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Pulmonary molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754210/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-current-diagnostic-methodologies-and-a-new-molecular-approach
#1
REVIEW
S Moura, L Cerqueira, A Almeida
The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the main pathogenic agent responsible for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Immunocompromised patients are more likely to develop this pathology due to a decrease in the immune system's defense capacity. Despite of the low occurrence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, this pathology presents high rates of mortality, mostly due to late and unspecific diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic methods used to detect this fungal infection are conventional mycological examination (direct microscopic examination, histological examination, and culture), imaging, non-culture-based tests for the detection of galactomannan, β(1,3)-glucan and an extracellular glycoprotein, and molecular tests based on PCR...
May 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725304/coupled-immunological-and-biomechanical-model-of-emphysema-progression
#2
Mario Ceresa, Andy L Olivares, Jérôme Noailly, Miguel A González Ballester
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disabling respiratory pathology, with a high prevalence and a significant economic and social cost. It is characterized by different clinical phenotypes with different risk profiles. Detecting the correct phenotype, especially for the emphysema subtype, and predicting the risk of major exacerbations are key elements in order to deliver more effective treatments. However, emphysema onset and progression are influenced by a complex interaction between the immune system and the mechanical properties of biological tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724800/the-importance-of-quality-in-pulmonary-v-q-imaging
#3
April Mann, Mario DiDea, France Fournier, Daniel Tempesta, Jessica Williams, Norman LaFrance
As the healthcare environment continues to change and morph into a system focusing on increased quality and evidence-based outcomes, nuclear medicine technologists must be reminded they play a critical role in achieving high quality interpretable images used to drive patient care, treatments and best possible outcomes. A survey performed by the Quality Committee, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging-Technologist Section demonstrated a clear knowledge gap exists amongst technologists regarding their understanding of quality, how it is measured, and how it should be achieved throughout all practicing technologists despite role and education level...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708527/a-multimodal-imaging-approach-based-on-micro-ct-and-fluorescence-molecular-tomography-for-longitudinal-assessment-of-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice
#4
Francesca Ruscitti, Francesca Ravanetti, Gaetano Donofrio, Yanto Ridwan, Paula van Heijningen, Jeroen Essers, Gino Villetti, Antonio Cacchioli, Wim Vos, Franco Fabio Stellari
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease characterized by the progressive and irreversible destruction of lung architecture, which causes significant deterioration in lung function and subsequent death from respiratory failure. The pathogenesis of IPF in experimental animal models has been induced by bleomycin administration. In this study, we investigate an IPF-like mouse model induced by a double intratracheal bleomycin instillation. Standard histological assessments used for studying lung fibrosis are invasive terminal procedures...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686661/molecular-imaging-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-using-immunopet-mri-the-future-looks-bright
#5
REVIEW
Christopher R Thornton
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of immuno-compromised humans caused by the ubiquitous environmental mold Aspergillus . Biomarker tests for the disease lack sensitivity and specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy is slow, insensitive, and undesirable in critically ill patients. A computed tomogram (CT) of the chest offers a simple non-intrusive diagnostic procedure for rapid decision making, and so is used in many hematology units to drive antifungal treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668262/visualization-of-mycobacterial-biomarkers-and-tuberculosis-drugs-in-infected-tissue-by-maldi-ms-imaging
#6
Landry Blanc, Anne J Lenaerts, Véronique Dartois, Brendan Prideaux
MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique capable of label-free identification and visualization of analytes in tissue sections. We have previously applied MALDI-MSI to study the spatial distribution of tuberculosis (TB) drugs in necrotic lung granulomas characteristic of pulmonary TB disease, revealing heterogeneous and often suboptimal drug distribution. To investigate the impact of differential drug distribution at the sites of infection, we sought to image mycobacterial biomarkers to co-register drugs and bacteria in lesion sections...
