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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428305/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-plasmid-free-lactococcus-lactis-subsp-lactis-strain-lmg-19460
#1
Inês N Silva, Sofia Duarte, Leonilde M Moreira, Gabriel A Monteiro
We report here the draft genome sequence of the plasmid-free Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain LMG 19460. This strain has potential application for a cost-effective production of food-grade plasmid DNA to use in DNA vaccines, produce recombinant proteins, and be used as a mucosal delivery vehicle of therapeutic molecules.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428066/effects-of-gold-nanoparticle-based-vaccine-size-on-lymph-node-delivery-and-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses
#2
Sukmo Kang, Sukyung Ahn, Jeewon Lee, Jinyong Kim, Minsuk Choi, Vipul Gujrati, Hyungjun Kim, Jinjoo Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Sangyong Jon
Although it has been shown that the size of nanoparticle-based vaccines is a key determining factor for the induction of immune responses, few studies have provided detailed analyses of thresholds or critical sizes of nanoparticle vaccines. Here we report effects of the size of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based vaccines on their efficiency of delivery to lymph nodes (LNs) and induction of CD8(+) T-cell responses. We further propose a threshold size of GNPs for use as an effective vaccine. To examine the effects of GNP size, we synthesized GNPs with diameters of 7, 14 and 28nm, and then conjugated them with recombinant ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428065/in-vivo-studies-investigating-biodistribution-of-nanoparticle-encapsulated-rhodamine-b-delivered-via-dissolving-microneedles
#3
Joakim Kennedy, Eneko Larrañeta, Maelíosa T C McCrudden, Cian M McCrudden, Aaron J Brady, Steven J Fallows, Helen O McCarthy, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Ryan F Donnelly
Nanoparticles (NPs) have undergone extensive investigation as drug delivery and targeting vehicles. NP delivery is often via the parenteral route, reliant on administration using hypodermic needles, which can be associated with patient compliance issues and safety concerns. In the recent past, the intradermal delivery of NPs, via novel dissolving microneedle (MN) arrays has garnered interest in the pharmaceutical community. However, published studies using this combinatorial approach have been limited, in that they have focussed on the use of in vitro and ex vivo models only...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426973/non-linear-enhancement-of-mrna-delivery-efficiencies-by-influenza-a-derived-ns1-protein-engendering-host-gene-inhibition-property
#4
Kyle K L Phua, Yi Liu, Shun Hui Sim
Nucleic acid induced immunogenicity remains a significant impediment in biomedical therapeutics because the innate immune system is a complex network overlaid with functional redundancies. Herein we report that non-structural protein 1 (NS1), an immune evasion protein derived from influenza A virus, when co-delivered in mRNA format is a potent mRNA transfection enhancer without toxicity. Transfection enhancement is mediated by NS1's effector domain through inhibition of IRF3 and PKR, activators of early anti-viral responses as well as CPSF30, a non immunostimulating protein...
April 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426952/plant-viruses-and-bacteriophages-for-delivery-in-medicine-and-biotechnology
#5
REVIEW
Anna E Czapar, Nicole F Steinmetz
There are a wide variety of synthetic and naturally occurring nanomaterials under development for nanoscale cargo-delivery applications. Viruses play a special role in these developments, because they can be regarded as naturally occurring nanomaterials evolved to package and deliver cargos. While any nanomaterial has its advantage and disadvantages, viral nanoparticles (VNPs), in particular the ones derived from plant viruses and bacteriophages, are attractive options for cargo-delivery as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-infectious to mammals...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425928/porcine-circoviruses-and-xenotransplantation
#6
REVIEW
Joachim Denner, Annette Mankertz
Allotransplantation and xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of pathogens from the donor to the recipient. Whereas in the case of allotransplantation the transmitted microorganisms and their pathogenic effect are well characterized, the possible influence of porcine microorganisms on humans is mostly unknown. Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) are common in pig breeds and they belong to porcine microorganisms that still have not been fully addressed in terms of evaluating the potential risk of xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, and organs...
