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Pulmonary molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882143/expression-of-connexin-43-ion-channels-and-ca-2-handling-proteins-in-rat-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes
#1
Yaqiong Xiao, Xue Cai, Andrew Atkinson, Sunil Jit Logantha, Mark Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is thought to be triggered by ectopic beats, originating primarily in the myocardial sleeves surrounding the pulmonary veins (PVs). The mechanisms underlying these cardiac arrhythmias remain unclear. To investigate this, frozen sections of heart and lung tissue from adult rats without arrhythmia were obtained in different planes, stained with Masson's trichrome, and immunolabeled for connexin 43 (Cx43), caveolin-3 (Cav3), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4), Nav1...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869512/controversies-in-the-management-of-cancer-associated-thrombosis
#2
Marc Carrier, Paolo Prandoni
Cancer associated thrombosis (CAT) is a frequent complication among cancer patients. It is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and psychological burden. Areas covered: Low-molecular-weight heparin monotherapy for the initial 6 months is considered the standard of care for the acute and long-term management of CAT. For patients at high risk of recurrent CAT (e.g. active cancer or still undergoing anticancer therapy) beyond the initial 6 months of treatment, continuation of anticoagulation therapy for secondary prevention is usually recommended...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799380/imaging-and-molecular-biomarkers-a-novel-approach-to-screen-populations-at-risk-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
EDITORIAL
Ivan O Rosas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793401/near-infrared-intraoperative-molecular-imaging-can-locate-metastases-to-the-lung
#4
Jane Keating, Andrew Newton, Ollin Venegas, Sarah Nims, Ryan Zeh, Jarrod Predina, Charuhas Deshpande, John Kucharczuk, Shuming Nie, E James Delikatny, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary metastasectomy is widely accepted for many tumor types because it may prolong survival and potentially cure some patients. However, intraoperative localization of pulmonary metastases can be technically challenging. We propose that intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging can be used as an adjunct during disease localization. METHODS: We inoculated 50 C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) flank tumors. After flank tumor growth, mice were injected through the tail vein with indocyanine green (ICG) before operation, and intraoperative imaging was used to detect pulmonary metastases...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701763/limited-additive-value-of-the-ki-67-proliferative-index-on-patient-survival-in-world-health-organization-classified-pulmonary-carcinoids
#5
Dorian R A Swarts, Martina Rudelius, Sandra M H Claessen, Jack P Cleutjens, Stefan Seidl, Marco Volante, Frans C S Ramaekers, Ernst J M Speel
AIMS: Currently pulmonary carcinoids are separated into typical and atypical based on mitotic count and presence of necrosis, according to the World Health Organization. At variance with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, which are graded based on mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferative index, the use of Ki-67 for grading pulmonary carcinoids is still under debate. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study we evaluated the prognostic impact of Ki-67 assessment in a multicentre cohort of 201 carcinoids [147 typical carcinoids (TCs) and 54 atypical carcinoids (ACs)] using manual analysis (2000 cells counted) and digital image analysis (in-house Leica Qwin program; ≥4500 cells counted)...
October 4, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663638/pet-imaging-approaches-for-inflammatory-lung-diseases-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#6
Delphine L Chen, Mark L Schiebler, Jin Mo Goo, Edwin J R van Beek
Inflammatory lung disease is one of the most common clinical scenarios, and yet, it is often poorly understood. Inflammatory lung disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, which are causing significant mortality and morbidity, have limited therapeutic options. Recently, new treatments have become available for pulmonary fibrosis. This review article will describe the new insights that are starting to be gained from positron emission tomography (PET) methods, by targeting molecular processes using dedicated radiotracers...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638823/-thoracic-manifestation-of-tuberculosis
#7
D Kienzl-Palma, H Prosch
CLINICAL ISSUE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and transmission is via an airborne route by droplet infection. In the majority of cases patients have thoracic TB, which most frequently presents with hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary manifestation. Due to the rise in incidence of TB in central Europe to be expected over the coming years, it is essential to be acquainted with the radiological manifestations of pulmonary TB, particularly to be able to discriminate active from inactive TB...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635384/splenic-tuberculosis-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-advanced-hiv-infection
#8
B Tiri, L M Saraca, E Luciano, F R Burkert, S Cappanera, E Cenci, D Francisci
The extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) constitutes to about 20% of all TB cases. Among extra-pulmonary form, splenic TB is very rare clinical condition especially as initial manifestation in a developed country. Diagnosis of splenic TB is challenging because it presents no specific symptoms or typical imaging findings and microbiological confirmation is not straight forward. We describe the case of a 55 year old Italian female with advanced HIV infection whose first AIDS clinical manifestation was a TB splenic abscess...