April 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661489/comparison-of-the-effects-of-edoxaban-an-oral-direct-factor-xa-inhibitor-on-venous-thromboembolism-between-patients-with-and-without-cancer
#7
Satoshi Ikeda, Seiji Koga, Yuki Yamagata, Masamichi Eguchi, Daisuke Sato, Takahiro Muroya, Tsuyoshi Yonekura, Akira Tsuneto, Tsuyoshi Yoshimuta, Yuji Koide, Hiroaki Kawano, Koji Maemura
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent and serious complication of cancer. The current guidelines in the USA and Europe recommend low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the treatment of cancer-associated VTE. In Japan, LMWH is not given for the treatment of VTE; instead edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, was approved for the treatment of VTE in September 2014. However, the efficacy and safety of the factor Xa inhibitor in cancer patients have not been fully elucidated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626619/a-brief-report-localization-of-pulmonary-ground-glass-opacities-with-folate-receptor-targeted-intraoperative-molecular-imaging
#8
Jarrod D Predina, Andrew Newton, Christopher Corbett, Leilei Xia, Lydia Frenzel Sulyok, Michael Shin, Charuhas Deshpande, Leslie Litzky, Eduardo Barbosa, Philip S Low, John C Kucharczuk, Sunil Singhal
PURPOSE: Intraoperative localization and resection of ill-defined pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGOs) during minimally invasive pulmonary resection is technically challenging. Current preoperative techniques to facilitate GGO localization include microcoil and hook-wire placement, but have logistic limitations, carry safety concerns, and do not help with margin assessment. In this clinical trial, we explore an alternative method involving near-infrared molecular imaging using a folate receptor-targeted agent, OTL38, to improve localization and margin confirmation of GGOs...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607803/molecular-imaging-in-oncology-using-positron-emission-tomography
#9
Thorsten Derlin, Viktor Grünwald, Jörg Steinbach, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Tobias L Ross
BACKGROUND: Anatomical and molecular data can be acquired simultaneously through the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a hybrid technique. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals can be used to characterize various metabolic processes or to visualize the expression of receptors, enzymes, and other molecular target structures. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, as well as on guidelines from Germany and abroad and on systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
March 16, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587932/-the-clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-adenocarcinoma-presented-by-multi-focal-ggo
#10
Yang Song, Naixin Liang, Shanqing Li
Due to emphasis on early screening for lung cancer, the detection rate of multiple ground glass opacities (GGOs) on computed tomography (CT) image increases in recent years, and research on multifocal adenocarcinomas presented by GGOs has been thriving. It is more common in women and non-smokers and has excellent prognosis both in patients with natural history and after surgery. These clinical features suggest that it is likely to be a distinct disease entity. From the perspective of molecular genetics, lesions in the same individual are likely to have distinct clonal features...
March 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573050/mri-for-solitary-pulmonary-nodule-and-mass-assessment-current-state-of-the-art
#11
Yoshiharu Ohno, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Hiroto Hatabu, Joon Beom Seo, Edwin J R van Beek
Since the clinical introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the chest has been one of its most challenging applications, and many physicists and radiologists have tried since the 1980s to use MR for assessment of different lung diseases as well as mediastinal and pleural diseases. Since then, however, technical advances in sequencing, scanners, and coils, adaptation of parallel imaging techniques, utilization of contrast media, and development of postprocessing tools have been reported by many basic and clinical researchers...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568374/an-open-label-trial-of-folate-receptor-targeted-intraoperative-molecular-imaging-to-localize-pulmonary-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#12
Jarrod D Predina, Andrew D Newton, Leilei Xia, Christopher Corbett, Courtney Connolly, Michael Shin, Lydia Frezel Sulyok, Leslie Litzky, Charuhas Deshpande, Shuming Nie, Sumith A Kularatne, Philip S Low, Sunil Singhal
Background: Clinical applicability of folate receptor-targeted intraoperative molecular imaging (FR-IMI) has been established for surgically resectable pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A role for FR-IMI in other lung cancer histologies has not been studied. In this study, we evaluate feasibility of FR-IMI in patients undergoing pulmonary resection for squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Methods: In a human clinical trial (NCT02602119), twelve subjects with pulmonary SCCs underwent FR-IMI with a near-infrared contrast agent that targets the folate receptor-α (FRα), OTL38...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526883/ethyl-pyruvate-improves-pulmonary-function-in-mice-with-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury-as-monitored-with-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mr-imaging
#13
Shota Hodono, Akihiro Shimokawa, Neil J Stewart, Yukiko Yamauchi, Renya Nishimori, Mami Yamane, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara, Atsuomi Kimura
PURPOSE: High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1), which is one of the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules relating to various inflammatory diseases, has gained interest as a therapeutic target because of its involvement in wound healing processes. In the present study, we investigated HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target in a model of lung fibrosis using a preclinical hyperpolarized 129 Xe (HPXe) MRI system. METHODS: Lung injury was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of bleomycin (BLM) in 19 mice...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484083/adrenal-mass-of-unusual-etiology-ewing-sarcoma-in-a-young-man