April 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423043/essential-neonatal-care-utilization-and-associated-factors-among-mothers-in-public-health-facilities-of-aksum-town-north-ethiopia-2016
#7
Megbey Berhe, Araya Abraha Medhaniye, Gizienesh Kahsay, Ermyas Birhane, Mebrahtu Abay
BACKGROUND: Globally, neonatal death accounts about 44% of child death in 2013. Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal death. Worldwide, more than 43% of deaths among under five year children is contributed by neonates. Half of the neonatal death occur in the first day of life. Recommendations about newborn care practices may conflict with local beliefs and practices. So, it is important to understand the existing newborn care practice and factors affecting it in order to take interventions so as to decrease neonatal death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422790/particle-based-delivery-of-the-hiv-envelope-protein
#8
Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major focus in HIV vaccine research is the development of suitable antigens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses targeting HIV's envelope protein (Env). Delivery of Env in a repetitive manner on particle-based carriers allows higher avidity interactions and is therefore expected to efficiently engage B cells, thus leading to affinity maturation that results in superior antibody responses characterized by improved breadth, potency, and durability. This review summarizes current work that is evaluating diverse types of such particulate carriers for Env delivery...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421694/molecular-engineering-and-plant-expression-of-an-immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-scaffold-for-delivery-of-a-dengue-vaccine-candidate
#9
Mi-Young Kim, Craig Van Dolleweerd, Alastair Copland, Matthew John Paul, Sven Hofmann, Gina R Webster, Emily Julik, Ivonne Ceballos-Olvera, Jorge Reyes-Del Valle, Moon-Sik Yang, Yong-Suk Jang, Rajko Reljic, Julian K Ma
In order to enhance vaccine uptake by the immune cells in vivo, molecular engineering approach was employed to construct a Polymeric Immunoglobulin G Scaffold (PIGS) that incorporates multiple copies of an antigen and targets the Fc gamma receptors on antigen-presenting cells. These self-adjuvanting immunogens were tested in the context of dengue infection, for which there is currently no globally licensed vaccine yet. Thus, the consensus domain III sequence (cEDIII) of dengue glycoprotein E was incorporated into PIGS and expressed in both tobacco plants and Chinese Ovary Hamster cells...
April 19, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421425/the-role-of-alaska-s-tribal-health-workers-in-supporting-families
#10
Miriam Chernoff, Katie Cueva
Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) are often the sole medical workers in their communities in rural Alaska, and are instrumental in providing healthcare services and education to otherwise underserved individuals. This qualitative study explored how CHA/Ps support healthy families. Six CHA/Ps from two rural communities in western Alaska were interviewed about their scope of practice, interactions with mothers, infants, families, and teens, relationship to other medical providers, and perceptions of their work...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417936/oncolytic-alphaviruses-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom
Oncolytic viruses show specific targeting and killing of tumor cells and therefore provide attractive assets for cancer immunotherapy. In parallel to oncolytic viral vectors based on adenoviruses and herpes simplex viruses, oncolytic RNA viruses and particularly alphaviruses have been evaluated as delivery vehicles. Immunization studies in experimental rodent models for various cancers including glioblastoma, hematologic, hepatocellular, colon, cervix, and lung cancer as well as melanoma have been conducted with naturally occurring oncolytic alphavirus strains such as M1 and Sindbis AR339...
April 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417012/coordinating-antigen-cytosolic-delivery-and-danger-signaling-to-program-potent-cross-priming-by-micelle-based-nanovaccine
#12
Zhida Liu, Chang Zhou, Yan Qin, Zihao Wang, Luyao Wang, Xiuli Wei, Yinjian Zhou, Qicheng Li, Hang Zhou, Wenjun Wang, Yang-Xin Fu, Mingzhao Zhu, Wei Liang
Although re-activating cytotoxic T-cell (CTLs) response inside tumor tissues by checkpoint blockade has demonstrated great success in tumor immunotherapy, active induction of efficient endogenous CTL response by therapeutic vaccines has been largely hampered by inefficient cytosolic delivery of antigens and coordinated activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in lymph nodes. Here we show that polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles transform soluble peptides into α-helix to enable their efficient cytosolic delivery...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416600/induction-of-an-ifn-mediated-antiviral-response-by-a-self-amplifying-rna-vaccine-implications-for-vaccine-design
#13
Timothy Pepini, Anne-Marie Pulichino, Thomas Carsillo, Alicia L Carlson, Farid Sari-Sarraf, Katrin Ramsauer, Jason C Debasitis, Giulietta Maruggi, Gillis R Otten, Andrew J Geall, Dong Yu, Jeffrey B Ulmer, Carlo Iavarone
RNA-based vaccines have recently emerged as a promising alternative to the use of DNA-based and viral vector vaccines, in part because of the potential to simplify how vaccines are made and facilitate a rapid response to newly emerging infections. SAM vaccines are based on engineered self-amplifying mRNA (SAM) replicons encoding an Ag, and formulated with a synthetic delivery system, and they induce broad-based immune responses in preclinical animal models. In our study, in vivo imaging shows that after the immunization, SAM Ag expression has an initial gradual increase...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413132/development-of-an-intradermal-dna-vaccine-delivery-strategy-to-achieve-single-dose-immunity-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#14
Trevor R F Smith, Katherine Schultheis, Matthew P Morrow, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Jay R McCoy, Kevin C Yim, Karuppiah Muthumani, Laurent Humeau, David B Weiner, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Kate E Broderick
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a massive medical burden in infants, children and the elderly worldwide, and an effective, safe RSV vaccine remains an unmet need. Here we assess a novel vaccination strategy based on the intradermal delivery of a SynCon® DNA-based vaccine encoding engineered RSV-F antigen using a surface electroporation device (SEP) to target epidermal cells, in clinically relevant experimental models. We demonstrate the ability of this strategy to elicit robust immune responses. Importantly we demonstrate complete resistance to pulmonary infection at a single low dose of vaccine in the cotton rat RSV/A challenge model...
