frequent diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules, many of which require surgical biopsy for diagnosis and intervention. Subcentimeter and central nodules are particularly difficult to visualize or palpate during surgery, thus nodule localization can be a difficult problem for the thoracic surgeon. Although minimally invasive techniques including transthoracic computed tomography and bronchoscopic-guided biopsy may establish a diagnosis, these methods do not help locate nodules during surgery and can lead to inadequate tissue sampling...
2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Sohan Seth, Ahsan R Akram, Paul McCool, Jody Westerfeld, David Wilson, Stephen McLaughlin, Kevin Dhaliwal, Christopher K I Williams
Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy...
2016: Scientific Reports
L Richeldi
The recent approval of two safe and effective treatments for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) had as a direct consequence the absolute need for an accurate and early diagnosis. The standard approach to IPF diagnosis has proven to be effective and emphasized the importance of clinical and laboratory evaluations to exclude known causes of pulmonary fibrosis. At the same time, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has proven to be the crucial initial diagnostic test, by identifying those patients who should undergo surgical lung biopsy to secure a confident diagnosis and an adequate treatment...
September 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Nihal Bakeer, Jeanne James, Swarnava Roy, Janaka Wansapura, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, John N Lorenz, Hanna Osinska, Kurt Backer, Anne-Cecile Huby, Archana Shrestha, Omar Niss, Robert Fleck, Charles T Quinn, Michael D Taylor, Enkhsaikhan Purevjav, Bruce J Aronow, Jeffrey A Towbin, Punam Malik
Cardiopulmonary complications are the leading cause of mortality in sickle cell anemia (SCA). Elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, pulmonary hypertension, diastolic, and autonomic dysfunction have all been described, but a unifying pathophysiology and mechanism explaining the poor prognosis and propensity to sudden death has been elusive. Herein, SCA mice underwent a longitudinal comprehensive cardiac analysis, combining state-of-the-art cardiac imaging with electrocardiography, histopathology, and molecular analysis to determine the basis of cardiac dysfunction...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ashley E Van Avermaete, Phi T Trac, Theresa W Gauthier, My N Helms
At birth, the lung undergoes a profound phenotypic switch from secretion to absorption, which allows for adaptation to breathing independently. Promoting and sustaining this phenotype is critically important in normal alveolar growth and gas exchange throughout life. Several in vitro studies have characterized the role of key regulatory proteins, signaling molecules, and steroid hormones that can influence the rate of lung fluid clearance. However, in vivo examinations must be performed to evaluate whether these regulatory factors play important physiological roles in regulating perinatal lung liquid absorption...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jenna Rebelo, Smriti Nayan, Karen Choong, Martha Fulford, Anthony Chan, Doron D Sommer
OBJECTIVE: To review the thrombotic complications of head and neck infections, including Lemierre's syndrome, and their management. METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric patients presenting to McMaster Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. The literature was reviewed for evidence regarding the use of anticoagulation therapy in this population. RESULTS: Eleven cases (6 males, 5 females) were identified. The median age was 10...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Reza Golestani, Mahmoud Razavian, Yunpeng Ye, Jiasheng Zhang, Jae-Joon Jung, Jakub Toczek, Kiran Gona, Hye-Yeong Kim, Jack A Elias, Chun Geun Lee, Robert J Homer, Mehran M Sadeghi
: Imaging techniques for detection of molecular and cellular processes that precede or accompany lung diseases are needed. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play key roles in the development of pulmonary pathology. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the feasibility of in vivo MMP-targeted molecular imaging for detection of lung inflammation and remodeling. METHODS: Lung-specific IL-13 transgenic [Club cell 10-kDa protein (CC10)-IL-13Tg)] mice, and wild type (WT) littermates were used in this study...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Myriam Amsallem, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Kate Hanneman, Andre Denault, François Haddad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to describe the recent advances made in imaging of the right heart, including deformation imaging, tissue, and flow characterization by MRI, and molecular imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent developments have been made in the field of deformation imaging of the right heart, which may improve risk stratification of patients with heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. In addition, more attention has been given to load adaptability metrics of the right heart; these simplified indices, however, still face challenges from a conceptual point of view...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Yasunori Tome, Shuya Yano, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Sumiyuki Mii, Fuminari Uehara, Shinji Miwa, Michael Bouvet, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Fuminori Kanaya, Robert M Hoffman
BACKGROUND: We report here imaging of the behavior of αv integrin linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in human osteosarcoma cells colonizing the lung of nude mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 143B osteosarcoma cells expressing αv integrin-GFP were generated by transfection of an αv integrin-GFP fusion-gene vector pCMV-AC- ITGAV-GFP. In order to generate experimental lung metastases, 143B osteosarcoma cells (1×10(6)), stably expressing αv integrin-GFP, were injected intravenously via the tail vein...
August 2016: Anticancer Research
Agnieszka A Książek, Katharyn J Mitchell, Laurent Morax, Colin C Schwarzwald, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic heart transplantation (HHT) in rodent animal models represents an important technique enabling studies on organ transplantation immunology and pharmaceutical development. Recent investigations used nonworking HHT designs, with the left ventricle (LV) bypassed in the anastomosis system. In spite of their principal success, the lack of orthogonal ventricular filling leads to myocardial atrophy. However, when focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the in vivo remodeling of the myocardium or cell-based cardiovascular implants, a nonworking model is suboptimal as it lacks the native-analogous hemodynamic and metabolic situation...
July 20, 2016: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Arthur Varoquaux, Electron Kebebew, Fréderic Sebag, Katherine Wolf, Jean-François Henry, Karel Pacak, David Taïeb
The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from surgery to abstention or therapeutic radiation with curative-like outcomes...
September 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
M G Ribeiro, M C F Lima, M M J Franco, J Megid, L M Soares, L H A Machado, M Miyata, F R Pavan, M B Heinemann, A F Souza Filho, G H B Lara, O C Sanches, C D C Sanches, F J P Listoni, A C Paes
This report describes a fatal case of a pet dog with major enteric signs owned by a family that has experienced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the household. Clinical and epidemiological aspects, imaging data, microbiological, haematological and histopathological examinations were assessed to diagnosis of disease. gyrB-RFLP, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR allowed molecular detection of M. tuberculosis strain from S family. The resazurin microtiter assay indicated that all isolates were resistant to isoniazid, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, streptomycin and amikacin...
June 30, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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