#14
Levent Soydan, Ali Aslan Demir, Elif Sayman, Burcu Onomay Celik, Bala Basak Oven Ustaalioglu
Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor belong to the Ewing sarcoma (ES) family of tumors originating from a primitive neural tube. We report a 31-year-old man who was admitted to the urology clinic with complaints of fever, nausea, and dysuria. A right-sided adrenal mass was detected during ultrasonography. The lesion was then evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging, which showed areas of necrosis amid heterogeneous solid areas. Whole body scan with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography and bone scan studies showed pulmonary and osseous metastatic foci...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463557/the-airway-transcriptome-as-a-biomarker-for-early-lung-cancer-detection
#15
Ehab Billatos, Jessica L Vick, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum E Spira
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death due to its advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection of lung cancer can be improved by better defining who should be screened radiographically, and determining which imaging-detected pulmonary nodules are malignant. Gene expression biomarkers measured in normal-appearing airway epithelium provide an opportunity to use lung cancer associated molecular changes in this tissue for early detection of lung cancer. Molecular changes in the airway may result from an etiologic field of injury and/or field cancerization...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397932/a-phase-i-clinical-trial-of-targeted-intraoperative-molecular-imaging-for-pulmonary-adenocarcinomas
#16
Jarrod D Predina, Andrew D Newton, Jane Keating, Ashley Dunbar, Courtney Connolly, Michael Baldassari, Jack Mizelle, Leilei Xia, Charuhas Deshpande, John Kucharczuk, Philip S Low, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative identification of pulmonary nodules, particularly small lesions, can be challenging. We hypothesize that folate receptor-targeted intraoperative molecular imagining can be safe and improve localization of pulmonary nodules during resection. METHODS: Twenty subjects with biopsy-proven pulmonary adenocarcinomas were enrolled in a phase I clinical trial to test the safety and feasibility of OTL38, a novel folate receptor-α (FRα) targeted optical contrast agent...
March 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390280/clinical-and-pathology-analysis-of-1-case-of-adult-pleural-pulmonary-blastoma-a-case-report
#17
Yi Liu, Dongbo Luo, Tongxin Du, Hongjiang Wang
RATIONALE: Pulmonary blastoma is a rare primary lung cancer that can be categorized into adult type and child type. The clinical symptoms and imaging features of pulmonary blastoma are nonspecific, making it difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Postoperative pathology with immunohistochemical staining can help diagnosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old male had chest tightness and shortness of breath. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed as pleural pulmonary blastoma based on computed tomography (CT) scan, pathology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular pathology...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384885/recurrent-stroke-in-a-patient-of-lung-cancer-without-pulmonary-mass-a-case-report
#18
Lisha Wang, Yan Xu, Minghui Tuo, Lei Zhang, Hong Zhang, Jing Wang
RATIONALE: Repeated occurring stroke in short intervals with hypercoagulability is unusual so in such cases the conventional vascular risk factors might not be the causes of stroke. PATIENT CONCERNS: We have presented a case of 60-year-old male presenting with recurrent stroke due to thrombophilia. DIAGNOSES: Lung cancer was detected by superficial lymph nodes ultrasound and further pathological examination. INTERVENTIONS: The patient suffered a recurrent stroke and he had persistently high level of D-dimer which suggested the diagnosis of thrombophilia, thus, he was treated with low-molecular-weight heparin...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368614/molecular-imaging-of-pulmonary-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Julien Dimastromatteo, Eric J Charles, Victor E Laubach
Imaging holds an important role in the diagnosis of lung diseases. Along with clinical tests, noninvasive imaging techniques provide complementary and valuable information that enables a complete differential diagnosis. Various novel molecular imaging tools are currently under investigation aimed toward achieving a better understanding of lung disease physiopathology as well as early detection and accurate diagnosis leading to targeted treatment. Recent research on molecular imaging methods that may permit differentiation of the cellular and molecular components of pulmonary disease and monitoring of immune activation are detailed in this review...
January 24, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350098/commentary-to-18-f-gp1-a-novel-pet-tracer-designed-for-high-sensitivity-low-background-detection-of-thrombi-imaging-activated-platelets-in-clots-are-we-getting-there
#20
Andrew W Stephens, Norman Koglin, Ludger M Dinkelborg
Thrombus formation can lead to heart attacks, stroke and pulmonary embolism, which are major causes of mortality. Current standard diagnostic imaging methods detect anatomic abnormalities such as vascular flow impairment but have limitations. By using a targeted molecular imaging approach critical components of a pathology can be selectively visualized and exploited for an improved diagnosis and patient management. The GPIIb/IIIa receptor is abundantly and specifically exposed on activated platelets and is the key receptor in thrombus formation...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
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