April 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412170/lipid-nanoparticle-systems-for-enabling-gene-therapies
#15
REVIEW
Pieter R Cullis, Michael J Hope
Genetic drugs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), mRNA, or plasmid DNA provide potential gene therapies to treat most diseases by silencing pathological genes, expressing therapeutic proteins, or through gene-editing applications. In order for genetic drugs to be used clinically, however, sophisticated delivery systems are required. Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) systems are currently the lead non-viral delivery systems for enabling the clinical potential of genetic drugs. Application will be made to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2017 for approval of an LNP siRNA drug to treat transthyretin-induced amyloidosis, presently an untreatable disease...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410124/wildlife-population-management-are-contraceptive-vaccines-a-feasible-proposition
#16
Satish Kumar Gupta, Vidisha Minhas
To minimize human-animal conflicts for habitation and burden of zoonotic diseases, it is imperative to develop new strategies for wildlife population management. In this direction, contraceptive vaccines eliciting immune response against hormones/proteins critical for reproduction have emerged as one of the promising options. Contraceptive vaccines based on neutralization of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) have been used for inhibition of fertility in various species such as wild horses, white-tailed deer, pigs, cats, dogs etc...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409618/zika-virus-common-questions-and-answers
#17
Irogue I Igbinosa, Ingrid B Rabe, Titilope Oduyebo, Sonja A Rasmussen
Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products...
April 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408171/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-a-residency-in-an-independent-pharmacy-in-rural-mississippi
#18
Meagan Brown, Laurie Fleming, Mary Jean Sewell, Leigh Ann Ross
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) community pharmacy residency program on clinical pharmacy service implementation and enhancement in a rural Mississippi community. SETTING: An independent rural community pharmacy in Canton, MS. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION AND INNOVATION: Delivery of clinical pharmacy services provided by PGY1 community residents 1 day a week to an underserved population during an 18-month period...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407735/telbivudine-treatment-started-in-early-and-middle-pregnancy-completely-blocks-hbv-vertical-transmission
#19
Weihui Sun, Shangfei Zhao, Lei Ma, Anhua Hao, Bo Zhao, Lin Zhou, Fengzhu Li, Mingquan Song
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treating HBV-positive mothers with telbivudine in early and middle pregnancy to prevent mother-to-infant HBV transmission. METHODS: The subject population comprised pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB; n = 188) from January 2013 to June 2015, with HBV DNA ≥1.0 × 10(7)copies/mL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels. Groups A (n = 62) and B (n = 61) were treated with telbivudine starting at 12 weeks or 20-28 weeks after gestation, respectively...
April 13, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407494/vaccine-nanocarriers-coupling-intracellular-pathways-and-cellular-biodistribution-to-control-cd4-vs-cd8-t-cell-responses
#20
Marcela Rincon-Restrepo, Aaron Mayer, Sylvie Hauert, Daniel K Bonner, Edward A Phelps, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Melody A Swartz, Sachiko Hirosue
Nanoparticle delivery systems are known to enhance the immune response to soluble antigens (Ags) and are thus a promising tool for the development of new vaccines. Our laboratory has engineered two different nanoparticulate systems in which Ag is either encapsulated within the core of polymersomes (PSs) or decorated onto the surface of nanoparticles (NPs). Previous studies showed that PSs are better at enhancing CD4 T cells and antibody titers, while NPs preferentially augment cytotoxic CD8 T cells. Herein, we demonstrate that the differential activation of T cell immunity reflects differences in the modes of intracellular trafficking and distinct biodistribution of the Ag in lymphoid organs, which are both driven by the properties of each nanocarrier...
March 30, 2017: Biomaterials
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