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599415/development-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-during-oral-dasatinib-therapy-for-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#9
Sakura Morishita, Maki Hagihara, Megumi Itabashi, Yoshimi Ishii, Wataru Yamamoto, Ayumi Numata, Kenji Motohashi, Kenji Matsumoto, Shin Fujisawa, Hideaki Nakajima
We present a 36-year-old woman who had been taking oral dasatinib for 3 years for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Although adverse events such as thrombocytopenia and pleural effusion developed, she showed a major molecular response (MMR) 22 months after the initiation of oral dasatinib administration, and the therapy was thus continued. Approximately 34 months after oral dasatinib initiation, she developed severe exertional dyspnea and had to be urgently hospitalized. There was no apparent pleural effusion increase, and neither imaging nor blood test results suggested pneumonia or other infections...
August 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587704/continuing-education-on-imaging-pulmonary-inflammation
#10
Philip M Scherer, Delphine L Chen
Lung inflammatory diseases contribute significantly to the socioeconomic burden of disease. Yet very few new, effective therapies for respiratory disease have been approved for use. A major contributing factor is the lack of biomarkers that can accurately quantify the lung inflammatory burden and that can be used to understand the contribution of lung inflammation to loss in lung function. Molecular imaging approaches can detect and quantify the recruitment and activation of specific immune cells in lung inflammation...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586132/-99m-tc-zolmitriptan-radiolabeling-molecular-modeling-biodistribution-and-gamma-scintigraphy-as-a-hopeful-radiopharmaceutical-for-lung-nuclear-imaging
#11
H M Rashed, F A Marzook, H Farag
Lung imaging radiopharmaceuticals are helpful agents for measuring pulmonary blood flow and allow detection of pulmonary embolism and lung cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging. Zolmitriptan (a selective serotonin receptor agonist) was successfully labeled with (99m)Tc via direct labeling method under reductive conditions studying different factors affecting the labeling efficiency. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan was obtained with a maximum labeling yield of 92...
September 1, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581824/pet-ct-in-nononcological-lung-diseases-current-applications-and-future-perspectives
#12
Selene Capitanio, Abdul Jalil Nordin, Abdul Rahim Noraini, Claudio Rossetti
Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) is an established diagnostic modality that has become an essential imaging tool in oncological practice. However, thanks to its noninvasive nature and its capability to provide physiological information, the main applications of this technique have significantly expanded.(18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for PET scanning and demonstrates metabolic activity in various tissues. Since activated inflammatory cells, like malignant cells, predominantly metabolise glucose as a source of energy and increase expression of glucose transporters when activated, FDG-PET/CT can be successfully used to detect and monitor a variety of lung diseases, such as infections and several inflammatory conditions...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568150/novel-methods-of-intraoperative-localization-and-margin-assessment-of-pulmonary-nodules
#13
Jane Keating, Sunil Singhal
Lung cancer screening has lead to frequent diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules, many of which require surgical biopsy for diagnosis and intervention. Subcentimeter and central nodules are particularly difficult to visualize or palpate during surgery, thus nodule localization can be a difficult problem for the thoracic surgeon. Although minimally invasive techniques including transthoracic computed tomography and bronchoscopic-guided biopsy may establish a diagnosis, these methods do not help locate nodules during surgery and can lead to inadequate tissue sampling...
2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550539/assessing-the-utility-of-autofluorescence-based-pulmonary-optical-endomicroscopy-to-predict-the-malignant-potential-of-solitary-pulmonary-nodules-in-humans
#14
Sohan Seth, Ahsan R Akram, Paul McCool, Jody Westerfeld, David Wilson, Stephen McLaughlin, Kevin Dhaliwal, Christopher K I Williams
Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521584/how-we-will-diagnose-ipf-in-the-future
#15
REVIEW
L Richeldi
The recent approval of two safe and effective treatments for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) had as a direct consequence the absolute need for an accurate and early diagnosis. The standard approach to IPF diagnosis has proven to be effective and emphasized the importance of clinical and laboratory evaluations to exclude known causes of pulmonary fibrosis. At the same time, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has proven to be the crucial initial diagnostic test, by identifying those patients who should undergo surgical lung biopsy to secure a confident diagnosis and an adequate treatment...
September 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503873/sickle-cell-anemia-mice-develop-a-unique-cardiomyopathy-with-restrictive-physiology
#16
Nihal Bakeer, Jeanne James, Swarnava Roy, Janaka Wansapura, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, John N Lorenz, Hanna Osinska, Kurt Backer, Anne-Cecile Huby, Archana Shrestha, Omar Niss, Robert Fleck, Charles T Quinn, Michael D Taylor, Enkhsaikhan Purevjav, Bruce J Aronow, Jeffrey A Towbin, Punam Malik
Cardiopulmonary complications are the leading cause of mortality in sickle cell anemia (SCA). Elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, pulmonary hypertension, diastolic, and autonomic dysfunction have all been described, but a unifying pathophysiology and mechanism explaining the poor prognosis and propensity to sudden death has been elusive. Herein, SCA mice underwent a longitudinal comprehensive cardiac analysis, combining state-of-the-art cardiac imaging with electrocardiography, histopathology, and molecular analysis to determine the basis of cardiac dysfunction...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500410/real-time-x-ray-imaging-of-lung-fluid-volumes-in-neonatal-mouse-lung
#17
Ashley E Van Avermaete, Phi T Trac, Theresa W Gauthier, My N Helms
At birth, the lung undergoes a profound phenotypic switch from secretion to absorption, which allows for adaptation to breathing independently. Promoting and sustaining this phenotype is critically important in normal alveolar growth and gas exchange throughout life. Several in vitro studies have characterized the role of key regulatory proteins, signaling molecules, and steroid hormones that can influence the rate of lung fluid clearance. However, in vivo examinations must be performed to evaluate whether these regulatory factors play important physiological roles in regulating perinatal lung liquid absorption...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497400/to-anticoagulate-controversy-in-the-management-of-thrombotic-complications-of-head-neck-infections
#18
Jenna Rebelo, Smriti Nayan, Karen Choong, Martha Fulford, Anthony Chan, Doron D Sommer
OBJECTIVE: To review the thrombotic complications of head and neck infections, including Lemierre's syndrome, and their management. METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric patients presenting to McMaster Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. The literature was reviewed for evidence regarding the use of anticoagulation therapy in this population. RESULTS: Eleven cases (6 males, 5 females) were identified. The median age was 10...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469361/matrix-metalloproteinase-targeted-imaging-of-lung-inflammation-and-remodeling
#19
Reza Golestani, Mahmoud Razavian, Yunpeng Ye, Jiasheng Zhang, Jae-Joon Jung, Jakub Toczek, Kiran Gona, Hye-Yeong Kim, Jack A Elias, Chun Geun Lee, Robert J Homer, Mehran M Sadeghi
: Imaging techniques for detection of molecular and cellular processes that precede or accompany lung diseases are needed. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play key roles in the development of pulmonary pathology. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the feasibility of in vivo MMP-targeted molecular imaging for detection of lung inflammation and remodeling. METHODS: Lung-specific IL-13 transgenic [Club cell 10-kDa protein (CC10)-IL-13Tg)] mice, and wild type (WT) littermates were used in this study...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467173/right-heart-imaging-in-patients-with-heart-failure-a-tale-of-two-ventricles
#20
Myriam Amsallem, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Kate Hanneman, Andre Denault, François Haddad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to describe the recent advances made in imaging of the right heart, including deformation imaging, tissue, and flow characterization by MRI, and molecular imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent developments have been made in the field of deformation imaging of the right heart, which may improve risk stratification of patients with heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. In addition, more attention has been given to load adaptability metrics of the right heart; these simplified indices, however, still face challenges from a conceptual point of view...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
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